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3 1833 00097 0076 

Gc 977.201 St28st v.l 
McCormick, Joseph N. 1846- 

A standard history of Starke 

County, Indiana 





An Authentic Narrative of the Past, with an Extended Sur- 
vey of Modern Developments in the Reclamation 
of Lands and the Progress of Town 
and Countrv 


Assisted by a Board of Advisory Editors 








Allen County Public Litrory 
Ft. Wayne, Indiono 



The story of Starke County from its early beginnings will be found 

.^__^ in the following pages not only in the formal chapters of historical nar- 

^ rative but in the numerous biographies of families and individuals, many 

-- of which have been identified with the county during the greater portion 

of time since this was a frontier of civilization. 

The pages of this volume will furnish information to all future gen- 
' ' erations of descendants from the families whose chronicles appear in this 
^ permanent form, and that constitutes an all-sufficient reason — were one 
7 required — to justify this publication. It is a book of record for deeds 
— and lives, lived and living, and as such will be cherished long after the 
actors who composed its material have yielded their places on the world 's 
,5^ stage. 

^ This represents a careful endeavor to measure and describe the past 

and present of Starke County. The data have been gathered from all 
-0 available local sources, and not one but many have contributed to the 
;, varied information found between the covers. It should be stated that 
-jj all personal sketches have been submitted for revision and correction, 
■^ and the responsibility for their accuracy must therefore rest upon the 
parties chiefly concerned. 

In conclusion, it may be said that "whoever cares not for history, 
of his or her parents and ancestry, and of the city or village and town- 
ship, and of the state, lacks a great part of the foundation and motive 
of right and worthy living." 


Description and General Development 1 

Drainage and Reclamation 10 

Pioneer Development 16 

County Officials 26 

Aboriginal Tribes 30 

La Salle 35 

Lakes in Starke County 39 

Townships 46 

Town of Knox 54 

Smaller Towns 65 

First Land Entries 75 

Farming 84 



The Agricultural Development op Starke County 104 

By H. R. Smalley, County Agricultural Agent 

Schools and Educational Interests 107 

Banks and Banking 125 

The County's Soldiers 135 

Parties Political 153 

Religious History 158 

Marriage and Early Life 165 

Medical Society 17-4 


History of the Bench and B.vr of Starke County 177 

By Henry R. Robbins 

Subjects of ^Miscellaneous Interest 182 

Biographies 220 


Abner, John R., 470 
Abner, Mrs. Burr, 120 
Aboriginal tribes, 30 
Accidents, 203 
Adair, James H., 555 
Adoption of free schools, 113 
Agricultural development i 
county, 104 



Alberdincf, Gazen L.. 701 
Alberding, Gerhard H., 700 
Aldine, 73 

Almenkrantz, Georgia, 116 
Altraann, Otto, 615 
Anderson, Benjamin F., 532 
Anderson, Charles J., 454 
Anderson, James 0., 462 
Arbor Day, 214 
Arndt, Fred, 455 
Arndt, Julius H., 710 
Arnold, Charlotte, 118 
Attorneys, 60, 177 

Bachert, Henry, 588 

Badenhoop, Herman H., 712 

Baker, John G., 392 

Baker, Joseph N., 704 

Baldwin, David M., 126 

Ballard, Ada, 107 

Banks and banking, 135 

Barr, J. Allen, 107 

Bartree ditch, 13 

Bascom, Isaac R., 325 

Bascom, Sarah J., 326 

Bass Lake, 39 

Bass Lake Cemetery, 186 

Beatty, Margaret, 645 

Beatty, Samuel, 644 

Beeman, George W., 179 

Beers, Edith M., 107, 116 

Bell, Harry L., 350 

Bench and bar, 177 

Bender, Elvira J., 276 

Bender, Robert H., 274 

Bentley huckleberry marsh, 15 

Berry, Joseph A., 58 

Best View Hotel, 296 

Birds, 213 

Birdseye View of San Pierre (view) 

"Blue Pup," 133 

Bogart, William J., 453 

Bogus Run or Lucas ditch, 13 

Borgman, William C, 312 

Boundaries, 1 

Brabrook, William F., 571 

Brejcha, Albert, 674 

Brems Station, 73 

Bridge Over Yellow River, Knox (view), 

British possession, 36 
Brooks, Samuel M., 561 
Bryan, William J., 157 
Budka, Joseph, 673 
Building & Loan Association of North 

Judson, 66 
Burch, Jacob, 600 
Burianek, Charles, 738 
Burijanek, Frank, 706 
Bush, John A., 443 
Busse, Herman, 458 
Butler, Amos W., 213 
Bybee, Simon, 180, 607 
Byers, Anna/635 
Byers, Joseph A., 634 

Cabin (view) 8 

California township location, 49; roads, 
49; ditches, 50; schools, 50; land en- 
tries, 81; trustees, 199; school teach- 
ers, 123 

Cannon, Carroll W., 731 

Cannon, James, 165 

Capouch, George W., 117 

Carlson, Albert W., 473 

Carnes, Worthington S., 708 

Carrying the mail in the early days, 9 

Castleman, Andrew 0., 125, 272 

Castleman, Sarah, 273 

Castleman, William P., 47 

Catholic church, 58 

Catholic school. North Judson, 118 

Cattle (view), 88 

Cavanaugh, Thomas J., 343 

Cemeteries, 184 

Center township high school, 50 

Center township land entries, 82; schools, 
112; centralized school, 115; school 
teachers, 123; early settlers, 166; trus- 
tees, 200. 

Centralized school, 115 

Chapman, .J. Frank, 344 

Che Mah, 59 

Cliidester, Minnie, 123 

Childs, Horace J., 481 

Childs, Sidney J., 343 

Christian church, 58, 158 

Church of the First Born, 163 

Churches, 58, 158 

Citizens Bank, 125 

City Hall, North Judson (view), 65 

Civil war, 135, 156 

Clausen, Henry, 121 

Clawson, Simon E., 643 

Clemens, Jacob F., 358 

Clubs and societies, 60 

Cobb, Mary, 120 

Cochenour, L. B., 48 

Coffin, George W., 413 

Coffin, Jesse F., 491 

Coldest National holiday, 216 

Coldest weatlier experienced, 215 

Coh'. ( ;.■,„-,■. :;t6 

(■,illin-,(M.M,-r, 443 

( nlliii-. llir;Mii A., 341 

Collin,, Willuim T., 732 

Compton, Hazel, 116 

Compton, Ira, 70 

Conklin, Walter H., 411 

Consolidated school, 113 

Copp, Mabel, 123 

Corn (view), 86 

Cost of ditches, 13 

County assessors, 28 

County asylum, 183 

County auditors, 27 

County clerks, 26 

County commissioners, 28 

County coroners, 27 

County expense, 190 

County institute, 124 

County officers from the organization in 

1850 to the present time, 26 
County recorders, 26 
County seat, 50, 54 
County sheriffs, 27 
County surveyed, 36 
County surveyors, 28 

County Teachers' Association of 1914, 124 
County treasurers, 27 
County's soldiers, 135 
Courtright, Adrian L., 180 
Courts, 177 
Craigmile ditch, 13 
Crown Hill Cemetery, 184 

Dahle, Christian, 391 

Daily, Owen, 52 

Daly, Owen, 629 

Daniel, William S., 263 

Danielson, Charles J., 744 

Darwin, Oratio, 126 

Davis, Mary K., 117 

Davis township soil, 52; description, 52; 
schools, 53; school teachers, 133; trus- 
tees, 200 

Davis, Uncle John, 3 

Dell, Minnie, 117 

Deller, Letta, 117 

Democratic party, 153 

DeMont, Joseph "E., 536 

Denaut, James L., 718 

Description of county, 1 

Development of Starke county, 16, 104 

Dial, Austin P., 125, 179, 226 

Diedrick, Walter, 121 

Dilley, Mr., 117 

Dolezal, John, 639 

Doyle, Gabriel, 570 

Drainage and reclamation, 10 

Drainage Ditch, Kankakee Reclaimed 
Land (view), 12 

Dredging Machine (view), 11 

Drouth of 1871, 216 

Dukes, Isador M., 315 
Dunkelberger, William H., 331 
Duroc Hogs (view), 92 
Dusek, Aug-ustine, 133, ff39 
Dusek, Frank V., 564 
Dve Lumber Co., 70 
DJ-cC. F., 115 
Dye, Wilbur W., 506 

Eagle Creek, 13 

Eagle Creek or Walker ditch, 13 

Eagle Lake, 43 

Eatinger, Frank G., 609 

Election, 1914, 196 

Emigh, Jacob, 401 

Emigh, William H., 296 

English Lake, 13, 73 

Early living conditions, 7 

Early schools, 18 

Early settlers, 165 

Early tragedies, 179 

Falkenthal, Henry, 530 

Falvey, Mae, 122 

Flavey, Mark D., 126 

Fancher, Melvin H., 471 

Farm House of the Long Ago (view), 3 

Farm machinery, 96 

Farmers & Merchants State Bank of 

North Judson, 66 
Farmers Bank, 125 
Farmers State Bank, 125, 127 
Farming, 84 

Farming on reclaimed land, 14 
Farrar, William J., 490 
F'ay Hotel, 57 
Fav, Thomas J., 57, 319 
Fell ditch, 13 
Fenimore, Hattie A., 663 
Fenimore, William J. B., 661 
Ferch, John C, 740 
Fire companies, 182 
First banks of Indiana, 131 
First criminal case, 178 
First grist mill, 41 
First land entries, 75 
First National Bank, 126, 127 
First newspaper, 58 
First real banking institution, 125 
First regular county election, 26 
First State Bank of North Judson, 130 
Fish hatchery, 40 
Fisher, Albert, 599 
Fitz Hotel, 57 
Fitz, Joseph, 57 
Fletcher Cemetery, 185 
Fletcher, Jesse, 165 
Fletcher, James C, 126, 181, 227 
Fleishman, Benjamin, 53, 327 
Foltz, Christena A., 109, 300 
Foltz, Daniel, 298 
Foltz, Daniel, 495 
Forest fires, 5 
Foust, Lois C, 117 
Free Methodist church, 59, 161 
Free schools, 113 
Fremont, John C, 156 
Fuller, Clarence M., 654 
Fuller, Harriet, 116 
Fuller, John M., 180 


Gappa, August, 559 

Geddes, Harriet, 109 

Geiselman, Nelson, 666 

Geiselman, Sereno E., 723 

General development, 1 

German Lutheran school of North Jud- 

Glazebrook, B. D. L., 180 

Glazebrook, Lorenzo D., 723 

Glee Club, 156 

Godfrey, James, 568 

Golding, Vesta, 115 

Good, Fern, 120 

Good, John, 551 

Goppert, Theressa, 122 

Gould, Albert I., 179 

Graham, John A., 460 

Grand Army Post, 60 

Gravel beds, 17 

Great storm of 1845, 216 

Greatest snow storm. 316 

Green, George W., 693 

Greenback party, 154 

Grist, Thomas A., 354 

Groshans, William A., 525 

Grove, George W., 439 

Grovetown, 49, 68; cemetery, 186: 

schools, 121 
Gunn, John M., 408 

Hamlet, 69; churches, 161; schools, 119; 

scliool board, 121 
Hamlet State Bank, 129 
Hankey, Leona L., 225 
Hankey, William, 224 
Hanselman, David, 487 
Hanselman, Jacob F., 485 
Hanselman, William, 486 
Harden, Bessie D., 115 
Harness, Charles O., 520 
Harness, James D., 518 
Harrison, William H., 36, 156 
Hartzler, Catherine, 738 
Hartzler, Joseph K., 727 
Hartzler, Mahlon J., 126 
Hatter, Julius C, 668 
Hay, Benjamin F., 636 
Hay, Frank, 287 
Heilman, Frank, 566 
Heilman, James G., 339 
Heilman, Lillian M., 340 
Henderson, Alexander H., 125, 556 
Henning, Henry, 581 
Hepner, M. T., 179 
Hermance, Frank A., 373 
Hetfield, Charles, 122 
Hewlett, Clayton, 343 
Hiatt, John H., 378 
High School, Knox (view), 108 
Hine, Herman A., 637 
Hoffer, William, 542 
Holdeman, Christian E., 604 
Holderman, 0. U., 181 
Holm, Peter, 693 
Horner, John W., 253 
Horvitz Brothers, 62 
Hostetter, Mattie, 108 
Hruska, Charles, 617 
Hulka, Alois, 680 
Humphrey, Charles, 174 

Humphreys, Mervyn, 107 
Hurley, Thomas J., 180 

Icehouses, 39 

Indians, 3, 31 

Inks, John W., 439 

Interior View of Early Home (view), 166 

Jachim, Edward J., 574 

Jackson township, smallest, 52; soil, 52; 
hay marshes, 53; schools, 53; land 
entries, 83; school teachers, 124; 
trustees, 200 

Jacob, Paul H., 734 

Jacobson, Axel, 523 

Jain, Anna, 108 

Jain, Bertha, 118 

Johnson, Charles T., 329 

Johnson, Harry E., 335 

Johnson, M. V., 123 

Jordan, Godfrey, 435 

Joseph, Frank, 341 

Judges, 177 

Kankakee marshes, 10 

Kays, Anna, 133 

Keehn, William F., 583 

Keiser, Jacob, 656 

Keller, Jacob, 743 

Keller, Lewis, 125 

Kellermann, Frederick, 576 

Kelley, Charles C, 180 

Kelly, John P., 556 

Kesler, Harrv E., 380 

Kinmnaii. Frr.I. 702 

Klin.'. i;u.l<.lpli K., 62 

Kiiirki liiiM krr lee Company, 39 

Kniyhts ul Pythias, 60 

Know-nothing party, 154 

Knox, 50; location, 54; population, 54; 
surveyed, 54; court house, 54; electric 
lighting system, 55; first telegraph 
office, 55; municipal progress, 55; 
corporate limits extended, 56; modem 
improvements, 56; water system, 56; 
hotels, 57; incorporated, 57; churches, 
58; first buildings, 57; newspapers, 
58; attorneys, 60; business and pro- 
fessions, 60; clubs and sncietii'S. fiO; 
physicians, 60; indusfri.-^. r,i: |i,,<t 
office, 63; industries, ii-1 : iii-i ii iitiuns, 
64; professions, 64; niial luuti-,. r,4; 
first automobile. 09; sihoi.U. u)7; Ijigh 
school. 111; piinniKils and su- 
perintendents, ll:?; iii>t jihysician, 
174; medical sotirtics, 174; volunteer 
fire department, 183 

Knox ;Metal \\hee] Company, 63 

KoftVl, Herbert R., 126, 181 

Koontz Lake, 41 

Koontz JliU (view), 43 
Koontz, Samuel, 42, 168, 512 
Kraft. Cliarlcs. 541 
Kraiis... Williclni. 415 

Kivut.i-, llu.jli ]■;.. 181. 508 

Krulik. Frank, 076 
Kuester. fharlcs H., 590 
Kurtz, John W, 126, 689 


LaFever, Martin, 466 
Lain, Roy, 109 
Lakes in Starke county, 39 
Lambert, Eaeliel A., 16 
Land entries, 75 
Laraniore, Andrew J., 684 
Laramore, Cliarles, 229 
Lark Cemetery, 186 
Larrew, C'atlierine, 295 
Larrew, John C, 294 
La Salle, 35 

Latter-Day Saints, 59, 160 
Lawrence, Knute L., 309 
Lawyers, 177 
Lendrum, William N., 337 
Lewis, William A., 658 
Lightcap, Walter, 593 
Lincoln, Abraham, 156 
Lindley, John W., 687 
Lindstrand, John A., 370 
Lintz, Anton J., 603 
Lockridge, Arthur, 109 
Lohse, John, 351 
Long, John W., 126, 245 
Lotter, Lawrence, 505 
Ludders, Loyal H., 364 
Luken, Henry, 665 
Lundin, Charles S., 180 

Maccabees, 60 

Main Street, Looking South, Knox 

(view), 60 
Maloney, Marie, 122 
Mann, David, 544 
Marks, Albert C, 404 
Marquardt, W. Fred, 636 
Marriage and early life, 165 
Marsh, A. F., 121 
Marsh, Henry L., 538 
Marsh, Mrs. A. F., 122 
Marsh, Nathan L., 670 
Masonic Temple, 68 
Masons, 60 

Mathews, Henry W., 606 
McCormick, Chester A., 66 
MeCormick, James S., 286 
McCormick, Joseph N., 745 
McCormick, William G., 116, 682 
McCormick, Willis P., 63 
McCrackin, Sylvester A., 178 
McCumber, Grant, 497 
McGruder, E. L., 180 
Mclntire, William F., 304 
McKinley, William, 157 
McLaren, John D., 179 
Mechanical improvements, 19 
Medical societies, 174 
Meineka, Fred, 348 
Merkert, George, 548 
Merrifield, Thomas J., 178 
Meteors, 215 

Methodist Episcopal church, 58, 158 
Meyers, Theophilus J., 300 
Mickow, Fred R., 479 
Miller, Harry C, 180 
Miller, Joseph, 333 
Mdler, Mary, 334 
Miscellaneous subjects, 183 
Modern Way of Threshing (view), 89 
Modern Woodmen of America, 60 
Money and banks, 131 

Jloorman, John L., 58, 736 
Morris, Alida A., 115 
Mosher, Peter, 233 
Mound builders, 30 
Mundorf, Hannah, 133 
Murphy, George A., 179 

Nave, Daniel S., 737 

Nelson, Amelia, 133 

Nelson, John, 49 

Nelson, John W., 546 

Newman, William, 418 

Nichols, James W., 180 

North Bend township organized, 46; 
location, 46; named, 46; land entries, 
76; schools, 123; school teachers, 123; 
trustees, 199 

North Judson located, 65; incorporated, 
65; railroads, 65; town board, 66; 
industries, 66; post office, 66; at- 
torneys, 67; lodges, etc., 67; physi- 
cians, 67; turtle industry, 67; schools. 
116; school board, 118 

North Judson Cemetery, 186 

North Judson Creamery, 66 

North Judson Lumber Company, 67 

North Judson News, 66 

Ober, 72 

Oberlin, Samuel, 427 

O'Brien, James, 179 

Odd Fellows, 60 

Oeser, Charles W., 678 

Officers of County Institute, 124 

Officers of the County Teachers' Asso- 
ciation of 1914, 124 

Old ditch organization, 200 

Old fashioned dance, 33 

Old settlers' marriages, 165 

Old Starke County Courthouse (view), 

Old time schools, 110 

One Hundred and Fifty-seventh Regi- 
ment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 145 

Onion growing, 106 

Onion storage house, 63 

Ora, 71 

Oregon township location, 48; ditches, 
48; schools, 49; land entries, SO; 
school teachers, 124; old settlers, 166; 
trustees, 199 

Organization, 1 

Origer, John P., 585 

Osborn ditch, 13 

Osborn, George W., 422 

Osborn, .John W., 420 

Osborn, William, 734 

Paegel, William, 403 
Paper money, 131 
Parks, Maurice E., 356 
Parties, political, 153 
Patterson, Charles A. F., 710 
Paxson, RoUo G., 361 
Peelle, William, 450 
Pentecost, William C, 180 
Peppermint. 106 
Peters, Charles H., 180, 248 
Peters, Robert D., 180 
Peterson, Gustave N., 59S 
Pettis, George E., 307 


Physicians, 60 

Pioneer development, 16 

Pioneering, 5 

Pion.rr iiistituricii- and customs, 20 

l'i<,ii,',-i>, W.MMii;^ ( arpet (view), 169 

ripn-! .laiiirs. .1:.''-, 

Pitts, Jesse L., 357 

Place ditch, 13 

Pohrte, August, 613 

Political parties, 153 

Potash, 105 

Potter, George P., 476 

Potter, James C, 396 

Poultry raising, 97 

Present county olficers, 29 

Present otKcers of the Farmers State 

Bank, 126 
Press, 58 

Prettyman, Wingate, 179 
Principals and superintendents of the 

Knox schools, 112 
Progressive party, 155 
Prohibition party, 155 
Prophet, The, 32 

Public School, North Judson (view), 117 
Pulver, William S., 302 

Railroads, 55 

Rail Road township named, 51; ditches, 

51; land entries, 83; school teachers, 

123; trustees, 200 
Raschka, Charles, 529 
Rasehka, Lewis, 50, 527 
Rates of taxes for 1914 in Starke county, 

Rebekahs, 60 

Rebstock, Carson, 730 

Rebstock, Nathan, 303 

Reclaimed land, 14 

"Red Dog," 132 

Reed, Amos J., 375 

Reed, Mary, 376 

Reed, William J., 180 

Reiser, Catherine, 625 

Reiser, Prank, 625 

Reiss, Gus, 126, 260 

Religious history, 158 

Rennewanz, Leonard, 698 

Replogle, William H., 622 

Report of Farmers State Bank, 12V 

Report of First National Bank, 128 

Report of First State Bank of North 

Judson, 130 
Report of Hamlet State Bank, 129 
Republican party, 154 
Roberts, Byron D., lOS 
Robbins ditch, 13, 48 
Robbins, Hcnrv R., 10, 177, ISO, 264 
Rockwrll. (K,:ii i; . :i'jo 
Roger.-. i:,ni_.,., Mi, r,()2 

Rogers, .1 i: . :;'i'.i 

Rogers A Ilaitrr, ,;:; 

Roose, diaries H., 487 

Roose, William E., 586 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 155 

Round Lake, 43 

Royal Neighbors of America, 00 

Rozhon, Joseph, 696 

San Pierre, mention, 55, 71; schools, 122; 
high school, 122 

■tery, 187 

Lake (view), 42 


aliiina] interests. 


r.. :.-. isi. 



i:.. iMi 

, 483 



s J., 440 


iMlmund M 


ik. \Vi 

P., 499 

Secgrist, Florence, 108 
Seibold, Lucile, 120 
Shatto, L. Harvey, 179 
Sheep (view), 87 
Sherman, Adam G. W., 236 
Shilling, Edgar W., 126, 239 
Shilling:, Ilin.iii G.. 254 
Slinit, .l;,r,,l, S., 279 
Skiiinn-. Ilul,rit M., 36 



Smaller lakes, 44 

Smaller towns. 65 

Smallest man in the W'orld, 59 

Smallev. H. li.. 104 

Siiiitii. .luhii i;.. 709 

Siiiilli. \\ I 


Soldiers, 135 

Solt, William J., 632 

"Song of the Old Sac Trail," 36 

Spanish Aiii.Tican soldier.s, 145 

Sprcllllnli. .\,ll,.n. 448 

S|M>nnr). (;u,(;,v A.. 557 

Spliini,;^. AlfiiM A., 67, 595 

Spoor, Lois I., 648 

Spoor, William C, 647 

Stanfield, Thomas J., 178 

Stanton, Daniel H., 281 

Starke County Association of Soldiers, 

Starke County Bar Association, 181 
Starke County Courthouse, Knox (view), 

Starke Count}' Democrat, 58 
Starke County Medical Society, 175 
Starke County Product (view), 105 
Starke Countv Republican, 58 
Starke County's First Courthouse (view), 





k (.f In. 

iana, 132 





C, 387 




n. Maha 

a. 388 


son. . 

olin F.. 





irace, 55 





lliam L. 





on schools, 113 



Charles 0. 



Surma, Martin, 359 
Surveys, 5 

Swanson, Michael, 703 
Swanson, Swan 0., 433 
Swartzell, Aris W., 268 
Sweitzer, William Sr., 641 

Taft, William H., 157 

Talbert, John, 108 

Talbot, William, 368 

Tannehill, John A. J., 383 

Tanner, Benjamin F., 366 

Taylor, Edward H., 310 

Taxes, 188 

Tecumseh, 32 

Terry, Warren S., 331 

The Old Rail Fence, Fast Disappearing 

Tierney, Anna, 407 

Tierney, Cassie B., 408 

Tierney, Michael, 406 

Tietz, Leonard, 733 

Tietz, Tone M., 733 

Tiling, 101 

Timber lands, 6 

Toto, 73 

Township assessors, 39 

Townships, 16, 29, 46 

Township trustees, 29 

Trading posts, 24 

Trigg, Charles, 410 

Trissal, Francis M., 468 

Truant officer, 109 

Tuesberg, C. Elmer, 257 

Tuesberg, John A., 432 

Turnbull, A. Perry, 437 

Turtle industry, North Judson, 67 

Twenty-ninth Regiment Indiana Volun- 
teer Infantry, 136 

Typical Tenant House, Kankakee Re- 
claimed Land (view), 14 

Unassigned recruits, 145 
Uncapher, Andrew J., 220 
Uncapher, Sidney A., 99 
Uncapher, William P., 515 
Uncle John Davis, 3 

Value of potash discovered, 105 
Van Der Weele, Eva, 120 
Van Der Weele, Peter, 316 
Vessely, Frank, 66 

, 47; ditches, 

/, Frank J., 611 
Vieting, Henry W., 494 
View on Lane Street, North Judson 
(view), 68 

Walker ditch, 47 

Walkerton, 42 

Wamsley, DeWitt C, 464 

Ward, Marion H., 382 

Warkentien, Fred C, 553 

Warnke, J. Gottlieb, 323 

Washington township a 
47; first settlers, 47, 
ments, 48; land entries, 78; school 
teachers, 123; trustees, 199 

Watts, John H., 643 

Wayne township area, 51; foreign popu- 
lation, 51; schools, 51; land entries, 
83; school teachers, 134; trustees, 200 

Weather, 215 

VVeidner, Emil R., 371 

Weinkauf, Frederick J., 640 

Weissert, George, 53 

Wells, Dudley M., 653 

Wells, Guy M., 61 

Welsh, Morgan, 385 

Wenlnger, Benjamin, 51 

Weninger, Charles W., 235 

West, Rebecca, 369 

Westbrook, Charles 0., 503 

Whig party, 153 

White, Frederick M., 389 

White, James M., 649 

White, Loren A., 393 

Whitson, Franklin P., 125, 277 

\\'hitson, Katharine, 378 

Whitson, Solon, 178 

Wild Cat money, 133 

Wilde, J. C. Frank, 474 

Williams, Sterling H., 578 

Williams, Walter F., 433 

Wilson, Woodrow, 157 

Windisch, Charles, 251 

Wolfe, Lee, 395 

Wolfram, John M., 283 

Wylie, John, 305 

Yellow River, 13, 53 

Yellow River or Elsbree ditch, 13, 50 

Young, Mrs. U. R., 120 

Voung, U. R., 120 


History of Starke County 


Starke County was organized iu the year 1850, and lies in the north- 
western part of the state. It is bounded on the northwest by the 
Kankakee River, on the south by Pulaski County, on the east by Marshall 
County and lies lai-gely within the Kankakee Valley. 

The surface is composed principally of wet marsh, some dry sand 
ridges and some fairly dry prairie with small groves of timber. In fact 
the greater part of it was a low wet marsh and the first settlers that 
located in the county sought the high sand ridges and the uplands upon 
which to build their small huts and log cabins. 

The wet and overflowed marshes looked at that time as though they 
never would become farm land, in fact no one ever guessed or thought 
of seeing those wet marshes reclaimed and made tillable lands. 

It was a somewhat discouraging thing for the first settlers to even 
think of pitching their tents in so uninviting a location as the county 
appeared to be when so new. 

The marshes were dotted all over with musk-rat houses which 
abounded so plentifully in an early day, and many newcomers would 
become expert "trappers," catching musk-rats iu traps set for that 
purpose and dressing the skins and selling them for the fur. 

The hunters could run boats all over the marshes, so wet were they 
in an early day, some almost like lakes the greater part of the year. This 
saved much traveling on foot. 

Settled down among the rat houses there and so lonesome, with no 
roads, no farms, no orchards, no railroads, no schools nor churches, 
by heroic efforts the pioneers set about to build, to fence and to improve 
the land they had sought to rear their families on and live in peace and 
plenty the rest of their days. But they had to encounter many hard- 
ships ere they arrived at the stage of comfort and plenty. 

One great disadvantage they encountered was the lack of mills to 
grind their grain, and the markets being so far away and no roads to aid 
them in hauling the grain made it a very difficult task. It was slow 
progress they made in travel with no other means of conveyance than 



by ox teams — for to see a horse at that time was as much of a curiosity 
as an air-ship would be to us today. 

The principal crops were corn and potatoes. One good old famier 
said afterwards that he lived here several years before he knew that he 
could raise wheat. Of course the time soon came when the pioneers 
began to sow wheat as well as to raise corn and potatoes. 

The meat consisted principally of venison as in those days the deer 
was very plentiful, in fact it was no uncommon sight to see fifty or even 
a hundred deer roving over the prairies at one time, and when they 
would become frightened the noise they made resembled a stampede of 
cattle and low distant thunder. 

Other wild animals and fowls were common in pioneer days. Wolves 
were a common sight and the way they would howl after night would 
be a fearful thing to hear now. Wild prairie chickens and quail and 
snipe were in abundance and the early settlers had great pleasure in 
capturing them in traps made for that purpose, sometimes incidentally 
catching a nice fat wild turkey for a big meal, which we would now save 
up for a Thanksgiving dinner. 

One industry taken up in early days was the raising of cattle and 
hogs which were at liberty to run and roam over the wild marshes and 
woodlands and feed upon nature's crops undisturbed — a condition that 
lasted for years. 

It was no uncommon thing to see a farmer have a good number of fine 
steers to sell each fall and the hogs would fatten from the acorns that 
fell from the oak trees. None of the timber lands and groves were fenced 
against stock running at large even before and for several years after 
the great Civil war. 


In the '30s at the time the Government sui'veyors were survej'ing 
this part of the state into townships and sectioniziug each township, the 
Indians were very numerous and it was a curiosity for those Indians 
to see and watch the surveyors with their instruments laying out the 
land and establishing the lines and corners and frequently they would 
make signs and endeavor to get the meaning of what our surveyors were 

When the pioneers first located here the Indians inhabited this part 
of the state, several Indian villages being within the boundaries of 
Starke County. 

When Uncle John Davis first located in this county in the year of 
1846 near where Davis Station is now on the east bank of the Kankakee 
River there was an Indian Village of several tents and wigwams where 
the Maksawba Clubhouse now stands, but the Indians soon disappeared 
and gave way to the white man, going in search of new and more 
profitable hunting grounds. 

In "Leading Facts of American History," on page 216, speaking of 
the great battle fought against the Indians by General Harrison in the 


year 1811 at the Tippeeauoe Battlegrounds in Northwestern Indiana, 
a map shows the territory embraced in Starke County to be included 
in the area infested with the Indians who having remained in Indiana 
were no doubt the same tribe that was living in the Kankakee Valley 
at the time of the first settlement of Starke County, hunting and fishing 
being their chief occupation. 

In my little red canoe 

I can glide the country over; 

Ducks and geese is all I see 

But am now looking for more. 

Then upon the barren land 

I tie my canoe to a stump 

And sit and wait as best I can 

For the bird they call the "Thunder pump." 

It was a common thing for the first settlers to meet an Indian or run 
across some Indian, wigwam while hunting or fishing along the creeks 
and rivers and passing by with no thought of ofi:ence toward each other. 
It was no trouble to get along with the red man, who soon became dis- 
couraged at the approach of the whites upon their domain. They soon 
abandoned the Kankakee Valley and went to seek other hunting grounds 
farther west. 

Mingling their cries and their war whoops with each other while 
packing up their effects they soon started on their march, leaving the 
old Kankakee Valley that they had possessed for so many years, perhaps 
never to return to it again, and leaving the old camp ground behind 
them, giving it all up to the white man to hold universal sway and full 
possession for all time to come. 

Many land marks were left by them to tell the world that they had 
long since held possession of "the old Kankakee Valley." 

"While some of us perhaps can recollect seeing the camps and wigwams 
within the boimdaries of Starke County, yet our children have not seen 
what some of us have seen or heard in regard to the red man, and it is 
only the last of the race that comes within the memories of the oldest 
inhabitants now living, as the Indians mostly all left during the '40s. 
We have a few naturalized Indians within the counties that border upon 
the shores of Lake Michiagn but they are a very peaceable and quiet 
people. Those may seem to make their home here but the wild tribes 
have long since "moved along" until there are no more war-whoops to be 
heard in our land. 

The tall grass now grows and the meadow lark builds her nest 
Where the Indian with his arrow and bow 
Has long since gone, 
Gone, gone to his final rest. 


Surveys and Pioneering 

The territory embraced in Starke County was surveyed by the 
Government in the years of 1833, 1834, and* 1835, and it was a very 
difficult task for those surveyore who in making up their records of the 
survey made mention of impassable swamps and pucker-brush thickets 
which in running their lines they had to "off set" and go around in 
order to make the survey, but now those swamps mentioned by the sur- 
veyors have become some of the mast fertile lands in the county, pro- 
ducing great fields of wheat and corn. 

The population increasing from 150 in 1840 to 10,650 in 1910 shows 
that while the increase has not been rapid it has been nevertheless 
permanent and healthy. 

The people are composed of German, English, Dutch, Irish, Scotch, 
Swedes, Norwegians as well as Italians and Jews, also Bohemians, but 
all live as one family in harmony with each other. 

So we see that from the first settlement of the county to the present 
time each nationality has endeavored to live the life of a law-abiding 

In an early day our pioneer citizens who sought to find cheaper 
homes than they could purchase in the eastern states began to travel 
towards the setting sun and after much hardship and slow progi-ess, 
fording streams and wallowing through muck and mire and sand they 
arrived at their objective point (Starke County). After unyoking their 
cattle and turning them loose to feed upon the never-ending crop of 
wild grass they began to make preparation for a hut or tent to house 
their good wives and babies from the inclement weather of the cold 
autumn months then coming on. 

After they had provided a place or home for their families the next 
thing was to fence and plow or "dig up" a patch to plant their next 
crops and while the family would cultivate the soil the man of the 
"farm" would shoulder his gun and go in quest of a deer or some wild 
game which constituted a great share of their living. After they had 
raised a sufficient amount of grain they would load up an ox wagon or 
cart and drive miles and miles to some mill to have it ground, taking 
one or two days in going and the same in returning, camping out at 
night while making the trip. The family at home, if they should run out 
of meal before he returned, would grate or grind some meal from the 
ears of corn on an improvised grater or a piece of tin punched full 
of holes, over which they would rub the corn to make meal for bread 
or mush. This the writer has done many times himself. Thus it was 
that the pioneers lived and overcame the many perplexing things that 
make up the life of the pioneer citizen. 

Another thing that kept back the progress of the county was the 
raging forest fires that would run continuously and almost uninterrupted 
for miles, devastating everything before it, for at that time we had no 
roads or ditches to check the progress of the flames and where there was 
timber lands these fires burned over the land making barren waste of 


hundreds of acres which has of recent years now grown up into fine 
wooded groves of second-growth timber. 

Those fires, however, did considerable damage to the muck land, for 
in the fall of the year, in what we call the dry season of the year, the 
fires would become started perhaps by hunters and burn the sod off the 
marsh land taking years to replace the portion burned. Then when a 
storm or hurricane arose the whole air would become as night, so thick 
was the dust from those burned marshes. Having the very appearance 
of ginger or gold dust, caused by the burning off, the marshes became 
known as iron ore marshes. 

So thick would this di;st be during a storm that you could not see 
your own barn from the house. While it would be a novel and interest- 
ing sight, yet it would cause the oldest persons grave apprehensions until 
they convinced themselves of the cause of this wonderful phenomena. 
It has, however, been several years since we have witnessed such a sight 
as the one just related. 

Timber L.vnds 

There was no demand for timber in those days as there were no 
mills to saw up the timber and make it into merchantable lumber, neither 
was any price oifered for wood. Thus those clearing up the high lands 
for farms burned the timlier, making it into large heaps and setting 
them on fire. 

The high and timbered land was the only land that was cleared up 
for farming purposes at that time, as the marshes were too wet to be 

With the building of our first railroads in the county, there began 
a demand for the timber, wood and railroad ties being required for use 
by the railroads, and as we built more railroads in the county the more 
became the demand for ties and cord wood, the locomotives burning wood 
in those days instead of coal as at the present time. Then the ravages 
of our timber began in earnest and continued until our people began 
to see that we would soon be facing a timber famine in a few years unless 
there was a stop put to the w^holesale destruction of our timber. Then 
the farmers began to turn their attention to farming instead of cutting 
down and manufacturing the only remaining bit of timber that was left 
into cord-wood and railroad ties. 

Hence our uplands and sand ridges were converted into farms ere 
the prairie lands and wet marshes were drained and put into a condition 
to be cultivated, concerning which we have made mention elsewhere in 
this volume. 

The timber found here in this county was principally white oak, 
red oak, black oak, jack oak, pin oak and in some parts of the county bun- 
oak is quite plentiful. 

The county is interspersed wdth hickory, walnut, ash, ebii, birch, 
gum, maple and aspen and sycamore. Sassafras springs up in great 
thickets in old abandoned fields but does not grow to any great size. 


The black locust is characteristic of the sassafras in that it too is found 
mostly iu old and abandoned fields, but there seems to be no great demand 
for the two last mentioned timbers. Beech and sugar maple are a very 
scarce article in this county, although some beech was found in what we 
call the Upper Yellow River Bottoms. It, too, like our fine black walnut 
and red oak, has mostly all been cut down and converted into lumber 
several years ago, but where this timber grew is now some of the finest 
farms to be found anywhere in the county and as good as is found any- 
where in the state. 

The timber lands are or were called islands when the county was first 
settled on account of the fact that the water a great part of the year 
surrounded these groves of timber, but of later years they are called 
groves of timber instead of islands, the water having disappeared. Those 
groves have largely grown up since the great forest fii-es have ceased 
to burn the county over. 

The farmers in their first settlement in the county fenced their land 
with rails. These they would split and make out of the timber that 
would be the easiest to manufacture into rails. But it is a very uncom- 
mon thing to see a rail fence nowadays as the modem fencing is about 
all done with barbed wire and wire netting. 

Another thing that has been conducive to the saving of our timber 
in the county is the concrete that is so extensively used in the construc- 
tion of our buildings. This material has largely taken the place of wood 
for almost all purposes. In the building of houses, barns, bridges, side- 
walks, streets, public buildings, factories, depots, hotels and many other 
uses, cement and brick are used in place of timber, and this has had a 
tendency to lessen the demand for wood. This was an item not dreamed 
of by the first and early settlers in the county. But we have been 
advancing in all pursuits of life and this is one of the things that marks 
the way onward to greater things yet to come. 

Homes and Living Conditions 

The houses or huts built in the pioneer days of the county have long 
since given way to fine large commodious buildings, which shows the 
progress that has been made in this line as well as all other forms of 
progress since the organization of Starke County. 

Henee we see that those sturdy pioneers were awake to the situation, 
and lost no time in making for themselves and their families a com- 
fortable home, changing the almost unbroken forest and wild prairie 
lands into fertile fields and making them "blossom as the rose." 

The marsh lands, where the tall bluejoint grew and so many 
thousands of tons of hay would be burned up every year by great fires 
that were so common all over the county in the early pioneer days, have 
now become fields of golden gi-ain and other crops that say to the untiring 
efforts of man, "we have come to stay with you." 

For many years our county was trodden do\^^l, tramped upon, water 
knee-deep, and often merely looked upon by the unconcerned and 


familiar "trapper" and "hunter," who never for one moment stopped 
to think of what might become of those wide and seemingly worthless 
acres spread out before him, but only gathering in a hai-vest, not of 
"sheaves" but of musk-rat hides, satisfied with his day's work as he 
would express it — ' ' well done, I now retire to my berth, there to rest and 
arise the next morning to renew my hunt once more. ' ' 

Then is it auy wonder that the county made such slow progress in its 
development since the first settlers arrived here until within the last 
few yeare, especially after the drainage problem was taken up and 
pushed to its successful conclusion ? 

There are those yet here who can well recollect when it was no 
uncommon thing to see men shoulder their gun and bowie knife and 
repair to some grove or thicket or back of some little corn field which the 


good wife would cultivate, and there await the coming of a wild deer 
to be slaughtered by this hiuiter and carried to his Utle hut to be skinned 
and dressed for venison to satisfy the hunger after his long waiting and 

Those were the natural conditions of things and I suppose we should 
not be too severe in our opinions on those men, as the surroundings at 
that time made all these things an absolute necessity for their lives and 
the lives of their families. 

It often occurred that when the hunters went beyond the confines of 
their own little cottages into the depths of the forest or across the wild 
prairies and wet marshes, they would bla^ie the timber or set up stakes 
by which they might retrace their steps toward their own fireside. This 
was necessary, as there was nothing to distinguish their course or dis- 
tance, especially of a cloudy day. It was well that they thought of doing 
this to lead them "home once more." 

"We have or did have what the Government surveyors called Indian 


trails, that extended aci-oss the groves of timber from one island to 
another, reaching in some instances across the whole county. Those 
were the only "highways" known of between the Kankakee River and 
the Second Principal Meridian, which lies along the eastern boundary of 
Starke County. 

The Government surveyors marked those trails on their plats and 
field books at the time of their survey, which is of record today in the 
courthouse in Knox. 

Carrying the mail in the early daj's was done in a way very much 
different from what it is todaj*. The mail was carried from Plymouth or 
some other town by horseback and even by ox-cart and to get mail once 
a week was considered the ideal of regularity. The good farmers would 
go to the nearest postoffice once a week to get their mail. Now the mail 
is carried on swift-moving trains, on fast ranning automobiles and under 
our late provided and established free rural mail service the mail is 
delivered every day to the farmers, who place mail boxes in front of 
their houses to receive it. 

What changes, what conveniences, what great advantages the people 
have today over those that first settled on the barren wastes of a cold and 
helpless country! But it was given to man to mould and improve the 
opportunities placed before him until we now enjoy them. 

The locomotive whistle taking the place of the Indian war-whoop, 
And the honk of the automobile way down in your bosom so deep, 
Has now outdone the howling of the wolf as he prowls frona door to door ; 
Points the way to many new inventions that are coming more and more. 

Pipe lines through the county have been laid along the Erie Railroad 
and other routes for the purpose of conveying gas and oil from the great 
fields of Eastern Indiana and Ohio to Chicago and other western cities. 

Several attempts have been made here to drill for gas and oil in 
Knox and vicinity but without success, the promoters going to other 
fields to try their luck. 


It was not until recent years that the great work of ditching and 
di-edging and reclaiming the wet and ovei-flowed lands in the county was 
begun in earnest. 

True it is that the state did considerable ditching in the '50s, but, 
without a sufficient outlet for the water, much of this ditching was of 
no avail. 

The first great effort to drain and reclaim the Kankakee marshes 
was undertaken by Hemy R. Robbins, an attorney of Knox, who after 
many hard-fought battles in the courts and after several threats to do 
him injuiy for his untiring efforts to accomplish his drainage system, 
finally came out victorious and in the year of 1884 inaugurated the first 
practical project to drain the Kankakee marshes. He has been and will 
be ever afterwards praised and honored for his bravery and success in 
his undertaking. 

Then in the year of 1901 the people owning lands bordering upon the 
Kankakee proper began to realize that they too should do something to 
lower the waters of the Kankakee River. One Dixon W. Place, now 
living in South Bend, got up a petition to dredge, deepen and widen 
that slow and sluggish stream, which was soon dredged from the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad in St. Joseph County to a point one mile below 
the Pittsburgh, Ft. AVayne and Chicago Railroad in Starke County. 
But the work was not to stop here. The Kankakee Reclamation Company 
was organized and taking up the work at the last-named place continued 
down stream to the western line of Starke CoUiUty. By dredging and 
deepening, the river has made an outlet for other dredge and shovel 
ditches to empty into, thus reclaiming thousands of acres and making 
them into some of the finest farms in the state. 

And the same is true of all parts of the county which have been and 
now are being ditched and drained, converting the once marsh and 
overflowed lands into as fine farms and luxurious homes as are found 
in almost any county of the state. 

Of course this was a great undertaking and one that I'equired an 
immense amount of money (reported elsewhere in this history). Several 
huge dredges were placed at different places on the line of the work and 
within one year from the time the first dipper-full of earth was removed 
from that illustrious and much talked of river the whole contract or 




contracts were completed, thus constnicting one of the greatest water 
channels in the north end of the state. 

From the source of this dredge ditch down-stream to the west line 
of Starke County its course is in a southwesterly direction, following 
the general course of the old Kankakee River Channel, cutting off the 
short bends of that sluggish stream and making the distance something 
like one-third of the original river. 

This gives the Kankakee River a fall of three times the original 
descent, or instead of .5 of a foot it now has about 1.5 feet fall to the mile. 

Not only has the Kankakee River been dredged, deepened, widened 
and straightened, but Yellow River as well, passing clear through the 

Dredging M.vchine 

county from east to west, has been dredged, deepened and straightened 
and widened aifording a good outlet for many smaller ditches to empty 
into, thus draining many hmidred acres of land on both sides of that 
stream. And after all that has been done in the way of ditching and 
dredging the work still continues, to make the system more complete. As 
someone has said, "If the amount of ditching we have done has accom- 
plished so much, more ditching will accomplish still more." 

All this inspired the landowners to take courage and it was then that 
they put their shoulders to the wheel and pushed the work as it never 
had been before, opening up new farms as a mighty index to the road to 
success — "Over beyond the poor house," as some of those people have 
been heard to sa.y. 

Prior to this of course all the ditching that had been done for years 
was done bv shovels, and those were small ditches at that. Until our 


people began to realize the importance of bigger ditches, a great deal 
of the first ditching accomplished but little good. 

Nothing that ever did happen or ever will come to pass will advance 
the county as much in the same length of time as has the ditching and 
drainage accomplished in the county. 

Had it not been for the bravery and energetic impulse of a few men 
M-ho undertook a thing that they understood to be necessary to develop 
the county, the same conditions might prevail today, but it was the work 
of those who could see far in advance the most important thing to do, 
which has proved itself away beyond the expectations of most men (the 
reclamation of those wet and overflowed lands in Starke County ) . 

Eagle Creek has been dredged from its source near the eastern 
boundary of the county to its outlet into Yellow River, one mile east of 
Knox, thus draining a great portion of that once wet and overflowed 
Washington Township. This adds materially to the great drainage 

Draixace Ditch, Kankakee Reclaimed Land 

system of the county, bringing into use and cultivation a great expanse 
of territory that was in an early day looked upon as being a worthless 
swamp of bulrushes and cane-brake, among which the wild deer and 
wolves roved at will the year round. 

The ditching done by the state, known as "State Ditching," was all 
done with shovels, and the lowest and ovei*tiowed lands were "skipped" 
as they were thought to be worthless — overgrown with bulrushes and 
splatter-dock, but which in after years being dredged and properly 
drained became the finest farm land. The proof of that is shown by 
the crops that are raised each year, on those same lands that looked 
hopelessly "gone for" in the early days of the county. 

Davis Township, for instance, was at that time considered almost 
worthless with her low wet marshes covered with bulrush and swamp 
grass. With the water all over, it did look like as though it would remain 
so as long as time would last, but what a change! That township is 
today considered one of the best farming townships in the whole county. 


but it has all been brought about by the ditching and draining of those 

No township in the county perhaps required the ditching that Davis 
Township did as it was an almost unbroken expanse of low and over- 
flowed land, thus needing the attention of that great improvement 
(ditching) which has done so much good to that township, giving it the 
name of one of the Banner townships for raising of wheat and corn and 
all other crops planted by the farmers each year. 

In speaking of the drainage of the county it is well and in place to 
note the fact that all the natural streams in the county have been 
dredged, widened, straightened and deepened — the Kankakee River, the 
Yellow River, Eagle Creek, Hailstorm Creek, Clear Creek, Pine Creek, 
Bogus Run Creek, and in fact all other creeks and small tributaries and 
minor streams which give ample outlet for all small ditches that are so 
numerously constracted and being constructed in each and every town- 
ship in the county — the work going on almost every day and night the 
year round. 

We have today about two hundred miles of dredge ditches in the 
county, which have cost an immense amount of money to construct, a cost 
of perhaps three hundred thousand dollars, to say nothing about the cost 
of the miles and miles of the smaller ditches. 

The same lands before being dredged sold for $1.50 to $6 per acre 
which today are well worth $50 to $100 per acre, and some farms have 
sold for much more than that price. 

The cost of those ditches, as said before, was The first one, 
being the Robbins Ditch, cost almost $14,000, and counting arms or lat- 
erals, makes about twenty-eight miles in length. The Bliss extension of 
the Robbins Ditch cost about $39,000, and Bogus Run or Lucas Ditch is 
said to have cost about $21,150. The Craigmile Ditch in round num- 
bers cost $11,900. The Osbom cost nearly $8,500, which is eight miles in 
length. The Fell Ditch cost $6,000. The Place Ditch, about twenty-three 
miles long, cost about $80,000. The Eagle Creek or Walker Ditch cost 
almost $11,000. The Bartee Ditch cost $7,000. The Yellow River or 
Elsbree Ditch, seventeen or eighteen miles in length, cost $21,500. 

We have a great many more dredge ditches in the county and are still 
digging more. All those ditches mentioned are dredge ditches. The 
average cost per cubic yard would be about six and one-fourth cents for 
excavating, which has been in tlie aggregate 2,490,000 cubic yards of 
earth removed by these machines. 

The time was when ditching was fought in the courts and out of the 
courts, but the people can look with plea.sure and pride to what has been 
accomplished by the draining process. 

A great spread in the Kankakee River formerly known as English 
Lake has a greater part become farm lands since that river has been 
dredged and straightened, which goes to show that what the county 
needed most has been aeeompli.shed, and instead of a low sluggish stream 


spreading over so much space it can now be viewed from a standpoint 
of fine cultivated farms producing tame hay, corn, wheat and onions and 
other kinds of grain and fruits in gi-eat abundance. 

Farming ox Reclaimed Land 

Since the county has been ditched and drained the farmers can boast 
of the fact that they can raise just as good crops here as they can in 
almost any county in the state, both of wheat and rye, com, cucumbers, 
potatoes and all kinds of small fruits and garden stufiE. 

One gi'eat crop so extensively raised in the county which should not 
be overlooked in this connection is the onion crop. Many farmers are 
giving a great part of their time to the cultivation of onions. The onions 

Typical Texant House, Kaxk.\kee Recl.umed Land 

yield as high as eight hundred bushels to the acre and often bring $1 
per bushel and in some instances more. No wonder then that the farmers 
raise onions when they can raise so many bushels to the acre and get such 
prices, but that is not always the case. An average price would be about 
forty cents per bushel and perhaps about four hundred bushels to an 

Small fruits grow abundantly here, apples are generally very plenti- 
ful but peaches are not a sure crop everj' year. 

It is a remarkable fact that the lands now so "vigorously sought" to 
raise onions on are the same lands that were so "vigorously shunned" in 
an early day. Covered over with flagg aud cane-brakes, the land— ^if you 
could call it land in the '50s — now grows the finest crops of onions, corn, 
wheat, oats and vegetables. Another industry that ought to be men- 
tioned here is the "mint" crop which is being quite extensivel.y raised 
on the low black lands, the same kind of land that the onions are raised 


It would perhaps be well at this time, as we are speaking of fruits, 
to meution the fact that the huckleberry or whortleberry and cranberry 
crops have been a producer of much revenue to the citizens of the county. 
These crops have been abundant in years gone by and costing nothing 
to raise them, as they grow wild, and proved to be a great source of 
revenue to our people. There are, however, only a few such marshes 
found in the county in the last few years. The great Bentley Huckle- 
berry Jlarsh, on the eastern shores of Kooutz Lake, for many years 
attracted hundreds of people every year. There, men, women, children 
and some you could hardly call human beings would build camps or set 
up tents and stay during the whole crop season, picking beri-ies and 
selling them by the quart to the buyers, who would come each year 
to buy the berries and ship them to the best markets. Holding pai'ties 
or dancing at night was the chief occupation from sunset in the evening 
until sunrise in the morning as sleep seemed to be the least thing thought 
of by those bent on having a good time. 

This marsh was destroyed by fire several years ago and the swamp 
is now converted into beautiful fields of golden grain and the "old camp" 
grounds are no more the place that it was in the years from 1869 to 1875. 
No one is left to emulate the good deeds or to discourage the bad deeds 
committed on that illustrious camp ground. 


There are a great many people yet living who have seen all these 
improvements rise above the horizon of a once forlorn hope as a result 
of privations experienced by the pioneer citizen in the days of almost 
nothing so far as relates to home comfort and home life and true citizen- 

Living in the county today are some who saw the first farms opened 
up and the first roads built, that have since been improved from dirt 
road to fine gravel and macadam highways. 

The first white woman to settle in Knox was Mrs. Rachel A. Lambert, 
who located in Knox the same year that the county was organized (1850). 
She died in the year of litni. having resided in the same house all these 
years. She was among the tirst settlers to locate here and lived to see 
the town grow from its infancy to a to«"n of 1600 at the time of her 

Wliile it is claimed that Mrs. Rachel A. Lambei't was the first white 
woman that located in Knox, we have citizens living in Knox and some 
in the country that located here some six or eight years before Starke 
County was organized. However, I am not qualified to assert the correct- 
ness of this statement, yet some of us are personally acquainted with 
some yet living who claim the honor of living here since that time. 

We see that there were very few people in the Aacinity of Knox or 
where Knox is located at the time of the organization of the county, 
which I have said was in the year 1850. 

This county was a part of Marshall County until it was established 
in that year. The territory embraced in the county when first organized 
contained twelve congressional townships, the civil and congressional 
township lines corresponding with each other. 

But we should not overlook the fact that when Starke County was 
organized it measured 18 miles north and south by 24 miles east and 
west, but on account of the low Kankakee Valley it was thought at that 
time to be the best thing to annex all that part of the county west or 
northwest of the Kankakee River to La Porte County making the thread 
of the stream the county line between the two counties, hence making 
Starke County nine townships instead of twelve as originally established. 

By this change all the civil townships in the county do not agree or 
follow the lines of the congi-essional townships. This is true of Davis, 
Jackson and Rail Road townships, caused by making the Kankakee River 



the line of the two counties. Reference to the county map will explain 
that question to all who care to look it up. 

North Bend Township, Wasliington Township, Oregon Township, 
California Township, Center Township and Wayne Township each main- 
tain the original lines, making the congressional and civil townships one 
and the same. 

Now with all the improvement in our roads and with our big steel 
bridges spanning the Kankakee River and all the drainage that has been 
done it would be an easy thing for those three lost townships to come 
to the county capital — which at that time looked like an impossibility. 

But this is just another instance where development and advance- 
ment have shown that there is no undertaking too great to be accom- 
plished by man. Thus the county was reduced from 420 square miles to 
about three hundred and twenty-one square miles of territory as it now 

Dui'ing the last twenty years a class of Germans and Bohemians as 
M'ell as Swedes have settled in the county buying up hundreds of acres 
of wet £ind overflowed lands, utilizing the fertilizer on the farm and by 
using other means of fertilizer they have succeeded in raising fine crops 
upon those lands wliich have been drained. 

Marl is not found in any paying quantities in the county. There is 
some, hoM'ever, found in Rail Road Township, but has never been 
developed. This occupied what was at one time supposed to be a shallow 
lake of several miles in extent but has long since faded away and left 
the land, where are farms of great magnitude, producing com, hay and 
wheat in great abundance. 

Some of our mai-shes were covered over from two to five feet deep, 
even more in places, with a black rich muck soil which is a great producer 
of onions and corn. 

There is one thing that is quite conspicuously absent and that is the 
"nigger head" or boulder rock. True it is, we have in some places in the 
county farms which have all the rock needed for foundations for their 
houses and bams, but they are not very extensively found in the county. 

We have, however, some fine gravel beds in the county, a gravel which 
is used very extensively for making roads. It was not until after gravel 
road building began in earnest that we knew we had the material for 
those roads, but by an examination and a close hunt it was found that 
we had some of the best gi-avel beds for road building or as good as any 
found in adjoining counties. 

The Podock Gravel Pit in Rail Road Township, the Short Gravel Pit 
in California Township, the Groves Gravel Pit in North Bend Township, 
with a few more in dilfei-ent parts of the county, have added materially 
to the advantage of building our gravel roads in the county. 

In building some of our roads the gravel is shipped in from Burr 
Oak or Walkerton, but this is not done unless the road is too far from 
our pits, which would make the hauling too expensive to be profitable for 
the contractor. 


Early Schools 

In 1852 there was but one schoolhouse in the county, known as the 
Parker School in North Bend Township, located among the oaks so 
common in that part of the county. With no roads except a winding 
track thi'ough the woods and across the almost impassable swamps and 
sloughs, it was no easy thing to get to school under those circumstances. 

In our first schools of the county we had a term of three months' 
school and the teacher would board among the scholars, staying at one 
place for a week and then going to another place for a week and so on 
during the whole term of school. 

The farmers in the "deestrict" would unite iu furnishing the wood 
for the term, hence that expense was not charged to the township. 

The teacher's pay was of course very small, ranging from eighty-seven 
and one-half cents to one dollar and fifty cents per day, according as 
the patrons would agree on the worth of his or her services. 

It was no uncommon thing in an early day of the county for the 
pupils to go four and five miles to school, as the schoolhouses were so 
far apart, and there not being enough pupils to afford a school close at 
home, as we have them today. 

The schoolhouses were in most cases built of round logs cut from 
the forest and covered with clap boards laid on poles and weighted down 
to prevent them from blowing ofi'. Instead of such conditions prevail- 
ing today, we have free school wagons traveling the county over, picking 
up the school children at the cross roads or at their homes, and hauling 
them to school and then in the evening hauling them home again. Much 
credit should be given to the legislatures of our state iu making it possible 
for those privileges to exist. 

Under our road laws of the state we have been able to build and keep 
in repair our roads, thus giving to the public a means of easy travel, 
which is a great improvement since the organization of Starke County. 
The legislatures of other states have done the same thing, permitting 
the improvements we enjoy in road building. 

The Great Sand Lime Brick Company that established a plant for 
making sand lime brick near North Judson have virtually abandoned the 
manufacture of that article, although they did an extensive business for 
several years after commencing operation. At a number of other places 
in the county they made the old clay brick but on account of the many 
railroads traversing the county in all directions the manufacture of brick 
has been abandoned in most of the brick-yards in the county. The manu- 
facture of cement blocks is a common thing in several places in Starke 
County, every little town having a small plant of this kind. The demand 
is quite extensive, as they are used for many pui-poses, for building and 
other uses. Cement is used in abutments for iron and steel bridges 
of which hundreds have been built in the last twenty years. 


Mechanic.vl Improvements 

The manner of travel is so much improved over the day when the 
people began to settle up this county that all who witness the change 
almost wonder if it can be. Traveling through the county on our fast- 
running vestibule trains, speeding through the county in our swift- 
running automobiles, riding through the clouds in our air ships — all go 
to show that if we are getting weaker we must at least be getting wiser. 
All manner of improvements in machinei-y make it possible for man to 
perform as much labor as a half dozen could do in the same time in the 
old-fashioned way of doing things. 

Some people living today can recollect when a cooking stove was 
unknown, lamps were a new thing, electric lights were not dreamed of, 
sewerage not in use, telephones not invented. 

The traveling was done by ox teams, cooking was done over a fire 
place, harvesting was done with a sickle, our meadows were mowed with 
scythes, our land was broken up with oxen or dug up by baud instead 
of being plowed. 

Now we have ranges and gas stoves to cook on, we have the railroad 
train and the automobile to travel with and our air ships to soar through 
the air, our harvesting is done by mighty machines built for that pur- 
pose, our meadows are mowed with mowing machines, our great wide 
prairies are plowed with steam. So as the world gets older the more 
improvements are coming year after year. 

The farmer can now cut up his corn and tie it in bundles with 
machines made for that purpose. Even the manner of making butter is a 
great invention when instead of making it by the old stick and dash 
churn, we now have creameries established all over the countiy, where 
the farmers take their milk and sell it or exchange it for the butter manu- 
factured at those creameries, a thing that the people knew nothing of 
years ago. Some use extractors and separators to take the cream out of 
the milk and sell the cream for butter or table use in the homes. 

Inventive genius is reaching out in all directions, putting old things 
away back in the past and bringing into use many improvements and 
new inventions to facilitate the work of man, making it easier and swifter 
than "when those now old and gi'ay were mere boys here at play." 

The carpenter has it very different nowadays when, instead of dress- 
ing lumber by hand, it is all done now by mighty machinery. The 
carpenter of years ago even made panel doors by hand. Siich ways have 
gone with the things long since abandoned and the inventions of today 
are here to. stay and more to follow on as the wheels of this mighty uni- 
verse roll on. 

To make a trip to Chicago years ago would stun the heart of the 
stoutest man, with no roads and only an ox team and cart as the only 
means of travel. But with our fast steam railroads it is an easy matter 
to make two or three round trips in a day, and it is counted a small 
matter to run to Chicago in the forenoon and return in the afternoon 
of the same day with our wonderful automobiles. An air ship will make 


the trip to Knox and return to Chicago in a few hours. It sets the people 
to thinking, wondering what will be the condition of things in another 
fifty years to come. 

When some of us were mere boys the wells consisted of open, dug 
wells, but now we have driven wells and we also have water brought into 
our homes by the great water system, conveying the water through pipes 
and supplying washstands and sinks without even having to carry the 
water by hand as we iised to do. The farmer can do his own ditching 
by machinery, which is now being done in this county as well as in other 
counties, a thing very much to the advantage of the farmer who had to 
perform all this labor by the old and slow process of digging by hand. 
It is wonderful to look back into the dim ages of the past and compare 
the way of the world as it was then with the manner of performing 
things today. 

Pioneer Institutions and Customs 

The old schoolhouse built of round logs with clapboard roof has 
gone and neat new brick schoolhouses take the place of the old school- 
house with its slab seats, and desks made by boring holes in the walls and 
pins driven to place a plank or a slab made from a puncheon split out 
of a log and hewn with an ax, which would be placed in such a way as to 
form a writing desk. Some of the first schoolhouses had fire places made 
of sticks and mud laid up in such a way as to make a chimney. The 
children would sit upon those puncheon seats, sometimes with their backs 
toward the fire, just as it suited them. There were just four subjects 
taught in the schools in those days — ' ' readin ', ' ' " 'ritin ', ' ' " 'rithmetic, ' ' 
and "spellin'." One of the very essential things taught in the schools 
was spelling. The pupil had to learn to spell well before he was allowed 
to begin to read. This was a rule well kept by the parents as well as 
the teacher. Some schools used the Testament, and in fact it was about 
the only "readin' " book they used in the schools at that time. It would 
be a comical thing to see the big boys roll in a big back log and place 
it in the fire place, when they would then resume their places and studies 
once more. 

No one not living in those days can form a close opinion of the way 
things were done. Some of the older people had a slight introduction to 
those things but the most of it would date farther back than we perhaps 
could recollect. The improvements made over those conditions are 
remarkable. Our school advantages have improved just as our farm 
machinery has taken the place of the old "mattock" used in ancient 
times. Those people in the pioneer days of their existence lived and 
many died never to know the advantages ahead of them. It only remains 
for their children and their children's children to enjoy the things 
brought about by the ever onward progress of civilization. 

If those people could rise from their graves and appear upon this 
mundane sphere, what would be the thought, what would be the con- 
clusion, what would be the first question asked? "From whence came 
those things?" 


I suppose that new inventions, new and universal progress will walk 
hand in hand and continue to be so until time sliall be no more. 

The hardships and privations experienced by the pioneers did, how- 
ever, meet with some enjoyment after all. They were the first to enjoy 
nature's boundless grandeur. Spread out before them was the forest 
with all the beauteous fields of flower gardens wafting their sweet scented 
perfume over the hills for miles around. They too saw the lakes and 
rivers lined with herds of wild buffalo, the wolf, the fox and millions 
of the feathered tribes singing from the tree tops high above their heads — 
beholding the beauties of nature's richest scenes, undisturbed among the 
rustic shores of a new country. 

You and only you who have had the experience of diving into the 
unbroken forest of an unknown countiy can tell the tale of the hard- 
ships and privations that those people experienced in establishing a home 
among themselves, inhaling the sweet odors of the wild blossoms from 
those wild prairies which seemed to give them an assurance of better 
days to come. 

Much praise shoidd be given those pioneers who braved the storm of 
the savages' contempt, those men with courageous hearts and willing 
hands who have hewn a road to success, that have made it possible for 
us to behold the things surrounding us today. The schools, the church, 
the farms, the magnificent structures, the wonderful towns and villages 
that have sprung up on the once sad and sorrowful lands — all were made 
possible by the brave and undaunted white man who banished the Indian 
from the shores of the Yellow River and the Kankakee Valley prairies. 

The brave Hoosier with his hand 
Has opened up the way so grand. 
And made it clear for you and I 
To live beneath the fair blue sky. 

Where we can dwell in peace alone, 
A place we can call our home. 
Amid great nature's lovely flowers. 
Upon those plains, we can call ours. 

No Indian savage to cross our path, 
No wild beast to raise our wrath. 
But nestled down so calm and flne 
A place we can call ' " all mine. ' ' 

To a place on the old Kankakee, 
A place that's good enough for me, 
Where I can dwell forevermore, 
Until I'm called to the other shore. 


You braved the storm and undertook 
To make a home for us — but look, 
The debt we cannot pay, you see. 
But ' ' never mind we giveth thee. ' ' 

Complete a home for you yourself, 
We want no honor nor of wealth, 
It was our duty, brave and true, 
To hew the road to success for you. 

You who have felled the mighty forest, you who have opened up great 
com fields, you who have attended the "house raisin's," you who have 
broken the sod of our endless prairies, you who have drunk from the 
bitter cup of a new camp life, you perhaps are in a better position to 
sympathize with those people who settled in the "wilderness" long before 
the robins chirped from your door, long before you saw the blue smoke 
curl from the mighty smoke stack of those wonderful machine shops, long 
before the advent of things modern. You perhaps can give a better 
description of the early life in this country, you who beheld the beauties 
of a home hewn out of those difficulties and conditions can give to us a 
history far beyond the average thought of him who located here in the 
pioneer days of the first settlement of Starke County. 

Looking back to the time when privation and hardships were con- 
verted into a life of civilization, those were the days that tried the heart 
strings of the bravest man, yet through it all they cleared the forest 
and built, and plowed, and cultivated the soil and rose above discourage- 
ments, and many lived to enjoy some of the things they so patiently 
longed to see. Lived to see the first little log schoolhouse built in the 
neighborhood, giving some idea of things to come, giving a taste of mighty 
and wonderful improvements that would supplant the vague and almost 
unknown things of the years gone by. 

Many very peculiar things, or things that would look peculiar to the 
most of us today, happened in the early settlement of Starke County. 
Meeting would be held in some farm house or cabin containing only one 
room. On one occasion, where the preacher was reminded by the lady 
of the house that it was about time for her to begin her dinner, he very 
politely and kindly called upon the congregation to sing ' ' Alas and did 
my Savior bleed, ' ' etc. Then he dismissed the congregation by announc- 
ing that there would be "meetin' " as soon as Sister Samantha would 
have dinner over, which he thought would be about 2.30 P. M. 

Another instance concerns a man in the neighborhood about three 
miles east of Knox. Having about the only horse team in the country, 
he hitched up and drove several miles to bring a number of ditchers home. 
He had to pass a little log schoolhouse on his return trip, and on reach- 
ing there found a meeting going on. He stopped his team and all the 
ditchers went in dressed in their ditching clothes with their big heavy 
rubber boots and mud and dirt all over their faces. The driver (and 
by the way I will say right here that it was Mr. Horace Stow, who 


was well known by some living in the county today) acted as usher and 
seated the whole gang on a bench or a slab-bench up near the preacher. 
No one thought it wrong, and all were welcome to the meeting as much 
so as if they had been di-essed up. 

It used to be a common thing to see a preacher standing in the pulpit 
(a stool was usually used for a pulpit) when preaching in the little log 
schoolhouse or in some farmer's home cabin, usually in his shirt sleeves, 
dressed only in his shirt and trousers, and barefooted. No one thought 
any less of him for it. 

Foxes, wolves, the wild deer and innumerable flocks of prairie chickens, 
ducks, quail and pheasants were in great numbei-s in the pioneer days of 
the county. The wolves and foxes were a great menace to the farmers, 
as those animals would catch, destroy and eat up the fowls on the farm 
unless the farmer would provide good close houses for the protection of 
them, sometimes incidentally housing them in one end of his dwelling or 
letting them roost in the garret. 

One great feature of the eai'ly life was the old fashioned dance held 
at some farm cottage where the "fiddler" would sit in one end of the 
room and play "Old Dan Tucker," "Zippy Coon" or the "Devil's Wash 
Woman," and it certainly was very interesting to those in attendance. 
Some came for miles with their partners, on foot or sometimes with an 
ox cart, but at any rate all enjoyed themselves and would "dance all 
night till broad daylight and go home with the 'gals' in the morning." 

James Whitcomb Riley wrote something like this as near as I can 
recollect it : 

"My playin's kinder middlin' — 
Tunes picked up when a boy. 
The kiudo-sorto-fiddlin ' 
That the folks calls cordoroy; 
The old Fat Gal, Zippy Coon 
And My Sailor's on the Sea 
Is the old cowtillions I saw 
When the ch'ice is left to me." 

Without the old fashioned dance it would have been a lonesome time 
for those pioneers, but with the countiy "fandango" all enjoyed them- 
selves even though they had to dance upon a puncheon floor, as most of 
the cabins had floors made of timber split and hewed from the trees, 
there being no sawmills in those days to saw the timber into lumber. But 
with all those disadvantages surrounding them they enjoyed themselves 
far beyond what we could today if we were reduced to such conditions as 
they were in so long ago. 

The sparsely settled country seemed to have a tendency to welcome 
visitors and form acquaintance with each other, which is almost uni- 
versally the case in all new countries. All lived upon an even plane, no 
"big I's" or "little U's" among them, sharing each other's hospitality 
in all things and on all occasions. Those were times that all were 


generous and without pay or remuneration, willing to help each other. 
It was a great custom for the settler to go to church on horseback, 
taking his wife, the hired girl or his sweetheart upon the same horse, 
where she would ride behind him, a thing almost unknown among us 

This was not in the earliest settlement of the coxinty, for in the old 
pioneer days of the county, oxen and only oxen were used for hauling, 
plowing, teaming of all kinds, including going to "meetin'. " Going 
bare-footed and only wearing such clothes as they could procure marked 
the way they dressed in those days. Many commenced housekeeping 
without funds, depending upon their strength for working out the prob- 
lem of a life that seemed like an almost imxjossibility. Those who saw the 
old log house raisings, those who leveled the forest, those who dug from 
the soil, those who braved the storm of endless hardships, those and those 
alone are only qualified to read to you from their haggard and life- 
I'iddeu countenances the joys and hardshijDs that they endured. But 
things have changed. Instead of seeing the smoke curling from the wig- 
wam or log hut of the Indian or of the old pioneers you can now view 
with pride the spires that mark the way to homes magnificent in their 
appearance and wonderful in their construction. None but the brave and 
strong were able to undergo the task of penetrating the wild forests, as 
they were infested with wild animals of all kinds and the Indian was a 
prominent figure wherever they went, many never reaching their destina- 
tion. Many sad and sorrowful meetings were held by those people when 
taking their departure for a country of which they knew so little about. 
The ways of the world are made up of those conditions. Pains, heart- 
aches, sorrow, gi'ief , pleasure, comfort and joj' make up our lives and at 
the end we shall have given all up to "Him who hath done all tilings 

Trading posts wei-e established at different places over the country, 
where the fm- and other peltries were bought and a general dickering 
trade was carried on, there being no money ; the transaction was bartering 
or trading one article for another just as you seemed to desire. This 
trading was carried on quite extensively at their "meetin 's" and on court 
days, exchanging articles wdth one another. As said before, there seemed 
to exist a feeling for in need and a spirit of charitj' rose high, and 
in sickness the women were ready and w'iUing to give all the help that 
they could to assist those unfortunate and restore them to health once 
more. A great degree of Christian charity marked the lives of those 
pioneer citizens, doing good to all who were needy and in distress. 

Sometimes we wonder and sometimes we stop to think of the condi- 
tions of men, some straggling for a living, some living in luxuiy with 
aU the comforts that can be bestowed upon man, yet we must reconcile 
ourselves and submit calmly and peaceably to the end. The laborious 
tasks performed by the father, the husband or son, the heartaches and 
the tears of the mother or the w'idow, the anxiety of the daughter 
cannot compensate for the pi-ivation, the miseiy, the suffering and 
hard.ship that those peojjle witnessed in their new homes, but the changes 


The time of holding the first regular county election was in the 
year of 1852. At this election was elected the first set of regularly 
elected county officers — auditor, clerk, treasurer, recorder, sheriff, sur- 
veyor, coroner and three county commissioners. 

The first auditor was Jacob G. Black; the first sherifi: was Jacob S. 
Wampler; the first recorder was Jacob Bozarth, Sr. ; the first clerk was 
Stephen Jackson ; the first treasurer was Jacob Tillman ; the first sur- 
veyor was John S. Bender; the first coroner was James B. Prettyman; 
the fii-st commissioners were George Estey, William Parker and John 
W. P. Hopkins. 

The first county school superintendent or school examiner was ap- 
pointed in 1861, which honor was conferred on Andrew Porter. 

The first man to hold the office of assessor was Nathan McCumber, 
who was elected in the year of 1863. 

The first judge of the court was E. M. Chamberlain, and he held the 
first term of court in May, 1851, in Rlrs. Rachel Lambert's house on 
the south bank of Yellow River in Knox. There were at that time two 
associate judges, Samuel Burke and George Milroy. The old building 
disappeared many years ago. At this tei-m of court there was an indict- 
ment found against some parties for stealing, but there was no con- 

The county officers from the organization in 1850 to the present 
time are: 

County Clerks 

Stephen Jackson. Willoughby M. McCormick. 

Jacob Bozarth, Sr. Matthias T. Hepner. 

Charles Humphrey. Jeremiah Good. 

John S. Bender. James C. Fletcher. 

Oliver H. P. Howard. Henry E. Wliite. 

Andrew W. Porter. Mahlon J. Hartzler. 

County Recorders 

Jacob Bozarth, Sr. ]\Iichael M. Kelley. 

William M. Calkins. Henry Seegrist. 



that time has brought must partially at least offset the past aud furnish 
a balm that shall heal our wounds for all times. 

In speaking of the old-fashioned dances in an early day, there soon 
followed the spelling "bee" held at some "deestrict" schoolhouse where 
the scholars would all stand up in a circle and next to the wall of the 
school room and "spell down," as they would call it. Great excitement 
would prevail and many watch with interest to see who would stand up 
the longest. 

The music teacher too would hold his singing school, using the old 
kind of note-book not in use now, the little schoolhouse being full and 
running over on many occasions. Many parties were held at the 
farmers' homes, log rollings, wood choppings, corn "shuckin's, " house 
raisings, and many more "bees" for the men folk, and perhaps on the 
same day the women would have a quilting bee, apple cutting or some- 
thing of the kind, and after the day was over they would clear the 
room of every piece of furniture that could be moved and all engage 
in dancing, tripping the light, fantastic toe until the svm would begin 
to show her light in the eastern horizon. 

Sometimes instead of dancing, especially among the more solemn- 
like, they would engage in some play as "Oh, Sister Phebe, how merry 
were we the night we sat under the Juniper tree," "Old Dusty Miller," 
and other plays, singing airs to suit each play. 



Willoughby M. McCormick. 
Sylvester A. filcCrackin. 
Austin P. Dial. 

Jacob P. Qiiigley. 
Sidney J. Childs. 

County Auditors 

Jacob G. Black. 
Charles S. Tibbits. 
Charles Humphrey. 
John S. Bender. 
James H. Adair. 
Robert H. Bender. 

Alexander H. Henderson. 
William Perry. 
Aug. H. Knosman. 
John W. Kurtz. 
Lee M. Ransbottom. 
Charles W. Weninger. 

County Trk.\.sureks 

Jacob Tillman. 
Adam Lambert. 
Willoughby M. McCormick. 
Solon 0. Whitson. 
Wingate Prettyman. 
John Good. 
Matthias T. Hepner. 
William H. H. Coffin. 
Austin P. Dial. 

Joseph K. Hai'tzler. 
Prank P. Whitson. 
Andrew 0. Castlema 
Oratio D. Fuller. 
George W. Lightcap. 
Wilbert A. Pierson. 
Jacob S. Short. 
Frank Joseph. 

County Sheripps 

Jacob S. Wampler. 
Andrew W. Porter. 
Solon 0. Wliitson. 
William P. Chapman 
Wingate Prettyman. 
Matthias T. Hepner. 
William Elmendorff. 
William H. H. Coffin 
George S. Savery. 

William Seagraves. 
Mathew Kays. 
Joseph E. Jones. 
Jacob Van Derweele. 
Joseph E. Hai*vey. 
William H. Harter. 
Sidney A. Uncapher. 
Andrew J. Laramore. 
George W. Pettis. 

County Coroners 

James B. Prettjonan. 
John Lindsey. 
Adam Lambert. 
Jacob K. Krites. 
Samuel Smith. 
Elijah Wood. 
David P. Favorite. 
Wingate Prettyman. 
Joseph W. Hiler. 
Thomas R. Lambert. 
Leander E. Conner. 

Mark R. Wright. 
William M. Kelley. 
Charles Waddell. 
Thomas J. Agnew. 
George W. Scofield. 
Israel Uncapher. 
Wilson T. Loriug. 
James S. Denaut. 
Samuel S. Bonner. 
William J. Solt. 
Frank Eatinger. 

County Surveyors 

John S. Bender. 
Robert H. Bender. 
John P. Kelley. 
William C. Boyles. 
John E. Short. 
Joseph N. McCormick. 
George M. D. Fisher. 
Abner L. Pursell. 
Henry C. Roney. 

John W. Good. 
Howard M. Chapel. 
Adam F. Seider. 
Leo M. Kelley. 
Alfred A. Savery. 
William H. Morris. 
Marvin A. Schroek. 
Charles A. Good. 


Nathan McCumber. 
Eli Brown. 
Christopher Hillabold. 
Thomas Cussins. 
Peter Speelman. 
William P. Stanton. 

Jacob Keller. 
Albert C. Wolfram. 
William James. 
George W. Harkins. 
Oscar B. Rockwell. 

County Commissioners 

William Parker. 
George Estey. 
John W. P. Hopkins. 
Andrew Long. 
Edward Smith. 
Abram Welsh. 
George Felden. 
John Good. 
William P. Chapman. 
James P. Fry. 
William Swartzell. 
Isaac Reed. 
Jacob Kelver. 
Eli Brown. 
Jesse Jackson, Sr. 
Madison Jones. 
Matthias T. Hepner. 
John W. Rea. 
Jefferson Seagraves. 
Christian Kreis. 
Richard M. Gibbs. 
William L. Seudder. 
Oratio D. Fuller. 

William Turner. 
George Stocker. 
Joseph M. Hiler. 
James M. Tucker. 
Daniel H. Stanton. 
Daniel Lefever. 
Jacob Kreis. 
William Collins. 
Fred E. Vergin. 
William Miller. 
Samuel Lefever. 
Elijah W. Geiselman. 
Jacob Shilling. 
Henry Bender. 
Edward Tucker. 
Christian Borehert. 
Henry C. Short. 
Sherman Carnes. 
James G. Heilman. 
Peter Mosher. 
Henry Luken. 
Lee Wolfe. 


Ouit Present County Officers 

Chaxles "VV. Weninger Auditor 

Frank Joseph Treasurer 

Mahlon J. Hartzler Clerk 

George Pettis Sheriff 

Sidney A. Childs Recorder 

Charles A. Good Surveyor 

Frank Eatinger Coroner 

Carroll W. Cannon County School Superintendent 

Oscar B. Rockwell County Assessor 

WiUiam J. Reed County Attorney 

Henry Luken County Commissioner 

Peter Mosher County Couunissiouer 

Lee Wolfe County Commissioner 

Cyi-enus E. Geiselman County Road Superintendent 

H. R. Smalley County Agricultural Agent 

Township Trustees 

William P. Castleman North Bend Township 

Elmer Cochenour Washington Township 

John Nelson Oregon Township 

Lewis Rasehka California Township 

George Rogere Center Township 

Benjamin F. Weninger Wayne Township 

George Wisert Davis Township 

Owen Dailey Railroad Township 

Benjamin Fleishman Jackson Township 

Present Township Assessors 

George Brown North Bend Township 

Clem L. Rodgers Washington Township 

William H. Dipert Oregon Township 

John C. Baker California Township 

John W. Stevenson Center Township 

Prank Burjnek Wayne Township 

Peter Roney Railroad Township 

Conrad Lotter Davis Township 

John P. Micholski Jackson Township 

The county consists of nine townships: North Bend Township, 
ington Township, Oregon Township, California Township, Center 
Township, Wayne Township, Railroad Township, Davis Township, and 
Jackson Township. 

The object in these lists was to give the names of all the county 
officers, but of course some of them held the same office more than one 


The Mouud Builders left evidences behind them when they aban- 
doned this part of the state, hence they are caUed Mound Builders. 
From the J\Iississippi River to the Great Lakes are found many mounds. 
These mounds varied in size from 10 to 400 feet in diameter, and some 
measuring as high as 100 or 125 feet, but being of different shapes. 
Of course it has been a long time since those mounds were in a good 
state of preservation and the shape and size of them are a good deal 
guessed at. 

Part of the largest mounds and fortifications were found in or near 
St. Louis and some in Ohio and Indiana. In some of those mounds 
are found bones and evidences of them having been burned, as there 
are ashes and charred remains to be found. Some of the graves contain 
human skeletons, some of which are encased in stone sarcophagi with 
implements of war and various utensils adapted to the use of the 
Indian — stone axes, no two apparently resembling each other, arrow- 
heads and spears of different sizes and shapes, drills made for boring 
holes in stone. It is interesting to think of their knives being made 
of flint rock, and they even made their saws of the same material. 
It is quite a curiosity to find one of their pipes beautifully shaved and 
carved from those stones. All kinds of Indian instniments were made 
and used by the tribes called Mound Builders. 

The cooking utensils made by those people were of clay, and in 
some eases they did use a cement or marl dug from the marshes, making 
a combination that they used. Many articles of this kind have been 
found and stored away as souvenirs and keepsakes, reminding us of 
the implements made and used by the Mound Builders. 

We can recollect some strong evidences of those mounds, some of 
which were within the boundary lines of Starke County. We have had 
several places, and not very far from Knox evidence of mounds which 
have long since become obliterated by the constant use of the farmer's 
plow. One of which I can mention that comes within the memory 
of some of us today was located on the northeast corner of Main and 
John streets in Knox, one at the southwest comer of northwest quarter 
section 32, in Center Township, one in section 8 in Oregon Township, 
and several more throughout the county. 

The mound builders, as they are generally called, were a very pecul- 
iar people and the knowledge they had of converting the stone into 


implements such as axes, spearheads, arrow heads, kettles for cooking, 
vases, water-cups and ornaments was remarkable. 

We know of none of the mounds that wei'e fully excavated or thor- 
oughly examined as to what might have been found, or just what they 
contained, except what evidence was gleaned from a casual survey made 
of them when this county was first settled by those coming from the 
East. It was generally supposed that all Indians were of one tribe 
or family, but later it was discovered from intimate relations with them 
this theory was incoi-rect, as they spoke different dialects and their 
habits were different — thus the conclusion that they were of different 
tribes. It was one belief that the inhabitants of the Americau continent 
belonged to the Mongolian race in Asia. 

Since the Europeans came to this coutinent many habits and condi- 
tions of the American Indian have been noticed in the localities where 
they built their mounds and established their camp life. 

One peculiarity of the Indians was to seek the high lands to build 
their wigwams and erect their villages. When DeSoto pitched his 
tent upon Florida's soil, which has now been almost four hundred years 
ago, he discovered the different qualities and customs of the Indians 
in that country and relates that "the Indians try to place their villages 
on elevated sites, but inasmuch as Florida is a flat and level country 
they erect elevations themselves, by carrying earth and erecting a kind 
of platform, two or three pikes in height, the summit of which is large 
enough to give room for twelve, fifteen or twenty houses to lodge the 
cacique and his attendants." 

LaHarpe, writing in 1720, says of the tribes on the lower Mississippi, 
' ' Their cabins are dispersed over the country upon mounds of earth , 
made with their own hands." 

The first European explorers through Arkansas noticed similar 
mounds to those found in Florida. 

Indiana, IlUnois and IMissouri mark the location of many mounds, 
but they were different from the mounds just spoken of, as they were 
built upon elevated grounds and the first settlere had no difficulty in 
locating them, as there would be a deep depression in the ground as 
though there had been a cellar dug beneath some house long since burned 
or decayed and only leaving a hole or circular depression in the ground. 
Those are the kind found in Starke County at the time of the first 

We have no positive proof that there was any difference between 
what we term mound builders and the Indians. It is a fair conclusion 
that the Natchez tribe of Indians were a part or parcel of the Mound 

The Indians were divided or gi'ouped into various tribes, although 
the people inhabiting America prior to its discovery by Christopher 
Columbus in the year 1492 are thought to be descendants of one and 
the same stock, although those tribes were very much different in their 
customs, their language and their habits of living. 

The greatest tribe known was the Algonquins, a prominent tribe 


of North America, and the Indians of this part of the country are sup- 
posed to belong to that great tribe or gi-and division. 

The Miami confederacy of Indians was organized for the defense of 
the Indians who occupied this territory. Farther east were the Onon- 
dagas, Cayugas and the Seneeas. Several tribes united in making up 
the Miamis — as the Eel River, Piaukashaws, Weeas and some others. 
It will be observed that the Miamis held dominion over the northwestern 
part of Indiana, for we find from histoi-y that ' ' the Miamis had settled 
along the headwaters of the great Miami, the Maumee, the St. Joseph 
of Lake Michigan and the Upper Wabash River and its tributaries," 
although the Pottawattomies are credited with occupying the northwest 
part of the state. Although the Kankakee River is not mentioned in 
.this connection, it is, however, a certain fact that those tribes men- 
tioned were sole possessors of this river, as it lies within the territory 
just described. 

One peculiar method those Indians had during their warfare was 
to surprise their enemies by covering up their trails when on the 
warpath. They were stoical, treacherous, grave, cowardly, and would 
aim to do most of their fighting concealed and by cunning methods of 
warfare. Hard suffering inculcated a form of braveiy, and they would 
hunt or fish and fight, while tlie burden of work rested with the women 
folks. It seemed as though they cared but little for a permanent place 
of abode, as they roamed the woods and prairie lands over. This 
appeared to be the custom of the earliest Indians. It is certain that 
in after years they did become more reconciled and built small villages, 
their huts being built of logs or poles, some of which would be set 
in the ground and interwoven with straw or grass and covered with 
bark peeled from the trees. They held exclusively to their one symbol 
of peace, and that was their pipe, which one of their number would 
light and each one would smoke from it, passing it from one to another, 
thus manifesting a form of peace pact that has always held good among 
those tribes. 

It was a common thing for those Indians to march in single file. 
Sometimes a hundred or more would be in one continuous line, and 
when they would give the war-whoop they would make the whole country 
around echo with their voices. 

A Shawnee chief by the name of Tecumseh, not being satisfied with 
the land ceded to the Miamis and Pottawattomies in Indiana, set about 
to form a confederacy, taking in all the tribes of the Northwest. He 
made a compact in which it was stipulated that no tribe could cede 
any of their land without the consent of all the tribes. While Tecumseh 
was busily engaged in forming his confederacy, his brother, Law-le- 
was-i-kaw, the Prophet, engaged in hostilities and attacked General 
Harrison at Tippecanoe on the 7th of November, 1811, and as I have 
said before, the Indians were defeated, which completely shattered all 
hopes for Law-le-was-i-kaw to establish his much desired and long- 
looked for authority. Tecumseh accused his brother of cowardice and 
never forgave him. Tecumseh upon the breaking out of the War of 


1812 affiliated with the British, but was killed October 5, 1813, at the 
Battle of the Thames and his brother went west of the Mississippi, but 
died in the year 1834, twenty-one years after the death of Tecumseh. 
The Indians always maintained that the land belonged to them. It 
was, however, the aim of the United States to buy the land and acquire 
it by treaty, yet the Indians were in some cases compelled to sign 
treaties and cede their land against their will, or forced to give up their 
land and take up their claims in a countiy farther west. 

In a message to Congress which he submitted on the 3d day of 
December, 1830, President Jackson said: "It gives me pleasure to 
announce to Congress that the benevolent policy of the Government 
steadily pursued for thirty years in relation to the removal of the 
Indians beyond the white settlement is approaching a happy conclusion. 
Two important tribes have accepted the provisions made for their 
removal at the last session of Congress, and it is believed their example 
will induce the remaining tribes to seek the same obvious advantage. 

"Doubtless it will be painful to leave the graves of their fathers, 
but what do they more than our ancestors did or their children are 
doing now? 

"To better their condition in an unknown land, our forefathers left 
all that was dear in earthly objects. 

"Our children by thousands yearly leave the land of their birth 
to seek new homes in distant regions. Does humanity weep at the 
painful separation from everything animate and inanimate with which 
the young heart has become entwined? It is rather a source of joy 
that our country afford a scope where our young population may range 
unconstrained in body and mind, developing the power and faculties 
of the men in their highest perfection. These remove hundreds and 
thousands of miles at their own expense, purchase lands they occupy 
and support themselves at their new homes from the moment of their 
arrival. Can it be cruel in this government, when by events which it 
cannot control, the Indian is made discontent in his ancient home, to 
purchase his lands, to give him a new and extensive territory, to pay 
the expense of his removal, and support him a year in his new abode? 
How many thousands of our people would gladly embrace the oppor- 
tunity of removing west on such conditions?" 

In his message to Congress one year later, President Jackson said : 
"My opinion remains the same, and I can see no other alternative for 
the Indians but that of their removal to the west or a quiet submission 
to the state laws." In 1837 about one hundred Pottawattomie Indians 
began to emigrate, and the old Chic Naswaugee stood upon the shores 
of the lake with tears flo\\ang down his cheek as he bid farewell to the 
old hunting grounds. There were 860 Indians enrolled in all, under 
command of Chief Menominee. Their main village was at Twin Lakes, 
now in Marshall County, but the same tribes often scoured the country 
between that lake and the Kankakee River, thus passing through and 
over our immediate neighborhood. 

The Indian marriage vows were very sacred, a violation of which 


meant banishment or death. One of the Pottawattomie chiefs was bom 
near Chicago, and according to a dispatch published in the Inter Ocean, 
October 24, 1912, he died at the age of 120 years. Almost one hundred 
years have elapsed since the Indian possessed this land. No longer is 
heard the war-whoop of the red man. What a change has been made 
since that time, transfonning the unbroken forest occupied by the 
Indians into fertile fields of golden grain, and where the hut or wigwam 
then stood is now occupied with fine buildings and towns have sprung 
up with their high church towers pointing to the skies, surrounded by 
a peaceable and industrious people, tilling the soil and living at rest 
with aU men. 


LA«...E 1323016 

It was in the year of 1673 that Marquette with a company of six 
ascended the Illinois and Kankakee rivers a*nd from the headwaters 
of the last-named stream they crossed over the portage and thence down 
the St. Joseph River. Crossing the lake, they headed for Green Bay, 
where the French post was located. Six years later Robert Cavalier, 
Sieur de la Salle, with a view of discovering the Mississippi River, 
launched his boat and set sail from Canada. He had nearly thirty 
men on board with him. Among that happy band of explorers were 
Henri de Tonti, Hennepin and Sieur de la Motte, who passed down 
the Kankakee River along the northwestern border of Starke County, 
stopping over night on the banks of that stream in section 13, township 
3-4 north, range 3 west, or where section 13 was afterwards surveyed 
out. That would be near where the Davis sehoolhouse now stands, 
about one mile south of where Davis Station is located. Upon that 
camp ground La Salle left the evidence of his camp behind him. What 
a journey, what a lonesome trip, no one to meet on the way, a howling 
wilderness and an impassable swamp on either side of that river for 
miles. Winding through that sluggish, crooked stream, they finally 
reached the Illinois River after several days of hardship, but La Salle 
did not reach the mouth of the great river which he sought, returning 
East in the next year (1680). La Salle was not discouraged, for in 
1681, one year later, he increased the number of his men and started 
on his westward tour and in the year 1682 he was fortunate in reaching 
the object of his search (the Mississippi River). Taking possession of 
the country in the name of Prance, he named it Louisiana. In 1711 
they organized a Catholic mission. 

Traders and trappers penetrated the Calumet and Kankakee country, 
and thus had a slight introduction into our Kankakee River country. 
I have often thought that had the Kankakee River been dredged and 
straightened at the time La Salle made his voyage down that stream, 
how much more comfortable and quicker he could have made the trip. 
It must have been a desolate looking country at that time. How wonder- 
ful it is that men will risk their lives, their health and their means 
to try to accomplish something! But this we find to be a universal 
thing, for people, white, colored, red race, or what not, are always 
looking for something or some place beyond their observation and 
unknown to them. LaSalle was no exception to this rule, and while 



uot successful in his first attempt he would make another effort, just 
like our people of today with pluck and coui-age. 

Christopher Columbus would never have discovered the Western 
Continent had he not been possessed of that brave and noble heart to 
look for something unseen, something that he believed did exist but 
beyond the eyes of man to discover, wdthout the full determination to 
venture out and meet those hardships incident to such a voyage. As 
we have said before, the Kankakee swamps must have been very unin- 
viting to LaSalle and companions at the time he went down the Kanka- 
kee River. They had to stop often and cut out and remove limbs and 
tree tops before they could proceed down the river and the bends were 
so acute that they would almost lose their course, as they would some- 
times appear to be going in a northeasterly direction, just the opposite 
course from which they were to go. If Uncle John Davis were living 
today he could give you a pretty good idea of the old camp ground 
where LaSalle camped. As I have already mentioned, about the time 
LaSalle sailed or rowed his boats along our county line, game was very 
plentiful and they captured many a wild fowl and took from beneath 
their boats many of the choice fish from the Kankakee River. Deer was 
as plentiful as our cattle is today, and it was an easy matter to kill 
one when occasion required it, venison being one of the eliief articles 
of diet. How we would relish some now if we could obtain it — fresh 
as they did. 

The British took possession of all this part of the state in or about 
the year 1759 or 1760, though they made slow progress, as the Indians 
stood firm with the French. In the year 1783 the treaty between the 
republic just organized as the United States and Great Britain made 
the western boundary of the United States at the Mississippi River. 

William H. Harrison was appointed governor of the Ten-itory of 
Indiana May 13, 1800 ; on the 14tli of May, John Gibson was appointed 
secretary, and one week later William Clark, John Griffin and Henry 
Vanderburg became judges of the territory by appointment. A few 
days after General Harrison landed in Vincermes, which was about 
the first of 1801, he convened court. 

It was several years after this that the white man became a perma- 
nent citizen of the northwestern part of the state, a part out of which 
Starke County was organized, but, as before stated, this county was 
not surveyed until 1833-35. 

A poem was published some years ago by Hubert M. Skinner in the 
Northwestern Sportsman called the ' ' Song of the Old Sac Trail, ' ' which 
paralleled the Kankakee River, the northwestern Line of Starke County: 

My course I take by marge of lake 

Or river gently flowing. 
Where footsteps light in rapid flight 

May find their surest going. 


I hold my way through forest gray, 

Beneath their rustling arches, 
And on I pass through prairie grass. 

To guide the silent marches. 

In single file, through niile on mile. 

The braves their chieftains follow. 
By night or day they keep their way. 

They wind round hill and hollow. 
From sun to sun I guide them on, 

The men of bow and ciuiver. 
And on I pass through prairie grass. 

As flows the living river. 

"Where waters gleam I ford the stream; 

And -where the land is broken 
My way I grope down rocky slope 

By many a friendly token. 
The shrubs and vines, the oaks and pines, 

The lonely firs and larches, 
I leave, and pass through prairie grass, . 

To guide the silent marches. 

To charts unknown in boolcs unshown, 

I am no lane or by-way, 
Complete with me from sea to sea 

The continental highway. 
I guide the guest from East to West, 

From West to East deliver; 
For on I pass through prairie grass, 

As flows the living river. 

The bivouac leaves embers black 

Amid the fern and clover. 
And prints of feet the searchers greet, 

To tell of journeys over. 
The suu beats hot, I reckon not 

How sear its splendor parches, 
I onward pass through prairie grass, 

To guide the silent inarches. 

The red man's God prepared the sod. 

And to his children gave it. 
His wrath is shown in every zone. 

Against the men who brave it. 


The righteous be, who follow me, 

And praise the Heavenly Giver, 
While ou I pass through prairie grass. 

As flows the living river. 

After the Pottawatomie tribe abandoned their claims in 1832 their 
authority relaxed, and after taking up their abode beyond the Mis- 
sissippi their main thought seemed to be to live upon their allowance 
given them by the Government of the United States. 



The lakes of Starke County are most beautiful, nestled down so 
tranquil and calm, with grand nature surrounding them, with all the 
beautiful landscape stretching far beyond its sunny shores, where the 
meadowlark, the bluejay and the yellow-breasted robins abound in their 
pleasures upon those fine wooded shores and flower gardens of nature's 
richest storehouse. 

Bass Lake 

There are several beautiful lakes in the county. Bass Lake, lying 
partly in North Bend Township and partly in California Township, 
is about one and one-half miles wide by three miles long and contains 
bass, pickerel, sunfish and pike, which makes it a great place for a 
summer resort. Many people come out from Chicago, Logansport, 
Kokomo and Huntington and other towns, spending a good share of the 
hot and sultry months of summer upon the shores of this beautiful 

There are some three hundred cottages situated along the shores, 
commanding a fine view of the lake. Stores, hotels, clubhouses, theaters 
and icehouses, as well as many residences, are situated around the lake, 
and a spur from the C. & E. R. R. from Bass Station runs to the lake, 
built perhaps chiefly on account of the Knickerbocker icehouses on the 
south side of the lake, but used incidentally for delivering excursionists 
to the lake from that railroad during the summer months. 

Almost every foot of shore line has been laid out into lots, giving 
all a choice of their preference in locating upon the shores of this 
magnificent body of pure, sparkling water. The good gravel road which 
extends around the whole lake makes it an easy matter to get there 
with automobiles, a line of which runs constantly to the lake from 
Knox every day during the summer season. 

The largest icehouses in the county ar.e located on the south shores 
of Bass Lake, owned and controlled by the Knickerbocker Ice Company 
of Chicago. There are hundreds of tons of ice shipped from these 
icehouses during the winter months, and emplojnnent is given to a 
good many farmers wlio have the time during the winter to help in 
that line of industry. 

Subaqueous springs and flowing wells are common along the east 


and northeasterly shores of the lake. The greater part of the water 
area is very shallow, perhaps five or ten feet deep. At some points 
the lake will measure thirty to forty feet in depth. The northwesterly 
shore of the lake was a low, wet marsh but now with little water. Now 
since the land has been dredged, the water surface of the lake is 
considerable smaller than when first sui-veyed in 1834. 

This lake is situated about fourteen feet above the Tippecanoe River, 
which runs about six miles south. It has an artificial or dredge ditch 
for its outlet, which was one of the first ditches of any size constructed 
in the county, and of course has been deei^ened and widened since it 
was first constructed. 

The bottom of the lake, for the most part, is a sandy bottom. In 
the western part are said to be muck deposits which contain a luxuriant 
growth of vegetation. The lakes of Starke County were a thing most 
wonderfully appreciated by the Indians, as evidences exist of a general 
camp life carried on upon the shores of all the lakes in the county. 

A fish hatchery is also established on the eastern shores. of the lake, 
the purpose of which is to supply the lake with bass, making it one of 
the best lakes for bass fishing in the state. This hatchery was estab- 
lished by the Government in the year of 1913, and is the only one in 
the county. The main object is to stock this lake exclusively with bass, 
and the Government is working to that end. A company of men are 
employed each year to seine the lake and sort out all the fish and 
dispose of them, except the bass, which are returned to the lake. The 
fish hatchery indicates what interest the Government is taking in this 
beautiful, silent and pacific lake of Starke County. 

A comparison of some of the lakes in Northern Indiana shows 
Bass Lake to rank as the fourth in area and depth, being about three 
square miles of water surface and an average depth of 30.5 feet. As 
long as time shall last and those lakes continue to exist, they will be the 
pleasure and pride of our people. Changes may come and go, but as 
long as the lakes exist so long will they be loved and travei-sed from 
shore to shore. 

In origin these lakes were formed by the glaciei-s, no doubt, being 
a part and parcel of the hills and sand-ridges characteristic of the 
moraines of receding ice. We have the Kettle lakes, the Channel lakes 
and the Irregular lakes, all of which are classed according to their shape 
and character and are known as morainic lakes. Bass Lake especially 
is a sample of those lakes and belongs to that class and division of such 
beautiful bodies of water found in the county. 

Gasoline launches as well as sailboats and usually two or three steam- 
boats, all plying upon the broad and tranquil bosom of the lake of lakes 
(Bass Lake) give entertainment to many visitors who take pleasure in 
sailing or boat riding upon this beautiful body of water. No lake in 
Northern Indiana is better known and more noted for fish than this. 

This lake is situated on top of an elevated plain, and, strange as it 
may seem, the drainage for the most part is all from the body of the 


lake. The fall from the water level of the lake to the Tippecanoe River, 
six miles to the south, is about fourteen feet. 

Thus the waters could be materially reduced if it was sufficiently 
ditched, but this would be a gi-eat damage to the community, as the 
very existence of that lake gives to the surrounding country an impor- 
tant source of pleasure and profit. 

Some of the first settlers located on the shores of this lake, and 
while the oldest citizens have passed beyond, yet there ai-e those who can 
well remember the cold and bleak days of a hard and ruthless struggle 
for the necessaries of life. But they mastered the situation and those 
living are here to take advantage of the beautiful situation around that 
never fading and beautiful body of pure water. 

It is the pride and pleasure of older citizens to sit and talk of the 
years gone by when they would chase the deer upon the broad stretch 
of this ice and snow-covered lake and capture them and dress them for 
venison. Also they w^ould cut holes in the ice and bring from the lake 
some of the finest fish to be found anywhere. This was one of the ways 
the early settlers had of making their living. Contented and never 
complaining, at the same time they realized the many comforts and 
pleasures experienced by those in better circumstances than they could 

It was the brave heart and untiring efforts of those people that 
brought them through all those hardsliips and placed them upon a more 
easy plane of prosperity and contentment. They looked back to the 
years of their first settlement in the neighborhood and on the shores of 
Bass Lake with a heart too full for utterance. 

KooNTZ Lake 

Koontz Lake is in the northeastern part of the county and contains 
between two hundred and three hundred acres, is mostly a shallow body 
of water. This lake was increased in size by the building of the dam 
at Koontz' MiU in 1848, and was known originally as Woodworth's Lake. 

It is getting to be quite a summer resort. Tracts of land on the 
shore line have been laid out into lots which are being bought up and 
buildings being built for those who come to that beautiful lake to fish 
and while away these hot, sultry days upon its shaded shores. 

With Kaney's Addition on the north shore, called Kaiiey North 
Shore Subdivision to Koontz Lake, Anderson's Subdivision to Koontz 
Lake and Koontz Subdivision to Koontz Lake, there is ample space for 
cottages, as well as other buildings around this vei-y inviting lake for 
all who wish to enjoy the same. Good gravel roads around the lake 
add materially to the comfort of the traveling public. 

It was upon the western shores of this lake that the first gi'ist mill 
was built in Starke County in 1848. After being burned down a few 
years ago, it was rebuilt on the same spot and continues to run under 
the same management as of several years ago. It has been a great 



benefit to all the people of Oregon Township in getting their grain 
ground so near home. The present owner and manager, Samuel Koontz, 
is a son of Samuel Koontz, who was the owner and manager of the 
original Koontz mill. 

Scene on Kodxtz Lake 

Many people are coming to this lake, now becoming noted for its 
pleasures and comforts. The citizens that live upon its shores are doing 
all they can to make Koontz Lake rank with any of the pleasure resorts 
in the north end of the state. 

The Koontz Mill 

Situated only three miles from Walkerton but in Starke County, it 
has a great advantage over some lakes, as there are several railroads in 
Walkerton, which afford all pleasure seekers a chance to visit this lake 
from all the ends of the country. It is also only three miles from 


Grovertown, a small town on the Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
road, which too brings excursionists from Chicago to the fine and placid 
waters of Koontz Lake, where they can enjoy themselves in boat riding 
and fishing day after day during the hot summer months. 

Round Lake 

Round Lake, lying in the west half of section 8 in California Town- 
ship, comes in too for its share of patronage by people who desire a 
good day of fishing in that fine little body of water. 

This lake when the Government sui-veyors surveyed this county was 
known as Silver Lake, but was afterward changed to Round Lake. It 
has good banks on the north and easterly side and is surrounded l)y 
fine farms and good neighbors. 

Some of the finest fish is caught in this lake, and there are those who 
go there every year for a fishing trip or to themselves in boat 
riding. There in nature's boundless beauties surrounding the shores 
of tliis lake the wild Indians used to have full control away back in the 
'30s and '40s, when the white man just began to break in on their 
hunting grounds. There the Indian fished and trapped for years, in 
their little bark canoes, not dreaming of the approach of the white man. 
Yet he came and then the red man gave up his hunting ground and this 
beautiful lake and went farther west to look for new hunting grounds, 
only to be shoved on farther and farther to the west by the continual 
approach of the white man. 

Ducks and geese and other fowls were a common thing upon the 
bosom of this silver-hued and sparkling lake, so characteristic of the 
first name it bore. The farmers, too, after coming into full possession 
spent many hours of pleasure, fishing in its waters and hunting upon 
its shores ; but they too have given up this course and spend their time 
in more profitable pursuits. A number of farm dwellings are situated 
upon its shores, where the farmer can sit in his home and view the 
lake from shore to shore. 

The area of this lake is about one hundred acres and is located aliout 
five and one-half miles southwest of Knox. The water is quite deep 
except in the easterly part. 

Eagle Lake 

Eagle Lake lies in Washington Township, about one-half mile west 
of the east line of Starke County. Originally it had about one hundred 
acres, but since the Walker dredge ditch has been constructed, which 
crosses the lake from east to west, it has become reduced almost one-half 
by reason of this drainage. No doubt but what this lake will become, 
as old .Manitou, a thing of the past, as it was a very shallow lake in 
the fii-st place. This lake is surrounded by a sandy upland of groves 
of timber and cultivated farm lands. The Walker dredge ditch passes 
along and down Eagle Creek, which was its original outlet, in a westerly 


course, emptying into Yellow River about one mile east of Knox, llenee 
the same lands covered by this body of water will in' time become farm 
lands, or a greater portion of it, as indications show at this time. 

This lake, like all the rest, was a camp ground for the Indians ere 
the white man took possession of this part of the country. Hunting 
and fishing was their chief employment. At their campfires war dances 
were the main attractions of night, when they would light up their 
camps and make the surrounding forest ring with their war-whoops. 

A part of Tecumseh's tribe, backing up from the scenes of battle 
with General Harrison in 1811, found within the Kankakee and Calumet 
valleys those beautiful lakes of pure, fresh, sparkling water, and at 
Eagle Lake they pitched their tents, a place where they could rest in 
peace and be sole possessor of the surrounding country around this lake. 

The old camp grounds where they held control at that time have 
long since passed into the hands of the white man, where he now holds 
dominion over the old Indian hunting grounds and now cultivates the 
soil that surrounds this lake, undisturbed by the Indian war-whoop and 
the tomahawk. 

What would we do today if the same conditions existed that did 
with the first settlere of the county, with Indians hugging the shores 
of this lake, eking out a meager existence, with their huts and tents 
there during the cold winter months? It was certainly a lonesome and 
forlorn life to live, even if it was the life of the red man, who had to 
endure that kind of living. 

This lake is surrounded by beautiful groves of oak timber, where 
the birds build their nests and the owl may screech, where the whippoor- 
will can be heard, and ducks and other water fowls delight in the waters. 

Smaller Lakes 

There are a number of smaller lakes of little importance, as English 
Lake (nearly extinct), Hartz Lake and Rothermal Lake, in the south- 
eastern part of the county, and Black Lake in section 25, North Bend 
Township, which, too, has been ditched and has become of little impor- 
tance as a lake. 

In an early day we could name a number of small lakes which have 
become entirely extinct and the same land, once covered by water, is 
now fine farm land. The lakes of the county have been a part and 
parcel of the great pleasures of the citizens from the earliest days of 
its first settlement to the present time. Boat riding and fishing have 
occupied the attention of all who delight in that kind of sport and 

The migratory birds would come and go with the seasons, but the 
Indians that caught the fur and trapped the game while living upon 
the shores of those beautiful lakes, left those bodies of water only when 
driven from the county by the white man. Then the new white citizen 
took up the duties that were so long performed by the red man and 
hunted and trapped and fished where the Indians hunted and fished so 



long ago. Many of the islands bordering upon the lakes and rivers 
have left their marks of the Indian camping grounds, now occupied by 
new and more useful improvements. 

Never since the Indians camped upon the sun-bathed shores of those 
lakes has there been the same camp life experienced as when the red 
man occupied this neighborhood. Some of the first settlers, speaking 
of the Indians, have said they could hear the Indian war-whoop and 
their carousals for miles on a clear, still night. Why should not the 
Indians have enjoyed themselves when there was no one to hinder or 
molest them before the white man came? 

Those Indians were perhaps some of the same tribe that occupied 
the Kankakee Valley long after the tribe had sold their lauds in the 
northwestern part of Indiana, after they signed a treaty in the year 
1832. They scattered over the Calumet and Kankakee region, some 
remaining for years, but finally became discom-aged by the white settlers 
in the '50s and abandoned their camping grounds and bade farewell 
to this part of the state. Many marks of an eventful camp life were 
left behind by the savages who hunted the deer, the wolf and the wild 
game upon the lands surrounding these lakes and fished and trapped 
the wild ducks and geese so bountiful in those days. What a great 
change has taken place in this county since that time ! 


North Bend Township 

A sketch of the several townships would certainly be in order here. 
North Bend being one of the first townships settled in the county, with 
the most of her old citizens gone before, the interests are not forgotten 
by the generations coming on as can be seen by the farms that are 
opened up and the building that is done from year to year. Also the 
ditching that has been done during the last twenty or thirty years has 
brought the lowlands into a state of cultivation where all kinds of grain 
and fruit are raised. Schoolhouses dot the township all over and miles 
and miles of good gravel and macadam roads have been built, which 
make North Bend Township rank with her sister townships in all that 
is good and useful as a part of Starke County. Each year adds to the 
list of gravel roads constructed in that township, almost all the main 
traveled ways having now become fine gravel roads. This is a great 
benefit to any community, and a thing that was not known of years ago. 
It is a gi-eat pleasure for those iiow living in this locality to have good 
roads to travel upon instead of the winding sand roads of several 
years ago. 

This township (North Bend) is located in the southeast comer of 
the county and is six miles square, containing thirty-six square miles 
of territory, being six miles east and west by six miles north and south, 
and contains some of the best soil for farms in the county. Her lakes 
and rivers all go to make up a township for which the first settlers 
have had no occasion to regret their choice of location. It w^as named 
North Bend Township for the gi-eat north bend in the Tippecanoe River, 
a bend in that river extending and traversing the southern part of the 
township for a distance of some three miles, thus giving this township 
a taste of the waters of that fine channel of a pure and healthful stream, 
shaded by a magnificent body of timber upon its shores. 

Attracted to this township by reason of the wonderful Bass Lake, 
it is no wonder that North Bend Township was one among the first 
to be settled in Starke County. Upon the cold and frozen shores of 
this lake the farmers would employ their time at hunting and fishing 
during the winter months, but as soon as the bright and shining sun 
began to east her rays of warmth from above, they would give their 
attention to farming and raising of crops, which have been improving 



ever since the hunter and trapper brushed the icicles off his brow upon 
the shores of "Cedar," or Bass Lake, so long ago. 

William P. Castleman was elected six years ago to serve his township 
as trustee, a position that he has filled w'ith a credit to the people and 
an honor to himself. No office in the county is more important than 
that of the townsliip trustee, as he stands between the people and the 
finances of his township, and it is to the interest of the poeple to look 
well to the matter of electing good men to conduct the affairs of their 
township. In managing the affairs of North Bend Township, Mr. Castle- 
man has certainly lived up to the highest obligations of his office. 

Washington Township 

Washington Township is also sis miles square and is the second 
township from the south lying in the east tier of townships. It has 
many miles of ditches running through it, and with its gravel roads 
£ind schools it is one of the townships that a man might well feel proud 
to be a citizen of, so enterprising a neighborhood has this township 

This township has within its boundary the once famous Eagle Lake, 
spoken of elsewhere in this volume, and which is about the only lake 
in the township. But the soil is so well cultivated in most parts of the 
township as to make up for what it may lack in lakes and summer 
resorts. All are working to the end that Washington Township shall 
be one among "em," keeping her own with any one of the nine town- 
ships in the way of public improvements and public-spirited men all 
working to make of this township a home and fireside for all who are 
lucky enough to locate upon its broad expanse of yet unfilled acres 
of fLae land. Building, ditching and farming continue to be carried on 
by those citizens at all times. 

The Walker ditch passes clear through this township from east to 
west and it, with the other dredge ditches in this towaiship, has added 
greatly towards the upbuilding of Washington Township. The atten- 
tion so liberally given to the sub.iect of schools and schoolhouses is 
certainly a matter for which those having in charge those duties to 
perform should be well and truly remembered by all the citizens of this 

The first settlers of this township perhaps more so than the first 
settlers of any one of the nine townships had to meet reverses and 
privations almost beyond endurance. A class of citizens true as steel 
but poor in this world 's goods, they never complained of their condition, 
but with willing hands and brave hearts overcame obstacles and came 
out victorious, establishing themselves upon a pinnacle of fame, there 
to remain as long as time shall last with them. 

Many were the heartaches experienced by the women and children 
in. those long ago days, but they too looked forward to the time when 
all would be well with them, their lives being more pathetic than 
romantic, but such is the ease with most new countries. Some settled 


iu this township as far back as 1844, and some of them are living today 
to tell of the hardship and ijrivations exjaerienced by them six and 
eight years before the county was organized. 

The building of the new high school building in Ober adds another 
link to the endless chain of improvements in Washington Township. 
This building is to cost nearly ten thousand dollare. In addition to this, 
all the brick in the old building and other material that can be used 
will be put into the new building, which will be heated with a furnace 
and lighted with electric lights. Those people should be congratulated 
upon their good fortune in being able to secure those improvements. 

Free rural mail service has been extended to all the farmers in the 
township, a thing never dreamed of by the oldest settlers, a thing that 
has come to stay with the people. Instead of those good people going 
once a week for their mail on foot or hoi-seback and sometimes with 
ox cart once a week, the fast and powerful automobile goes at lightning 
speed, delivering the mail to the farmers every day. In some instances 
before the stamps are dry upon the envelopes, the mail is in the hands 
of the farmer at his door. 

L. B. Cocheuour was elected trustee of this township at the November 
election in 1908, and will have served six yeai-s the 1st of January, 1915, 
when his successor will assume the duties of that office. 

'Mr. Cochenour has well and truly filled that very important office 
during his incumbency and should the people be successful iu electing 
a man to take his place that will look after the interest of all branches 
of the township as he has done, they can be assured that the money 
of the township will be expended in a judicious and honorable way, 
thus keeping up the business interest of that township from the smallest 
item to the gi-eatest obligation imposed upon him. 

Tnie, this township has met with many reverses and hardship expe- 
rienced by her first settlers. While this township had perhaps more 
sand-ridges within its borders, with those Indian trails extending from 
one grove of timber to another, yet the soil was not as inviting as some 
other parts of the county, hence a slow improvement for several years. 
But Washington Township can now claim her reward over the privations 
and heartaches which she experienced iu years gone by. 

Oregon Township 

Oregon Township lies in the northeast comer of Starke County and 
is also six miles square, and this township with her beautiful lake, her 
many miles of gravel roads, her schoolhouses and her wonderful farms 
dotted all over the country brings Oregon \rithin the notice of all who 
are seeking new homes, as it is one of the best townships for farm land 
iu the county. 

It was in this township that the great and noted "Robbins Ditch" 
started and runs nearly through the whole township. It has become an 
outlet for many miles of smaller ditches to empty into, leading into it 
from both sides, and, as we said before, reclaiming hundreds of acres 


of land and bringing them into market, which places this township 
second to none for farm lauds in the county. 

Oregon Township has not as yet adopted the centralized system of 
schools although they have a tine school at Grovertown. They have, as 
well, good schools all over the township and have the school wagons to 
haul the children to and from school, giving all a chance to attend 
school without walking, as the children had to do before this wonderful 
provision was made for the accommodation of the school children of 
country districts. 

The acres upon acres of onions raised every year in this township 
have been the means of giving employment to a great many people. A 
new station located in section 4 named Garden City was established from 
a matter of necessity as car load after car load of onions are shipped 
from that station every year. The onions are raised upon some of the 
land that the Government surveyore mentioned in their reports as being 
' ' lost to the world, ' ' as they appeared to be at that time. 

John Nelson, the present township trustee serving the people of his 
township for nearly six years, has made a good trustee as all the people 
of that township will admit, trying at all times to look after the wants 
of all who are worthy of that notice. He has done well for the people 
in using the money entrusted to him in a safe and honorable way as is 
shown by the improvements he has made and the management of the 
schools in that township. 

California Township 

California Township is in the southern part of the county and joins 
North Bend Township on the west. 

This to\\Taship, like the rest, has gone through many wonderful 
changes since the wild Indians left it and the white man became monarch 
of all he surveyed. 

The gravel roads that have been and are being constructed, with her 
brand new schoolhouses recently built in place of the old ones, together 
^\ith the ditching that has been well looked after and the farmers who 
have made it a point to show to the world that they can raise anything 
here that they can raise any place, have brought California Township 
out of the mire and placed her upon a pedestal where she can be viewed 
from a standpoint of a first-class township. 

This township has several fine gravel beds from which many of the 
roads are constructed, especially in that part of the county. Perhaps no 
township in Starke County gives more attention to farming than this 
township and the raising of onions is no small matter here, as many 
acres are put out each year. The profits are usually considerable, 
although this crop or, the prices rather, is some years very discouraging. 

The subject of sheep raising in Starke County is very limited, not 
many farmers giving any attention to this particular line. This town- 
ship (California Township) has some very creditable flocks of sheep, 
but they are very scarce compared with sheep raising in other parts of 
the state. Just why sheep raising is so much neglected is hard to con- 



ceive as the pasture and water privileges are certainly as good here as 
in other counties of the state. 

Six years ago Lewis Raschka was elected township trustee of this 
township and has served the people with credit to them and with honor 
to himself, having the great responsibility in having to build nearly a 
full set of schoolhouses for the township, which are all brick except one 
that was built before he assumed the duties of that ofifiee. Conducting 
the office honestly and faithfully, he goes out of office the 1st day of 
January, 1915, with a feeling that he has done well for the township 
and the people will have no cause to regret that they elected him six 
years ago. 

Center Township 

Center Township, which contains the county seat, a place where all 
the citizens visit at least once a year from the other ends of the county, 
is a township well worthy of all she contains. 

Center Township IIkui School 

The noted and much spoken of ypllnvif T?ivpr r,v Elsbree Ditch, which 
borders Knox on the north, besides aU the other ditches and her stone and 
gravel roads, bring this township within the notice of all who are seek- 
ing new homes. 

The very beautiful and magnificent brick centralized school building 
located in section 21 is intended to accommodate the whole township out- 
side the incorporated Town of Knox. The school children are hauled to 
and from school in enclosed wagons made and provided for that purpose. 

This township elected George Rogers for their township trustee at 
the November election in 1908. He has served the people well and has 
made a good trustee as the administration of office will indicate, having 
worked to the best interest of the township in looking after the ditches, 
the roads, the schools and all other duties requiring his attention, and 
no one has ever regretted voting for George Rogers for trustee. 


It should not be lost sight of that this township has so far advanced 
in her agricultural pursuits that the wonderful crops raised by our 
fanners have caused the price in land to advance to a good round price. 
Since the land has been ditched and drained, all those changes so common 
everywhere have been brought about and raised not only the price of 
land and yield of crops but also the general standards of living and 
community institutions. 

"Wayne Township 

Wayne Township is six miles square and lies on the south side of 
the county. This township is one of the most progressive townships in 
Starke County. Nothing has ever come up yet to block the efforts 
made by those people to make of WajTie Township one of the best, if not 
the best township in the county, as anyone can see from the mile after 
mile of gravel roads within the boundaries of that township and the 
miles of ditching, both dredge and shovel ditches, that have been con- 
structed in the last twenty or thirty years, which fully demonstrates the 
idea that those farmers know what to do to enhance the value of their 
lauds and bring them good returns at the same time. 

The good and comfortable schoolhouses within a reasonable distance 
of every home have helped greatly in making Wayne Township what 
she is today. 

This township has a large foreign population, a people well woi'thy 
of the choice they made in locating in Wayne Township, and are citizens 
both industrious and kind in all their dealings with their neighbors, ever 
ready to do each other an act of kindness. 

Benjamin Weninger has served the people of this township as 
trustee for six years and has done it well too. No one has ever had 
occasion to regret that he cast his vote at that November election in 
1908 for Ben, who has conducted the affairs of that office in a manner 
that speaks well for him in managing all the affairs of the office, look- 
ing after the ditches, the roads and the schools, never neglecting any- 
thing pertaining to the township. 

Rail Road Township 

Rail Road Township, named as it is from having the first railroad 
in the county, has made great strides in her advancement since the 
organization of the county. 

It too has many miles of ditches, mostly constructed with dredges, 
and a wonderful amount of gravel roads, together with fine commodious 
schoolhouses. The first-class set of farmers, who know full well how to 
till the soil, have made this township well worthy of the notice of all 
the county and surrounding country. 

This township, like her sister towaiship on the east, is peopled with 
a class of farmers that have brought this township up from a wet and 
almost worthless class of land to its present valuable condition. In this 


towuship we find some of the fiuest farms iu the couuty, a thing brought 
about by the class of citizeus fouud iu this towuship, all workiug to the 
interest of each other, which is the way to make the farmer happy and 
prosperous, and ere he should pass away he will have accomplished 
something that future generations can look upon with pride and emulate 
with advantage. 

Electing Owen Daily for township trustee was a thing well done by 
the voters of this towuship at the election of six years ago. Big of body 
as well as heart, he has endeavored at all times to administer the affairs 
of the ofSce in such a manner that he will not regret or the people will 
be ashamed of. He has looked well to the interest of all the duties 
required of him in the township. 

Davis Township 

Now as to Davis Towuship, which was in years gone by considered 
a worthless swamp, the process of ditching and draining the marshes, 
together with her great amount of gi-avel roads, her fine public schools, 
her wonderful improvements in farming, have made of this township a 
garden spot of the whole world, known by the magnificent corn and 
wheat crops together with her acres and acres of onions raised each 
year. This has raised the price of those farms far above the expecta- 
tions of all who kuow them. 

From the eastern boundary of the township to the Kankakee River 
we find farms today of great magnitude covered over with a wonderful 
crop of golden grain as far as the eye can reach, new farms and 
farm houses with large and commodious barns, corn cribs and silos 
springing up, thus adding to the taxable properties of the township and 
showing to her class of citizeus a truth that "where there is a will 
there is a way" to improve and bring those lands into use that have 
lain so long unbroken and unimproved. Thus the good work of the 
agi-icultm-e is carried on iu this township to the credit of all her 

No one has served his township better than George "Weissert has 
served Davis Township as trustee during the last six years nearly past. 
The affairs of that very important office have been well conducted in 
all the several branches of the township and when he turns the office 
over to his successor on the 1st of January, 1915, he will leave the office 
with a conscience that he has done his duty and served the people who 
elected him in such a manner that no one can regi'et that he voted for 
George Weissert for trustee of that township. 

Jackson Township 

Jackson Township, the smallest of all the -townships in the county, 
lies immediately west of Center Township and is composed largely of 
prairie land bordering upon the Kankakee River, but it has made a 
wonderful amount of improvement since the Kankakee River has been 


dredged. The Yellow River, as we have spoken of before, has been 
dredged tlirough this towuship but on aceouut of its filling in by silt and 
saud and logs coming down stream from the east, the dredging has not 
as yet proved as profitable in this township as it has farther up stream. 
But a great deal of good has been done and if the present plans are 
carried out as contemplated, there is no doubt but what Jackson Town- 
ship will hold her owti with any towmship in Starke County. A plan 
is proposed by which the Yellow River is to be diked and re-ditched so 
as to prevent the water from overflowing tlie land on either side of 
that stream, carrying the water direct into the Kankakee River, which is 
also to be levied on each side for several miles down stream. This accom- 
plished will uo doubt result in a complete reclamation of the Kankakee 
and Yellow River valleys. 

The cost of all this is to be borne by the lands affected, a cost, of 
course, that will represent many thousand dollars, but will so bring 
back the returns a hundredfold to all those who have to bear the burden 
of the expense. An act of the Legislature or an amendment to our 
drainage laws may be neeessaiy to carry out this work, but that is a 
matter that will solicit the attention of those concerned. 

This township has not been neglected in the way of schools and 
schoolhouses and we also find some of the best gravel roads in this town- 
ship that have been constructed under the gravel road laws of Indiana, 
and they are still making more in order that Jackson Township can 
keep her place with the best improvements in the county. 

The wild hay marshes are fast giving way to the raising of tame 
hay. Many acres in that township are adapted to that industiy. 

When the people elected Benjamin Flieshman trustee of Jackson 
Tow^lship they made no mistake in their choice as he has looked after 
the business in his township for the last six years in a manner that 
gives him credit and gives at the same time a safe and economic admin- 
istration of all the duties imposed upon a trustee of his township. 
When he hands the office over to his successor on the first of the year he 
can do so with the assurance that he has used his best endeavors to 
conduct all things in his office to the best and most economical interest 
of the people of his township 


Knox, the county seat of Starke County, was surveyed and laid out 
in the year of 1851 and is located on the south bank of Yellow' River 
in the northeast quarter of section 22, township 33 north, range 2 west 
(Center Township), and at this time (1914) contains two thousand 
inhabitants in round numbers. There has been a slow but sure increase 
since its organization owing to the fact that it had no railroad until 

.St.uckl ( ulnty Courthouse, Knox 

the year 1882, when the New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad was 
built through the county. Then the town began to grow and make some 
progress. The C. I. & S. R. R. was built through in the year of 1886, 
which naturally boomed the town to some extent, until we now have a 
fine Bedford stone courthouse erected in 1898 at a cost of $130,000 and 
several miles of brick streets and also several gravel streets within the 
corporate limits of the towai. 



Railro.vds of Starke County 

Those railroads mentioned above were not the first railroads built 
in the county. The old Louisville, New Albany & Chicago was the first 
railroad built through the county and runs north and south through the 
west part of the county. Situated upon this railroad is the Town of San 
Pierre, formerly called Culvertown. This railroad was built in the year 
1852 and Culvertown was the nearest railroad station to Knox and, in 
fact, the only railroad station in the county, until the construction of 
the P., F. W. & C. R. R. which was built in the year of 1856. This road, 
too, missed the county seat and left Knox six miles to the south. 

Then soon after came the building of the P. C. C. & St. L. Raih'oad, 
which too, like the others mentioned, missed the county seat to the west 
about ten miles. Then came the building of the C. & E. Railroad in the 
same year that the N. Y. C. & St. L. Railroad was built through Knox, 
but it too like the others mentioned missed the county seat by ten miles 
and ran south of Knox and headed for Chicago. The building of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad was in the year 1896. This also passes clear 
through the county but runs through the southern part of the county, 
also missing the county seat. This gives us seven railroads through 
Starke County, two of which go through Knox, the most of them being 
double tracked, making it quite convenient for the traveling public so 
far as railroads are concerned, a thing entirely unknown and undreamed 
of by the first settlers of the county. What a difference in the mode 
and manner of traveling today from what it was in the early days of 
Starke County! 

Knox with her railroads, telephones, electric lights, water system and 
sewerage, is keeping pace with the times. Notwithstanding all that we 
have missed in the way of railroads in the county seat, we have with 
the two railroads running through the town a handsome and pleasant 
town to live in, a tovm where we can purchase anything from a cambric 
needle to an automobile or threshing machine. 

Municipal Progress 

Knox is a healthy town, being possessed of as fine water as can be 
found anywhere, and lies on an inclined sandy soil fifteen feet above 
the water level of Yellow River. 

The first telegraph office in Knox was estalalished with the building 
of the New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad in the year of 1882. 

Telephones were inti-oduced for the first time in Knox in the year of 
1898, and although it was a rather weak affair it has grown to its 
present magnificent proportions. It is now so the people can talk to 
each other from the farms as well as the town people, a thing not knovra 
or thought of by the early settlers of the county. 

The electric lighting system was established in the year 1895— 
another wonderful improvement over the old-fashioned tallow candle 
used in our boyhood days. We have an electric light plant here, but 


we are now getting our current from Plymouth, Indiana, wliich makes it 
cheaper for the patrons who use it. The old plant here will be kept in 
readiness so that if anything should happen to the Plymouth line we 
will have the use of the electric lights at all times just the same. 

Speaking of the modern improvements of Knox it should not be 
overlooked that we have a sewer system completed during the year of 
1913 at a cost of $21,000 which adds gi'eatly to the development of the 
town and a great thing to the citizens in the way of convenience and 
health of the city from a sanitary standpoint. 

Thus it is that all modem improvements must come sooner or later 
to any town that has the pride to keep on the forward march to better 
and more useful improvements. 

Brick paving has not been turned down in Knox, for since we paved 
the first streets in 1892 we are stiU keeping in sight of that vei-y 
important improvement, having just completed the paving of Main 
Street (1914) from Deleware Street to the south line of the corpora- 
tion, making that one of the best streets in the town. North Main Street, 
Water Street and part of Mound Street and Heaton Street were paved 
in 1913, together with the pavement made on all four sides of the public 
square and Main Street from Water Street to the south line of the cor- 
poration. All of which gives the town an air of beauty and business- 
like appearance, due to an enterprising town wherever j'ou see those 
improvements going on. Cement sidewalks are a common thing, but you 
will observe that with the exception of a few board walks we had braved 
the deep sand and dirt streets for many years gone before. 

Another great improvement in Knox is her water system, established 
in the year 1909, which adds gr-eatly to the convenience of all who take 
water, as it affords water for lawns as well as house use, demonstrating 
the fact that the good people of Knox see the advantage of those 
improvements as well as her neighboring towns and cities. 

This water system was installed at an expense of about eighteen 
or twenty thousand dollars and accommodates a greater part of the 
town. The people li\'ing outside of the water zone are occasionally 
petitioning the town council to extend the water mains, gi^ang water 
privileges to some who had been without that very great advantage. 
In fact, it will be only a short time until the whole town will be in 
reach of water for house use as well as for lawn purposes. No town can 
boast of fine green lawns unless it has water privileges on account of the 
very dry seasons that are sure to occur. 

Knox has all the modern improvements that belong to other towns 
of its size and anyone purchasing property for the purpose of making 
this a home will find it to be equal in respect to all the facilities found 
in towns of even greater population. The people living in Knox are 
kind and neighborly, all living for each other's good, always ready and 
willing to do some act of kindness wherever it will do the most good to 
the greatest number of its inhabitants. 

It was in the year of 1898 that the corporate limits were extended, 
taking in all that part of sections 22 and 23 not already incorporated 


within the boundary liues of Knox, making the eorporatiou to now 
contain two square miles, one mile north and south by two miles east 
and west. This increased our population and gave us more revenue for 
taxes to keep up the school expenses of the town. 

No place in the county could have been chosen by those commis- 
sioners appointed in those cold and bleak days of perpetual hardship in 
the year of 1850 as better adapted to the purpose than the present site 
of the county seat. It is nearly centrally located in the county and 
extending to the south from Yellow^ River, which iims along its northern 
boundary covered over with oak timber and a sandy soil, the soil that 
predominates throughout most pai*ts of the county. 

Knox was incorporated in the year of 1871, just twenty years after 
it was surveyed and laid out and its officers have kept the wheels of 
business interest revolving around until we have at this time all the 
improvements of a modern town. The town officers are found on another 
page as well as the officers for North Judson and Hamlet. 

We have in Knox some fine buildings, dwellings, business houses, 
courthouse, jail and sheriif' s residence, churches and schools that are 
hard to beat in a town of its size. 

The first buildings put up in Knox were of rude construction, similar 
to the former buildings built by our pioneers who chose to locate in the 
country (or swamp) at that time, but as advancement proceeded thus 
came better and bigger buildings until we have a town for which we 
should all feel justly proud, which would appeal moi-e closely to those 
now living who saw and experienced the pioneer days and early settle- 
ment of the county soon after its organization. 

Pine brick business houses and hotels and residences dot the town 
all over and more being built each year. The Fitz Hotel was opened up 
in the year 1895 by Joseph Fitz, who built and still owtis the building, 
which is now leased by Messrs. Bogan and Andres, who run it on the 
principle of a first-class hotel. This hotel is provided with all the 
modem improvements and is patronized to its full capacity, being 
favorably located on Main Street near the track of the N. Y., C. & St. 
L. Railroad, wdth paved streets and cement sidewalks adding to its attrac- 
tions as a comfortable place for the traveling public. It was during 
this year (1914) that a new addition was built to this hotel, making 
more room to accommodate the many guests that stop at this house. 

The Fay Hotel situated on the southeast comer of Pearl and Wash- 
ington streets is a fine brick building, built in the year 1895. It, too, 
is a place well worthy of being patronized and its genial proprietor, 
T. J. Fay, is ever ready to wait upon his customers and willing to do 
all he can to make them feel contented and happy while they are stop- 
ping with him. Near the courthouse makes it convenient for patronage, 
which it merits everj- day in the week. 

The first hotels built in Knox have long since given way to our new 
and modern hotels just spoken of, just like the old citizens who have to 
give room for the rising generations to take their places to control and 
conduct the business started by them when they too were young and 


The Press 

The first newspaper ever published in the county was called the 
Starke County Press, which was established by Joseph A. Berry in Knox 
in the year 1861, and after passing through several hands, is now owned 
and published by Henry P. Schricker under the name of the Starke 
County Democrat, which has a wide circulation and is published on 
Wednesday of each week. 

The Starke Coiinty Republican is also another weekly paper pub- 
lished in Knox by John L. Moorman. This too has a large patronage. 
Mr. Moormau has been the editor and publisher of this paper for several 
years, having bought the plant in the year 1898, and is comfortably 
located in his own building on south side of Lake Street. This paper is 
published on Thursday of each week. 


The first Methodist Church was built at Knox in the year 1856 and 
Elder Munson was the first Methodist minister to preach from that 
pulpit. It has only been a few months that the Methodists dedicated 
their present new and magnificent church building which was con- 
structed at a total cost of $12,000 and stands as a monument to the 
energetic efiiorts of the pastor and members and people of the town and 
vicinity who so liberally contributed toward the building of this fine 
church building. With the electric lights and with steam heat, finished 
with all the design imaginable the Methodist Episcopal Church is a 
building which marks the energies and law abiding and religious citizen 
of this town. 

The present Christian Church was built about ten years ago and is 
located on the southwest corner of Delaware and Pearl streets and has 
a good membei'ship. This building is constructed of cement blocks and 
has a basement all of which is finished off in a neat and workmanlike 
manner with a heating plant and pipe organ, the only pipe organ in the 
county. Much credit is due to the pastor and church board for the 
building of this neat and commodious building, standing erect and ever 
a monument to those who so liberally contributed toward the building 
where the Christian denomination can meet and worship in their ovm 
house and also hold their weekly Sunday School for the benefit of all 
who attend the same, which is conducted by competent instructors. 

The Roman Catholics have their own building, a neat little bi'iek 
church on the north side of Washington Street about three blocks east 
of the courthouse. Situated upon a good gravel street and surrounded 
by a good neighborhood it is well patronized at their services as is also 
their Sunday School. This building was first built by the St. Paul's 
Evangelical Church, but later sold to the Roman Catholic denomination, 
who, as every other class of church workers, can meet in their own 
building both for public worship and Sunday School. Those people 
make it a point to attend strictly to their own business, never interfering 


with their neighbors, but coining and going always with a smile for 
those that deserve it and rather do an act of kindness whenever occasion 
requires it. 

The Free Methodist Church located on the southwest corner of Dela- 
ware and Main streets is well patronized and has excellent preachers, 
also has a full attendance at their Sunday School, which speaks well 
for those faithful workers in their church, always giving a helping hand 
to those that are needy. Their membership is something like forty but 
increasing as time rolls on. No class of Christian workers are more sin- 
cere in their belief than is the Free Methodist, always preaching and 
practicing what they conscientiously believe to be right at all times and 
on all occasions. 

The Latter-Day Saints 'also have their own church building here, 
located on the east side of Heaton Street, which has a fairly good 
number of members, and they hold their meetings sometimes every week 
and sometimes when their preacher is most convenient to participate in 
the meetings. They are a kind and good people and are very con- 
scientious in their belief. 

There are other classes of religious societies in Knox, as the Seventh- 
Day Adventists and some known as the Church of God, some Evangelists 
and Baptists and a few others not here mentioned but they have no 
church building of their own, holding their meetings in rented rooms 
or halls, ])ut working faithfully in the class that they hold to be right, all 
serving God according to the dictates of their own conscience. 

Che Mah 

The smallest man in the world lives in Knox. His name is Che Mah. 
He was born in China in the month of April in 1838, which makes him 
at the present time seventy-six years old. He only weighs forty pounds, 
he measures just twenty-eight inches high. He landed in the United 
States in 1881, being at that time forty-three years old. Mr. Mah has 
traveled quite extensively through this coiintry and before leaving the old 
country he appeared in person before all the crowned heads of Europe. 
He is married and lives on East Washington Street in Knox and owns 
considerable property here and is considered perfectly reliable, and 
is fair and honest in all his dealings and is highly respected by all who 
know him. 

A comparison of Mr. Mah with other small people of the world would 
perhaps be of some interest to those who read of this "little man." Tom 
Thumb was thirty-one inches high. He was bom in New York in the 
year of 1837. Mrs. Tom Thumb measured thirty-two inches in height. 
She was also born in New York in the year 1842. 

This fully demonstrates the fact that Che Mah is the smallest man 
in the woi-ld. Living peaceably with his neighbors and believing that 
honesty is the best policy is the universal aim of Mr. Che Mah. 


Business and Professions 

Real estate men are a common as well as a very useful thing in all 
towns, and Knox is very fortunate in having several to her credit, as the 
names below will indicate : Dukes, Silverman, Dr. S. I. Brown, Charles 
Laramoi'e, A. L. McKinney, Charles Lundin, William P. Fletcher, and 
some others who look after those wishing to buy or sell always with an 
aim of bettering their conditions. 

How natural it is for the human family to keep moving from place 
to place seeking new fields of adventure, but such is life, all of which is 
to the interest of the real estate agent who of course is always willing 
and interested in trying to better your conditiou. 

Main Street, Looking South, Knox 

Insurance is a thing we should all look after, as a loss by fire 
much to the owner. Your property should at all times be insured. We 
have a number of agents in town, so all can be served in that line, thus 
protecting ourselves from loss by fire should we be unfortunate in having 
a call of that kind. The following is a list of the insurance agents: 
Harry E. Johnson, Herbert R. Koffel, Henry C. Rogers, James C. 
Fletcher, Joseph N. McCormick, Charles Laramore, J. G. Kratli, Charles 
S. Luudin, Harry Hays, Robert D. Peters, A. W. Swartzell, Newtson 

The following is a list of the practicing jihysieiaus : Dr. D. 0. White, 
Dr. Harry Bell, Dr. W. C. Schwier, Dr. S. I. Brown with Dr. H. S. 
Stoddard, dentist, and Dr. George F. Brand, dentist. 

The practicing attorneys are Charles H. Peters, James C. Fletcher, 
Charles S. Lundin, Robert D. Peters, Thomas Hurley, Henry R. Robins, 
William J. Reed, Chester Pentecost, E. L. Magruder. 

The prominent lodges, church clubs and societies in Knox are Masons, 
Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Modem Woodmen of America, Mac- 
cabees, Royal Neighbors of America, Lady Rebekahs, Lady Maccabees, 
the Grand Army Post, the P. E. 0. Society, Ladies Aid Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, the Ladies Aid Society of the Christian 
Church, the Ladies and Pastors Union of the Methodist Episcopal 


Church, the Book Club, the Whist Club, and Literary clubs, the Epworth 
League and the Christian Endeavor are the two young people's religious 
societies. Those organizations reflect much credit upon the people of 

It was in the year of 1852 that Prof. John Russel had this to say 
while addressing a large and highly intellectual meeting : ' ' Long before 
the period of written history, there existed an order of men, known oidy 
to the initiated. It is the oldest human society in existence. The dim 
twilight of the early ages rested upon its broad arch, yet through every 
period of its existence has it been the agent of onward progress." 

While it is true yet some may question the statements as to the age 
of societies, nevertheless some are modern, some very old. Away back 
during the pioneer daj's the people never forgot their home and its 
associations in the old world, and of course how natural for them to 
organize lodges, clubs, societies, schools, churches, Sunday schools and 
other associations, temperance societies, agricultural societies, reading 
circles, study clubs, all of which came about from a natural inclination, 
established in the minds of the people long before their advent into the 
new world. 

In summing up the location, the membership, the number of persons 
that belong to the religious denominations, their location and their life 
it would be well to quote what Mr. Ball says concerning his views as pub- 
lished by him in his "Review" of Noi'thwestern Indiana: "Some of 
the denominations have succeeded much more than others, in maintain- 
ing church life and in securing a fair amount of growth. The real good 
accomplished cannot be estimated by any standard or measurements 
known in this world. Some churches die and some live. As it is with 
man, so it is with organizations, who can tell what is really failure and 
what is success? In the realm of the moral and spiritual, neither wealth 
nor numbers can be a sure criterion by which to determine what God at 
last will call success. From the words 'well done' when written by 
the great Judge there will be no appeal." 

Prom the above it will be seen that long ages ago societies existed in 
the old world and would it not be natural that those things would 
exist at the present time? 

All societies are based upon the one thought and principle, that is 
to do some good in this world, that when all things here shall cease to 
exist, there shall be a compensation eternal beyond the star-lit heavens 
for all who are deserving of it. 

Elevators, Onion Storage Houses and Lumber 

Knox has a grain elevator situated on the line of the C. I. & S. Rail- 
road near the depot. Since 1910 it has been owned and controlled by 
Guy M. Wells, who buys up all the corn, wheat, oats and other kinds of 
grain from the farmers, always giving them the full benefit of the best 
prices obtainable anywhere. Mr. Wells, by his honesty of purpose and 
square dealing, has established a fine trade in that line. He keeps suffi- 


cient help at the elevator at all times to wait upon those that bring 
their crops to him. 

He is a young man who lives among us and owns considerable prop- 
erty in the town and is entitled to a good patronage. He has a coal 
yard at which he has for sale a large quantity of both hard and soft 
coal which he delivers to any part of town for his customers, at a fair 
and reasonable price. Mr. Wells opened up this coal yard in 1905. 

Mr. Wells also owns a large onion storage house, which he built 
during the year 1912. This building is situated on the C. I. & S. Rail- 
road, west of the depot, where he stores many hundred bushels of onions 
and holds them until the price advances. He will then ship them by 
the car-load to the best markets. He also lets to the fanners space in 
his storage building where they can store their onions at a nominal 
cost, which saves the farmers the unnecessary expense of building a 
storage house of their own. This is a large building, said to hold 
30,000 bushels of onions at one time. 

You can form some idea of the magnitude of the onion raising in the 
county when in all little towns you can see large onion storage houses 
like those in Kuox, and several in the country. Besides Mr. Wells' 
storage house there are others, among which is the Horvitz Brothers' 
onion storage house, situated on the line of the C. I. & S. Railroad near 
the depot, which Mr. Horvitz says will hold 20,000 bushels of onions. 

The Horvitz Brothei-s came from Chicago and built this building 
in the year 1912, and they too have a good patronage. Buj-ing and 
shipping as well as storing keep them busy. 

Then there is, located on the line of the C. I. & S. Railroad imme- 
diately west of Mr. Wells' storage house," another storage house built in 
the same year of something near the size of Mr. Wells' building. That 
too is doing a good business in the onion trade. All the onion raisers 
give employment to many persons that are needy and the money they 
receive from this source is a gi'eat benefit to them. 

Then there is that ever wide-awake man, Rudolph R. Kline, who is a 
great raiser of onions and has several buildings here and at ToTo or Rye 
and at or near Lena Park. He is constantly on the move, looking to the 
raising, the storing and the shipping, as the seasons and the prices will 
admit. Many persons have been employed to work in the onion fields 
for those people from the time they begin to prepare the ground for the 
crops in the spring until the onions are aU harvested in the fall, and the 
crops are either shipped or housed in the big buildings built and pre- 
pared for that purpose. Ralph Kline, a son of R. D. Kline, is actively 
engaged in the same business with his father. 

It has only been just a few years since the raising of onions has 
been carried on so extensively in this county. However, the prices vary 
greatly during the different seasons. Sometimes, as I have said before 
in speaking of the onion raising, they would bring a good price and some 
.seasons the price would be very low. The prices for 1912 were very poor 
and the prices for 1913 were certainly very encouraging. Then in the 


year 1914 the prices were anything but good, but we all have to learn 
we must meet those conditions as they come. 

Since speaking of Mr. Wells' coal yard I will just say here that the 
Long & Thompson coal business is carried on quite extensivel\- in con- 
nection with their lumber yard. 

Those gentlemen have a good trade in both branches of their busi- 
ness, delivering coal and lumber to all parts of the town, besides what 
they sell to the country trade — all of which convinces anyone that they 
are doing a good business in their line. 

This lumber yard was owned and controlled by William Bollman 
several years ago. This was the first lumber yard established in Knox 
of any consequence. Mr. Bollman, after running it for some time, sold 
it to S. C. Close, who in the year of 1902 sold it to Mr. John W. Long, 
and in 1912 Mr. Bert Thompson purchased a half interest in the busi- 
ness, which has continued to grow and increase in business at the 
old stand. 

Another onion storage is located on the line of the New York, St. 
Louis & Chicago Railroad, east of the depot. It is owned by Rogei-s 
& Harter, where they have been storing their onions each year. It is a 
feature of good judgment and success to see the interest those people 
take in the industry that usually pays so well. Now the onion raising 
is not all, for some of those men have been dividing their business by 
raising potatoes and also giving part of their time to raising peppermint, 
which is grown in great quantities in some parts of the county. Some 
of those farms are provided with stills where the oil is made from the 
mint. A few miles east of Knox there are several extensive fields of this 
mint raised each year, also in the neighborhood of Bass Lake and Lena 
Park, where it is grown in large quantities. Several parties that raised 
it in small quantities during the last year are planning to go into it 
more extensively during the coming year. 

The grist mill that was built here in 1898 and owned by Mr. William 
Guyatt was sold by him to Mr. Porlick, who o\\Tied it a sliort time until 
it burned do^^^J. in 1914. The elevator owned by him also burned 
with the mill. This was a great loss to Mr. Forlick and also to the 
town in having to lose so valuable an enterprise as this mill and elevator 
was to the community. 

The Knox Metal Wheel Company, an enterprise that was carried on 
so extensively, is closed down for the time, but it is said to be closed 
temporarily, with the view of opening up and continuing the manu- 
facture. That it will do so is the sincere hope of all the citizens of 

Knox Postofpice 

The postoffice in Knox is located in a room in the Fitz Block on the 
west side of Main Street and is veiy convenient for the patrons of that 

Willis P. MeCormick is the postmaster, with his assistants Miss Agnes 


Laramore and Constance Stephens, the office is well cared for, being in 
good and safe hands, all of whom administer the affairs of the office in a 
business-like manner, courteous and obliging, always ready to wait upon 
the patrons of the office. 

This office was raised from a fourth-class office to a presidential 
office in the year of 1896, during the time that Joseph J. Cannon was 
postmaster. In February, 1912, during Mr. Charles Laramore 's incum- 
bency in that office it was made a postal savings depository. 

There are four free rural routes out of Knox. The mail carriers go 
every day except Sunday over those routes delivering the mail to the 
farmers at their doors. The mail is conveyed in wagons made suitable 
for that purpose, being enclosed to protect the earners from the 
inclement weather, which is the worst during the cold and frozen days 
of our long winters. Some of the carriers use automobiles, which can 
now be used quite successfully as we have good gi-avel roads on most of 
the mail routes. 

The rural mail carriers upou those routes are : No. 1, Perry Rogers; 
No. 2, Schuyler L. Fletcher; No. 3, Bert Lundin; No. 4, Harry Wallace. 

Each one of those carriers have some twenty-five or thirty miles in 
distance in their routes and the way they deliver the mail to the farmers 
is worthy of the praise and admiration of all the patrons that they have 
to deal with. 

Knox has the following classes of business, occupations, professions 
and institutions : Lawj'ers, doctors, dentists, schools, churches, garages, 
liveries, restaurants, drygood stores, clothing stores, hardware stores, 
millinery stores, tailor shops, stenographers, blacksmith shops, milk sta- 
tions, shoe sliops, notion stores, printing offices, cigar factories, fire 
station, harness shops, gi-ist mill, lumber yard, town hall, ministers, 
school teachers, janitors, delivery wagons, transfer wagons, steam 
laundry, insurance agents, dress makers, plumbers, barber shops, ab- 
stractors, saloons, metal wheel factory, cement block factory, lodges, 
telephone exchange, paper hangei-s, brick masons, carpenters, plasterers, 
painters, depots, railroads, hotels, banks, coal yards, public halls, gi-ocery 
stores, furniture stores, postoffice, paved streets, gravel streets, water 
plant, electric plant, sewer system, milk wagons, express companies, 
merchants, drug stores, bakeries, real estate agents, opera house, second- 
hand store, loan agents, pickle factories, onion storages, oil station, 
elevators, teamsters, telegraphs, contractors, courthouse, .jail and sheriff 
residence, preachers, teachers, musicians, societies, ball club, printers, 
weavers, tinners, drays, fire company and draymen. 



North Judson 

North Judson, laid out in 1866, is located in Wayne Township and 
has at this time about sixteen hundred inhabitants. It has an incor- 
porated area of 2,000 acres. It has four railroads running through it — 
the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, the Chicago & 
Erie Railroad, the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, and the Chicago, Indiana 
& Southern Railroad, two of which are double tracked, and arrangements 
are being made to double track the other two roads. This makes North 

City Hall, North Judson 

Judson the railroad town of the county, a thing of which those good 
people may feel justly proud. They also have some as fine buildings as 
you see in any town of even greater population. Masonic Temple, brick 
business houses, churches, school building and fine dwellings ^^^th brick 
streets — all of which goes to show that North Judson is going to do her 
part in keeping up with the standard of improvements, thus making it 
one of the most comfortable towns to live in within the boundaries of 
Starke County. 

The town was incorporated in the year 1888 and has a fine set of 
town officials, always and ever ready to cast their votes for any and 



everything that will better the conditions of things both public and 
private. The North Judson News published by Chester A. McConnick 
has been an instrument well conducted in the interest of all the citizens 
of the town and surrounding country, ever advocating all questions for 
the betterment of the town which he so ably represents. No town in 
the western part of the state gives more attention to the improvement 
of streets and cement sidewalks than does North Judson. There are 
a great many Catholics in the town, demonsti-ated by the fine Catholic 
church just erected in 1913. 

The Town Board of North Judson 

This board consists of the following persons: Trustees, Alfred A. 
Sphung, Joseph Dolezall, Jacob F. Manz; clerk, Charles Hankey; 
treasurer, Chris Neupert; marshal, W. H. Kellerman ; town attorney, 
Simon Bybee. 

North Judson Postoffice 

Frank Vessely succeeded Charles Kuester as postmaster of North 
Judson in 1914, and with his deputy, G. W. Schricker, and Grace 
Vessely as assistants, the office is well conducted and none of the citizens 
will have any occasion to regi-et that Mr. Vessely was appointed as their 
postmaster. As long as the postmaster does his duty and conducts the 
office in a genteel and obliging way all the patrons of the town feel proud 
of him in that very important office. 

Business and Other Organizations 

The Farmers and Merchants State Bank of North Judson has these 
officers: Charles W. Weninger, president; Jacob F. Manz, vice presi- 
dent; Perry H. McCormick, cashier; and G. N. Peterson, assistant cashier. 

The Building and Loan Association of North Judson, Indiana, is a 
great benefit to the people in and around the town. The gentlemen 
having charge of that association are ever mindful of the fact that many 
people could not secure a home for themselves without the aid of some 
kind of advantage of this kind and those needing help can secure it of 
the association. The officers are Charles W. Weninger, president ; G. N. 
Peterson, secretary, and Perry H. McCormick, treasurer. 

North Judson Creamery. — I have said before that creameries have 
been established all over the coujitry, one of which is located in North 
Judson, and it is in the charge of Mr. Charles Hruska, the ever ready 
and efficient manager of that very important industry. It is surprising 
what a vast amount of butter is manufactured at this creamery, convinc- 
ing every one that the right man is in the right place and that the 
farmers can realize a good profit by selling their milk at the North 
Judson Creamery. It is located in a fine cement block building in the 
south part of town and was built in the year 1910. 


The lodges, both beneficiary and non-beneficiary, are located in all 
towns and North Judson has several to her credit, among which are the 
Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Maccabees, Modern Woodmen 
of America, the Royal Neighbors, auxiliary of the Woodmen, and the 
Rebekah Lodge, auxiliary of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and some others the names of which we did not obtain. 

North Judson has an industry said to be the only one in the United 
States and that is the turtle industry, which is controlled and managed 
by Alfred A. Sphung. He deals mostly with schools and colleges of 
the big cities and obtains good prices, and while Mr. Sphung is aiding 
those people commercially, he is of course helping himself financially. 

The North Judson Lumber Company established in that town and 
w^hich is so ably managed by Otto Kriss, was opened up for business in 
that name in the year 1910. It has been increased in size and dimen- 
sions from a small concern to a great big plant, keeping a big stock of 
lumber, lath, lime, shingles and everything usually to be found in a 
first-class lumber yard. 

The J. J. Urshell or J. W. Long Vitrified Brick Plant at North 
Judson is manufacturing a vitrified brick at the Sand Lime Brick 
Company 's old brick yards, that is complete in everything that the name 
vitrified brick means. This brick plant was located in North Judson 
several years ago, and the P. C. C. & St. L. Railroad built a spur track 
to the plant, and this factory after doing such a wonderful amount of 
business fell to pieces financially. Then Mr. Long and a few others 
took hold of it and have raised it to its present and profitable condition. 

There are a good number of business houses in North Judson, dry- 
good stores, groceries, millinery and notion stores, hardware stores, furni- 
ture stores, meat markets, clothing stores, shoe stores, hotels, restaurants, 
barber shops, theaters, blacksmith shops, automobile garage ,and various 
other kinds of business carried on in the town that gives North Judson 
the assurance that she is one of the best small towns in the state, with an 
energetic wide-awake people. 

The bank and the printing offices spoken of elsewhere are, too, 
institutions well conducted, and a great benefit to the town. 

North Judson, like all other towns of any size, has her practicing 
physicians, all doing as well financially as the good health of the town 
and vicinity will permit. The names are : Dr. Albert Fisher, Dr. P. 0. 
Englerth, who are always ready to visit the sick and administer to 
their wants all hours of the day and night. Both have a good practice 
and shall continue to do so while located in the Town of North Judson. 

Doctor Englerth was reared in the vicinity of North Judson and is 
well and favorably known to all the people in that vicinity, while Doctor 
Fisher has resided in North Judson .several years, and has become well 
acquainted with its citizens as well as the surrounding neighborhood and 
he can feel proud of the success he has met with since he located here. 

All towns of any importance have their lawyers, in all cases meting 
out justice to their patrons in giving good advice and at the proper time 
conducting the cases in their hands to the best interest of their clients. 



North Judson presents the names of Harry C. Miller and Simou Bybee 
as the lawyers of their town. Mr. Miller having been raised in this 
county is well known by the people, who have implicit confidence in him. 
Mr. Bybee is an old citizen of North Judson having a good patronage, 
which he has secured by his long and careful practice as a lawyer of 
North Judson. 

The Masonic Temple built during the year just closed was dedicated 
Saturday, November 7, 1914. This is a fine two-story brick building 
situated on the corner (or near the corner) of Talma Avenue and South 
Lane Street and will stand as a pride and pleasure for that part of the 
town, a home for the Masons of North Judson, a building that is a credit 
to any town. 

The town is soon to have an electric light system established. The 
poles are already up along the highways and as soon as the wires are 

View ox Lane Street, North Judson 

put in position then the town is to be lighted by an electric current from 
Plymouth, Indiana, the same as is furnished to Knox. 

They already have a plant at'that place but believe they can be better 
accommodated by the new arrangement, taking pattern from so many 
towns that are doing likewise. 


Grovertown lies in the northwestern part of Starke County, in section 
27, in Oregon Township and was laid out in the year 1858. 

The Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago Railroad runs through the vil- 
lage, which contains some two hundred inhabitants. 

Having good gravel roads running in all directions and a good farm- 
ing community around it, it is a convenient place to live in. They have 
some good buildings to their credit, among them a fine brick church, a 
fine brick high school building, several stores, a pickle factory, hotel. 


postoffice and a number of good dwellings which make up this little 
village, located among and surrounded by many good farms, placing the 
Town of Grovertown on the map of peace and plenty wliich those people 
so richly deserve. 


Hamlet was surveyed and laid out in the year 1863 and is situated 
on the crossing of the Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago Railroad, and 
the Chicago, Indiana «& Southern Railroad, lying partly in Davis Town- 
ship and partly in Oregon Township and contains about seven hundred 

This town is built upon a beautiful, level stretch of laud and con- 
tains some excellent buildings, churches, schoolhouse, town hall, elevators. 

SlUduL iU ll.lUM,, 11- 

stores, livery and dwellings that are a credit to any town. It was incor- 
porated in the year 1896 and its officers who look well to all interests 
have succeeded in building up a town that is said to be one of the best 
small towns in the state. 

This town is surrounded by some of the best lands in the state and 
the farmers raise the best of crops on those rich lands lying near the 
town, a fact which is demonstrated by the crop of grain that they market 
at the elevator in that town each year. 

No town in the state can produce more men to the size of the town 
than can Hamlet for business tact and skill in working out all the prob- 
lems that go to make up a well regulated town, a town well and truly 
admired for the comfortable and luxurious liomes that can be seen in 
this village, and a class of bankers, business men and agricultural and 
lumber dealers that represent the town so substantially. 


Business Interests 

The Dye Lumber Company of Hamlet is located near the Chicago, 
Indiana & Southern Depot and is doing a good business under the 
management of Wilbur Dye, who keeps on hand at all times lumber, 
lath, lime, shingles, paints, and any and all kinds of building material 
usually found in a tirst-class lumber yard. This is a thing very much 
appreciated by the people of Hamlet and the surrounding neighborhood, 
a place where the town people and the farmer can procure material 
for a building from the foundation to the peak of the roof. Besides, 
Mr. Dye has on hand all kinds of fencing, either barbed wire or woven 
wire fencing, farm tile and everything in his line and is always on 
hand to wait upon his many customers, giving them the advantage of the 
lowest prices obtainable anywhere. 

The town is provided with a number of good first-class stores, 
groceries, meat markets, hardware stores, drygood stores, millinery 
stores, drug stores, bank, elevators, barber shops, restaurants, liveries, 
garages, hotels, blacksmith shops, postoffice, express office, carpenters, 
brick masons, plumbers, painters, cement workers, milk wagons, dray- 
men, teamsters, paper hangers, railroads, depots, and rural mail carriers 
and others, all going to make up a neat and quiet village where you can 
live in peace and plenty all the days of your life, never regretting that 
you are one among the citizens of Hamlet. 

Then there is that ever smiling and good natured postmaster, Ira 
Compton, who is at his post of duty from early morning until late at 
night waiting on his customers and also making up the mail for the 
rural carriers, who are always on time to deliver the mail to the farmers 
at their doors. 

What an improvement this is! The Government looked well and 
acted wisely when they adopted the free rural mail service in our land. 
The carriers never miss a day but deliver their mail every day, giving 
the farmer his mail every twenty-four hours. Some of the carriers use 
automobiles, a thing made possible by the good gravel roads we have 
constructed all over the county in the last few years. It is a question of 
only a short time until all the mail carriers will use automobiles for 
carrying the mails, which can be done so much quicker and easier than 
by horse power. 

Then there are the elevators in Hamlet, where the farmers can haul 
their grain with those big auto trucks, as they have good gravel road to 
travel on. And the livery or auto garages can see the full benefit of this 
kind of travel and Hamlet is supplied with those up-to-date and modern 
improvements so characteristic of all up-to-date towns, Hamlet being 
one of that class. 

Everybody seems to be busy in Hamlet. The merchants' as well as 
all other business is carried on to its full capacity in this thriving little 
town, nothing neglected in the way of dispensing goods to the citizens 
of the town and surrounding neighborhood. This has always had the 


name of being a good trading point and to see the business done liere 
would convince anyone that the statement is true. 


Ora, which is another beautiful little town of some thi-ee hundred 
people, situated upon the Chicago & Erie Railroad in the southeastern 
part of the county, comes in too for its share of public enterprise. With 
her good business in the mercantile line there are a number of good 
buddings, dwellings, schoolhouses and other buildings that go to make 
up a town worthy of the patronage she receives at all times of the year. 
Situated as it is upon the Chicago & Erie Railroad and laid out in the 
year 1882, when that railroad was built through that neighborhood, the 
location has been a gi-eat benefit to that part of the county, giving the 
farmers an advantage iu shippiog their grain and stock to the first 
class markets of our country and also giving them a market for their 
produce which is bought up by the several merchants of that town. 

They have a pickling establishment that buys up all the cucumbers 
raised in the vicinity, giving the farmers a chance to market their 
products in that line, which naturally increases the volume of money 
of which the merchants no doubt receive their share, as the farmers 
spend their money with their home merchants, a thing which helps to 
improve the town in which they live. No town can improve without the 
wiLLing hands of her citizens working in the one common cause and this 
is what the beautiful little Town of Ora has done, nestled down among 
a baud of happy and industrious farmers, patronizing their home town. 
It is no wonder then that Ora is making so much progress in all her 

San Pierre 

San Pierre, laid out in 1854, now has about four hundred inhabitants. 
It is located on the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago ("Monou") Rail- 
road in the west part of the county. The Chicago, Indiana & Southern 
also runs through the town. This gives the town two railroads, one 
running north and south and the other east and west, thus giving the 
town and surrounding coiiutry ample railroad facilities. 

The town is well located on a level plain and has some handsome 
buildings in it. There is an effort at this time being made to incorporate 
the town, but it remains to be seen later whether this will be done. They 
have some fine buildings and have just let the contract for an addition 
to their high school building. The good people are wide awake to keep- 
ing pace with their sister to\vns. Owen Daily, the township trustee, 
backed up by the citizens of the town, is always ready to bring San 
Pierre to the front rank in educational interest. 



•With one accord they can say they have some of the finest farm land 
that can be found in the county, surrounding the town, which adds 
materially to the development of the town. With their elevators, their 
lumber yards, their churches and business houses, together with their 
residences built with an eye to beauty as well as durability, San Pierre 
is a pleasant and prosperous town to live in. 


Ober is situated in Washington Township, about five miles east of 
Knox and on the New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad. She, too, 
like her neighboring towns, is a very pleasant place to live in, with her 
fine school building, her churches, her neat and commodious dwelling 
houses, her up to date stores, her gravel roads and her enterprising 
business men, making this town well worthy of its place upon the 

Starke County map, a place surrounded by a good farming community, 
a place from which they ship carload after carload of onions, an 
industry so M^onderfully carried on all over the county. They are 
beginning to improve their sidewalks also with cement walks, which adds 
wonderfully to the appearance of any towTi, no difference how small it 
may be. It shows the same enterprising spirit found in other, even 
greater and more wealthy towns. 

They have a pickling station here too, that helps in a great measure 
to swell the revenue of the town, and the mint culture so extensively 
carried on adds to the business interest. This beautiful little town 
extends her hand of welcome to all who may come to locate in the 
town or vicinity, and this characteristic of Ober has had a great influence 
in building up the town. 

Connected with the Plymouth Lighting System they are furnished 
with an electric current that gives them the convenience of that great 
improvement over some of her neighboring towns, but it will not be long 


until each and every town, however small, will be lighted by electricity, 
as all those improvements are coming one after another to the benefit of 
the good people of Starke County. 


Toto, or Rye, as it is called by the raih-oad company, is a small 
station on the Chicago, Indiana & Southern ■Railroad, and is situated 
five miles southwest of Knox. It was here that the first postoffice was 
located and which has to the present time held faithfully to its name. 

This village does a wonderful amount of shipping. A great many 
carloads of onions are shipped from this station each year, as some 
of the greatest onion growers are engaged in the business at this place. 
Hay and coal are shipped in great quantities each year. They have 
several stores, a good school building, a church — all on the cross-roads, 
which is improved with gravel. Toto is worthy of notice by all who 
chance to go her way while traveling from town to town. Welcoming 
her to success in all she undertakes is the motto of all. 

English Lake 

English Lake, situated upon the south bank of the Kankakee River 
in Railroad Township, has two railroads. The Pittsburg, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & St. Louis Railroad and the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad 
run through this station. The town was located at the time of building 
the first named railroad. 

The little village has several business houses, and situated as it is 
in the Kankakee Valley has great opportunities for fishennen and 
others to visit this beautiful river. Its location among the fine hay 
fields of this valley makes that a very great industry, which is carried 
on to a great extent by the surrounding farmers. The hay is loaded 
upon the ears and shipped to the markets of the world, and brings 
good returns for those engaged in the business and greatly benefits 
the town. 

Nickel Plate or Brems 

Nickel Plate, or Brems Station, is located on the New York, Chicago 
& St. Louis Railroad at the west line of Center Township, and is an 
enterprising little town with store, postof&ce, school, grain elevator and 
other conveniences that go to make up a very handsome and commodious 
town to live in, suiTounded by a good grain-growing district. Pressing 
hay and shipping from that station has been carried on quite exten- 
sively for the last several years. 


Aldine is a small town, not incorporated, situated on the Chicago 
& Erie Railroad in section 29, California Township, with about one 
hundred inhabitants to their account. It was located in the same 


year that the railroad was built through the county (1882), and makes 
a very pleasant little village to live in. There is a good farming 
district around the town and besides raising corn and wheat, onions 
are raised and shipped from the town in great quantities. They 
have several stores and Gleaners Hall, together with good residences. 
The people have no reason or occasion to regret that they "pitched 
their tents" upon the Town of Aldine. 

Surrounded by some of the greatest onion farms in the county, 
besides the great wheat fields that surround them, Aldine is a place 
which well deserves the kind respect for the inhabitants that make 
up this pleasant little village. They have good stores and railroad 
facilities. Being located on the Chicago & Erie Railroad gives them 
direct communication with Chicago and the eastern states, affording 
them the best of markets. The ability to place their products in the 
markets at the first opportunity gives them an equal advantage with 
neighboring towns, which they well and truly appreciate as times 
go by. 

There are several other small towns that are not large enough to 
be incorporated, but are all live towms doing their share of the mer- 
cantile business. Aldine, English Lake, Bass Station, Davis, Ober, 
Nickel Plate, Toto, Ora, Winona, and Davis, all not incorporated, come 
in for a reasonable share of the mercantile trade and are all well con- 
tented with the business they are doing. Besides the stores and some 
other kinds of business, they all have onion storage houses and are also 
points noted for the onion mercantile trade. Besides, some of those 
places have "stills" for making peppermint oil, of which I have made 
mention elsewhere in this volume. 

The schools are an important part of these places, all of which 
are provided with good schoolhouses and good instructors in the 
various branches taught, all of which keeps those towms alive and on 
the map of educational and business interests. 


Back in the '30s the people began to look towards this part of the 
New World for new locations. This was long before Starke County- 
was organized. As I have said elsewhere, this county was organized 
in the year of 1850. Believing they could establish for themselves a 
home where they could enjoy all of the comforts of a home life, even if 
it were away from the hustle of their old neighborhood, prompted with 
that impulse and determination to build for themselves, they started 
on their journey to the land where they could buy cheap homes, braving 
the wilds of the Northwest, there to come in contact with the Indian 
savage that held dominion over the region of the Kankakee River, the 
wild wolf, the buffalo, the wild foxes and the grizzly bear. Yet aU 
this did not disturb the minds of the adventurer, for we find from the 
records that the purchasing of the lands in this county (or where the 
county was afterwards laid out) began in or about the year of 1836. 

Upon making an examination of the tract book in the recorder's 
office we find the names of the parties purchasing, the description of 
the land, the number of acres and the date of each purchase for the 
land so bought prior to the time of the organization of Starke County. 
It may seem odd to the people of Washington TowTiship, yet interesting 
to note from the following list, that the first purchase was made for 
a tract of land in what is so well known by all our citizens as "Haines 
Town," but such is the record in the tract book in the recorder's office. 

The following list taken from the tract book, of course, does not 
establish the fact that those people all located upon those lands, as 
many acres were bought up by speculators, as is usually the case in 
all new countries. It was those that had small means, scarcity of money, 
that bought with a view of establishing themselves on the land. There 
were, however, some that were willing to undertake to make a home in 
the great northwestern country that they read so much about. How 
they got here and how they lived is almost beyond conjecture. They 
did, however, reach this country from the far East to find the Kankakee 
Valley inhabited with the Indians which they so much dreaded. 

True the Indians had signed a treaty in 1832, supposedly giving up 

all claims to the Government, but a class of red men remained here who 

refused to surrender their old camp grounds which they had occupied 

so long, where they hunted and fished for the game so plentiful, the 



place where they could hold their war dance, the place where they 
could sing their Indian songs. 

There were many entries of land made after those as listed. The 
object of this is to show the entries up to the time that Starke County 
was organized. 

North Bend Township 

Henry 0. Turnbull, N. W. 14, N. E. 14, section 1; 40 acres; October 
1, 1846. 

Henry 0. Turnbull, N. E. i/4, N. E. 14, section 1 ; 40 acres; June 30, 

Absolom Kiusey, W. i/o, S. E. y^, section 1; 80 acres; September 
19, 1846. 

Wm. Osbom, S. E. 14, S. W. i/i, section 1; 40 acres; August 30, 

Wm. Osborn, S. E. 14, S. E. i/4, section 1; 40 acres; August 30, 

George T. Turnbull, S. W. 14, N. E. y^, section 1; 40 acres; December 
19, 1848. 

Hiram E. Turnbull, N. E. 14, N. W. 14, section 1 ; 40 acres; December 
25, 1848. 

George Cook, N. E. I/4, S. E. I/4, section 1; 40 acres; December 28, 

George Cook, S. E. y^, N. W. ^/j, section 1; 40 acres; December 28, 

John Lewark, E. 1/0, S. W. 1/4, section 1; 80 acres; May 16, 1S51. 

Jacob Stump, N. W. y^, section 2; 160 acres; August 16, 1851. 

Marshall Hadden, N. W. i/4, S. W. 14, section 5; 40 acres; July 20, 

Eli Shortridge, E. I/2, S. W. %, section 5 ; 80 acres ; July 20, 1842. 

Eli Shortridge, S. W. 14, S. W. i/4, section 5; 40 acres; July 20, 1842. 

Robert Cox, S. 1/2, N. W. 14, section 5; 80 acres; June 4, 1844. 

John Turner, N. 1/2. N. W. 14, section 5; 80 acres; June 4, 1844. 

Wm. Spangler, S. W. 14, S. E. 14, section 5; 40 acres; September 
26, 1846. 

Isaac Reed, N. E. y^, section 5; 160 acres; December 30, 1851. 

John B. Collins, N. E. 14, S. E. i4> section 6; 40 acres; August 24, 

John B. Collins, S. E. y^, S. E. 14, section 6; 40 acres; March 28, 

Christian Warisal, N. W. I/4, section 6; 160 acres; June 22, 1844. 

John Davenport, N. 1/2, N. E. 1^4, section 6 ; 80 acres ; August 2, 1848. 

Ramsey Martin, S. 1/0, N. E. 14, section 6 and W. 1/0, S. E. 14, section 
6; 160 acres; June 19, 1850. 

Wm. Truax, N. E. i/4, N. E. i^, section 7; 40 acres; July 1, 1842. 

0. H. P. Grover, N. W. i^, N. E. i^, section 7 ; 40 acres; July 1, 1842. 

Josiah Hoover, lots 3 and 4, section 7; 117 acres; July 4, 1842. 


James Sliortridge, E. 1/2, S. W. 1/4, section 8; 80 acres; November 
3, 1842. 

Isaiah Hoover, N. W. Vl, N. W. i/4, section 8; 40 acres; July 4, 1842. 

Christian Wansel, W. 1/0, S. E. % and E. 1/9, N. W. 1/1, section 8; 
160 acres; June 22, 1844. 

Perry Watkins, S. E. i^, S. E. 1/4, section 8; 40 acres; May 20, 1845. 

Wm. Spaugler, N. W. 14> N. E. 14, section 8; 40 acres; September 
26, 1846. 

E. Wollenslegle, W. 1/2, S. E. I/4, section 9; 80 acres; November 

23, 1842. 

Aaron Butts, N. W. y^, N. E. i^, section 12; 40 acres; November 1, 

Mitchell, S. E. 14, section 12; 160 acres; July 7, 1848. 
MitcheU, S. E. 14, N. W. 1/4, section 12; 40 acres; July 7, 

Sarah Pettis, N. E. %, N. E. i^, section 12; 40 acres; October 19, 

John W. Osboi-n, W. 1/2, N. W. 14, section 12; 80 acres; November 1, 

J. C. Watkins, N. W. y^, N. E. 1/4, section 17 ; 40 acres; June 11, 1845. 

Wm. Spangler, N. E. 14, N. E. I/4, section 17; 40 acres; November 

24, 1845. 

James Turner, S. E. 14, N. E. 14, section 17; 40 acres; May 16, 1849. 

Wm. J. Calvin, N. E. y^, S. E. 14, section 20; 40 acres; November 
19, 1845. 

David Kratzer, E. 1/0, N. W. 14, section 20; 80 acres; October 17, 

Calvin Gravis, N. W. 14, S. W. %, section 21; 40 acres; April 16, 

Talreford Downing, S. W. 14, S. W. %, section 21; 40 acres; March 

19, 1849. 

Jacob Replogle, N. 1/2, S. E. 14, section 25; 80 acres; January 24, 

Aaron Kratzer, W. 14, S. W. 14, section 26; 80 acres; November 

20, 1849. 

Christian Kurby, B. 1/0, S. E. y^, section 27; 80 acres; October 16, 

Lewis Munson, N. E. 14, S. E. i/l. section 29; 40 acres; April 26, 

Cornelius Clark, S. E. %, section 31; 160 acres; December 20, 1848. 

Henry Eberhart, E. 1/2, S. E. 14, section 32; 80 acres; October 18, 

John Cunningham, S. 1/2, S. W. 14, section 32; 80 acres; March 18, 

Phillip Eberhart, W. 1/0, S. E. 1/4, section 32; 80 acres; September 23, 

Valentine Cup, E. 1/2, N. W. i/l, section 32; 80 acres; October 25, 


Jesse Justice, lot 2 or S. E. i/4, N. W. y^, section 33; 36 acres; March 
15, 1841. 

Austin Fuller, part section 33 ; 63 aci-es. 

Charles S. Tibbits, lot 1, section 33; 39 acres; March 7, 1842. 

Henry P. Romine, lots 3 and 6, section 33; 130 acres; September 
5, 1842. 

Jesse Millison, lots 4 and 5, section 33 ; 89 acres ; December 4, 1843. 

Garrett Reasoner, S. W. V4, N. W. y^, section 33; 40 acres; Decem- 
ber 11, 1843. 

Joseph Conklin, S. E. 14, N. E. 14, section 33; 40 acres; August 3, 

Sophrina Tibbits, N. 1/0, N. W. 14, section 33; 80 acres; March 25, 

Charles S. Tibbits, N. W. 1/4, N. E. 1/4, section 33; 40 acres; March 
27, 1845. 

Daurig Romig, tract S. E. 1/4, section 34; 153 acres; February 18, 

Geo. Eberhart, E. 1/0, N. E. 14, section 34; 80 acres; October 18, 1841. 

Joseph Eberhart, W. i-^, N. E. 14, section 34; 80 acres; October 
18, 1841. 

Milo Powell, lot 3, section 34; 61 acres; November 19, 1841. 

Milo Powell, lot 4 and part S. W. i/4, section 34 ; 81 acres ; November 

24, 1841. 

John C. Tibbits, S. W. 14, N. W. i/4, section 34; 40 acres; March 

25, 1845. 

Samuel Shirk, E. 1/0, N. W. 14, section 34; 80 acres; April 29, 1848. 

John Lindsey, lot 3 and N. W. i^, S. W. y^, section 35 ; 74 acres ; 
April 8, 1842. 

Henry P. Rowan, S. 1/0, S. W. 14, section 35 ; 80 acres; June 29, 1842. 

Eli Brown, S. E. 14, S. E. 14, section 35; 40 acres; July 25, 1842. 

Wm. Parker, S. E. y^, N. E. 1^4, section 35; 40 acres; October 10, 

Samuel Shirk, lot 2, section 35; 33 acres; May 29, 1847. 

Daniel Romig, S. W. 14, N. W. 14, section 35; 40 acres; July 20, 1849. 

Peter Eisenbour, W. 1/2, N. E. 14 and E. 1/0, N. AV. 14, section 35; 
159 acres; November 21, 1849. 

Henry P. Rowan, lot 1, section 36, 65 acres; May 7, 1842. 

Henry P. Rowan, W. 1/2, S. E. 14, section 36 ; 80 acres; June 29, 1842. 

Mary Brown, lot 2, section 36 ; 47 acres ; October 22, 1842. 

John McGill, S. E. 14, S. E. %, section 36; 40 acres; June 14, 1845. 

James W. Butler, N. W. 14, section 36 ; 160 acres; June 15, 1849. 

Washington Township 

Henry H. Poorman, S. E. 14, section 7; 160 acres; February 28, 1848. 
Horace Stowe, S. "W. 14, S. W. 14, section 7; 41 acres; February 
16, 1849. 

Saml. A. Wilson, E. i/o, N. E. 14, section 9; SO acres; July 27, 1847. 


Geo. Ulbrey, W. 1/2, S. W. y^, section 11; 80 acres; December 14, 

John C. Ilinks, lot 4 and W. i/<>, S. W. 14, section 13; 144 acres; June 
18, 1839. 

Geo. M. Osborn, E. 1/2, S. AV. 14, section 13; 80 acres; June 29, 1840. 

Solniou Howard, E. 1/2, S. E. 14, section 13; 80 acres; August 24, 

Henry Garner, N. E. %, section 14; 160 acres; November 26, 1838. 

Mary E. Clark, N. W. 14, section 14; 160 acres; March 4, 1839. 

Geo. W. Mathews, N. E. 14, section 15; 160 acres; June 8, 1839. 

Samuel Brown, N. W. 14, N. W. 14 and S. E. 14, N. W. 14, section 15 ; 
80 acres ; August 17, 1836. 

Wright Loring, S. W. 14, N. W. 14 and N. E. 14, N. W. 14, section 
15; 80 acres; January 20, 1847. 

Stephen Lark, S. E. 14, section 17 ; 160 acres ; June 26, 1849. 

Jesse Dunkin, S. !/>, N. W. 14) section 20; 80 acres; November 2, 

Melinda G. Mathias, E. 1/2, N. E. 14, section 22; 80 acres; June 8, 

Margaret E. Robbins, S. E. 14, section 23; 160 acres; August 29, 

John McClelland, S. W. 14, section 24; 160 acres; June 2, 1849. 

Wm. Atkinson, N. E. 14, section 25; 160 acres; December 3, 1840. 

James Whited, W. 1/2, S. W. 14, section 26, 80 acres ; March 4, 1839. 

James Whited, W. 1/0" N. W. 14 and S. E. 14, N. W. 14, section 26 ; 120 
acres ; March 4, 1839. 

Mary E. Clark, N. E. 14, N. W. 14, section 26; 40 acres; March 4, 

James Whited, S. W. 14, N. E. 14, section 26; 40 acres; September 
14, 1840. 

Jacob Ramer, S. E. 14, section 26; 160 acres; April 26, 1848. 

Jacob S. Wampler, S. 1/2, S. W. 14, section 28; 80 acres; August 8, 

Wesley Whitson, W. 1/2, S. E. % and N. E. 14. S. E. 14, section 28 ; 120 
acres; June 14, 1847. 

Jacob Dean, W. 1/0, N. E. 14 and E. 1/0, N. W. 14, section 29 ; 160 
acres; February 27, 1849. 

John Turner, E. 1/2, N. W. % and W. 1/2, N. E. 14, section 30; 
160 acres; June 22, 1846. 

Norma M. Whitson, S. 1/2, S. E. 14, section 30; 80 acres; March 29, 

Christian Wansel, S. E. 14, section 31 ; 160 acres; June 22, 1844. 

Norma M. Whitson, N. U., N. E. 14, section 31; 80 acres; March 29, 

John Miller, S. E. 14, section 32 ; 160 acres ; August 14, 1848. 

Henry Vanblarican, N. 1/2, S. W. 14, section 34; 80 acres; June 8, 

Reuben Reed, N. W. 14, section 36; 160 acres; December 17, 1838. 


John Krouse, S. E. i/4, section 36 ; 160 acres; July 2, 1839. 

James Dalrymple, E. I/2, N. E. I/4, section 36; 80 acres; November 
19, 1816. 

Robert J. Turubull, S. W. 14, N. E. i^, section 36 ; 40 acres; December 
23, 1816. 

Hiram E. Turnbull, S. E. 1/4, S. W. 14, section 36; 40 acres; Decem- 
ber 25, 1848. 

Oregon Township 

Samuel Koontz, S. W. i^, S. W. y^, section 1; 40 acres; August 
27, 1850. 

Edwars Smith, N. 1/2, N. E. i^, section 1; 80 acres; October 17, 1838. 

Edwars Smith, S. 1/2, N. W. y^ and N. E. 14, N. W. i^, section 1; 
120 acres; December 18, 1838. 

Edwars Smith, S. W. i/4, N. E. 14, section 1; 40 acres; December 18, 

Hiram Harvey, E. 1/2, S. E. y^, section 2; 80 acres; March 30, 1839. 

Catyann Brokaw, N. W. y^, N. E. i/4, section 2; 40 acres; June 

26, 1848. 

Margaret Pale, N. E. 14, N. W. 14, section 2; 40 acres; June 26, 1848. 

Hiram Harvey, S. E. 14, N. E. %, section 2; 40 acres; December 
21, 1848. 

A. Brown, N. E. 14, N. E. 14, section 3 ; 40 acres; July 1, 1850. 

Jolm Fletcher, S. E. i^, S. E. 1/4, section 9; 40 acres; May 27, 1839. 

John McCleUan, S. E. 1/4, N. E. 14 and N. E. 1,4, S. E. 14, section 9 ; 
80 acres; June 2, 1849. 

Jacob L. Fletcher, N. E. 14, section 10; 160 acres; May 27, 1839. 

John W. P. Hopkins, S. E. y^, S. E. 14, section 10; 40 acres; January 
9, 1840. 

Ansel T. Cole, N. E. i^, S. E. 14, section 10; 40 acres; August 25, 

Charles Summei-s, S. W. 14, section 10 ; 160 acres ; May 10, 1849. 

John McClelland, S. 1/0, N. W. 14, section 10; 80 acres; June 2, 1849. 

Cornelius V. N. Depuy, S. E. I/4, N. E. 14, section 11; 40 acres; 
February 5, 1849. 

Harvey Norris, E. 1/0, S. E. i^, section 11; 80 acres; April 2, 1849. 

Jacob S. Fletcher, S. W. 14, S. E. 14, section 11; 40 acres; March 

27, 1849. 

Jacob S. Fletcher, E. 1/2, S. W. 1/4, section 11; 80 acres; March 27, 

Ansel T. Cole, N. W. 14, S. W. 1/4 and W. 1/0, N. W. 14, section 11 ; 120 
acres; August 25, 1841. 

Elias D. Jones, S. W. 14, S. W. i/i, section 11 ; 40 acres; June 8, 1843. 

Samuel Koontz, N. 1/0, N. E. 14, section 11; 80 acres; September 18, 

John Smith, S. E. %, N. W. 14, section 11; 40 acres; November 
6, 1848. 


Samuel Koontz, S. W. 14, N. E. 14, section 11; iO acres; November 
6, 1848. 

Horace Atwood, S. E. %, section 12; 160 acres; March 20, 1850. 

Thomas Norris, E. 14, N. E. i/l, section 14; 80 acres; December 19, 

John Fletcher, W. 1/2, N. E. 14, section 14; 80 acres; May 27, 1839. 

Elias D. Jones, N. W. 1/4, N. W. 14, section 14; 40 acres; June 8, 1843. 

Elias D. Jones, S. W. 14, N. W. 14, section 14; 40 acres; March 5, 

John H. Armstrong, S. E. 1,4, N. W. i/4, section 14; 40 acres; May 
4, 1848. 

George Nerthard, S. "VV. 14, section 14; 160 acres; June 4, 1849. 

Daniel Herehberger, E. ^, N. W. i/4, section 15 ; 80 acres ; September 
26, 1843. "" I 

Daniel Hershberger, E. i/4, N. E. 14, section 15; 80 acres; December 
29, 1845. 

Peter Suit, S. E. 14, S. E. 14, section 15 ; 40 acres; June 19, 1849. 

George Cecil, S. 1/2, S. E. 1/4 and S. 1/2, S. W. i^, section 17 ; 160 acres; 
July 16, 1843. 

Nathan Koontz, N. E. 1/4, S. E. i^, section 22; 40 acres; October 
29, 1842. 

Jacob Hopkins, S. E. i/4, S. E. \i, section 22; 40 acres; January 
25, 1848. 

Geo. Shaulaub, N. E. 1/4, N. E. 1/4 and S. E. 1/4, S. E. 1/4, section 22; 
80 acres; Jime 4, 1849. 

Nathan Koontz, W. 1/0, S. W. 14 and S. W. \i, N. W. 14, section 23; 
120 acres ; October 29, 1842. 

Nathan Koontz, N. W. 14, N. W. 14, section 23; 40 acres; January 
25, 1849. 

Paul Suit, E. 1/2, S. W. 14, section 23 ; 80 acres ; September 18, 1848. 

Samuel Miltouse, S. 1/0, S. E. 14, section 25; 80 acres; December 
4, 1849. 

Samuel Miltouse, N. Vo, N. E. i/i, section 36-; 80 acres; December 
4, 1849. 

California Township 

Phillip G. Robinson, E. i-o, S. W. 1/4, section 1; 80 acres ; September 
20, 1849. 

Joshua German, W. 1/0, S. W. 14, section 5 ; 80 acres ; August 28, 1848. 

David Conners and Silas Short, S. 1/0, N. E. i/4, section 5; 80 acres; 
December 1, 1848. 

David Conners and Silas Short, X. 1/2, S. E. 1^, section 5; 80 acres; 
December 1, 1848. 

Periy Watkius, W. 1/0, N. W. 14, section 5 ; SO acres; May 8, 1849. 

Perry Watldns, E. 1/0, N. E. 1/4, section 6; 80 acres; May 8, 1849. 

Joshua German, E. 14, S. E. 14, section 6; 80 acres; August 28, 1848. 

Jaeol) Curtner, W. 1/2, N. E. 1/4, section 6; 80 acres; September 15, 


Nathan Guernsey, N. W. %, section 6; 167 acres; April 26, 1850. 
Abraham Welch, W. 1/2, S. W. %, section 7 ; 80 acres; May 19, 1849. 
Peter M. Leister, N. W. %, section 7; 160 acres; September 29, 1849. 
George Merritt, N. E. i/i, section 7; 160 acres; October 6, 1849. 
George Merritt, S. E. 14, section 7; 160 acres; October 6, 1849. 
Jacob Bozarth, S. E. 14, S. W. 14, section 7; 40 acres; December 

24, 1850. 

Henry Hotchkiss, S. W. 14, section 8 ; 160 acres; June 30, 1848. 
Solon 0. Whitson, N. W. %, section 8; 160 acres; October 12, 1848. 
Phillip G. Robinson, E. 1/0, N. W. i/i, section 12; 80 acres; September 
20, 1849. 

Center Township 

David G. Weaver, S. E. 1/4, section 11; 160 acres; November 18, 1849. 

John Williams, S. W. i^, section 11 ; 160 acres ; November 22, 1848. 

John Green, S. W. 14, section 12 ; 160 acres : September 30, 1848. 

Horace Stowe, S. 1/2, S. E. y^, section 12; 80 acres; February 16, 

Nathan McCumber, S. W. 14, section 13; 160 acres; July 31, 1848. 

Horace Slow, N. E. 14, N. E. 14, section 13; 40 acres; February 16, 

Solomon Barker, N. E. 14, section 21; 160 acres; October 23, 1848. 

W. B. Buckingham, S. E. %, section 21 ; 160 acres ; October 23, 1849. 

Joshua Shields, N. E. I/4, section 22; 160 acres; February 22, 1848. 

Thomas Dunning, S. E. 14, section 22; 160 acres; June 15, 1848. 

Andrew J. Heaton, N. W. 14, section 23 ; 160 acres ; August 11, 1848. 

Jones Stepp, S. W. i/4, section 23; 160 acres; December 10, 1849. 

Job Short, S. W. i^, section 24 ; 160 acres ; March 9, 1848. 

Horace Stow, S. 1/0, N. W. 1/4 and N. E. 1/4, N. W. 14 and S. W. 14, 
N. E. 1/4, section 24; 160 acres; October 19, 1849. 

Wm. J. Gardner, N. E. 14, section 27 ; 160 acres; September 19, 1848. 

John Green, N. E. 14, section 28; 160 acres; September 30, 1848. 

Henry A. Francisco, S. E. I/4, section 33; 160 acres; Febniary 10, 

James R. Francisco, S. W. 14, section 33; 160 acres; February 10, 

Hector Hunt, N. Vs, S. W. i/4, N. W. 14, S. E. 14 and S. W. 14, 
N. E. 14, section 34; 16*0 acres; June 29, 1849. 

Wayne Township 

Emanuel Carpenter, E. i/^, N. E. y^, section 1; 82 acres; October 

25, 1849. 

Wm. Moller, S. E. 14, section 1; 160 acres; November 2, 1849. 
Geo. Esty, S. E. 14, section 2; 160 acres; May 2, 1849. 
John Buchanan, N. W. 14, section 2; 160 acres; May 5, 1849. 
John F. Tracy, S. 1/0, S. W. 14, section 2; 80 acres; September 5, 


Nancy Lindsey, N. i/o, N. W. 14, section 3 ; 80 acres; Angnst 25, 18-15. 
David M. Dunn, N. 1/2, S. E. i/i, section 3; 80 acres; July 12, 1848. 
Elizabeth Northcroft, S. W. %, section 3; 160 acres; May 31, 1848. 
Hiram Pattee, N. 1/0, N. E. 14 and N. E. i/4, N. W. 14, section 3; 
120 acres ; May 26, 1849. 

James T. Hathaway, S. E. 14, section 4 ; 160 acres ; December 8, 1849. 
John D. Carr, N. E. %, section 9; 160 acres; November 19, 1849. 

A. N. Gale, W. i/o, N. E. i/4 and E. 1/2, N. W. 1/4, section 10; 160 
acres; July 24, 1848. 

Jolin Tracy, B. 1/2, N. W. 14, section 11 ; 80 acres; September 5, 1849. 
Abram Welch, E. 1/2, S. E. 1/1, section 12; 80 acres; May 19, 1849. 

B. Hotfield, E. 1/2, S. W. 14, section 14 ; 80 acres ; May 18, 1849. 

C. H. Tracy, N. W. %, section 14; 160 acres; September 5, 1849. 
Geo. MoUer, S. E. 14, section 22; 160 acres; November 2, 1849. 

A. B. Conover, S. E. l^, section 23; 160 acres; September 14, 1848. 

Benj. Hatfield, E. 1/2, N. W. 1/4, section 23; 80 acres; May 18, 1849. 

Hugh Overmier, W. i/^, S. W. 14, section 25; 80 acres; November 
6, 1848. 

Hugh Overmier, E. i/o. S. E. 14, section 26; 80 acres; November 6, 

Eli S. Cox, N. E. 14, section 26 ; 160 acres; September 29, 1849. 

Cains M. Stone, W. 14, S. B. 14 and E. 1/2, S. W. 1/4, section 26 ; 160 
acres; October 13, 1849. 

James Moller, N. E. 14, section 27; 160 acres; November 2, 1849. 

Jackson Township 

John Gready, N. 1/2, S. E. 1/4, section 26; 80 acres; May 4, 1849. 

Lewis Overmier, S. E. Vii section 33; 160 acres; November 6, 1848. 

Tipton Lindsay, S. W. i/4, S. W. 14, section 34; 40 acres; August 
14, 1844. 

Joshua Shields, S. E. 14, S. B. 14, section 34; 40 acres; September 
26, 1844. 

Arthur Graham, E. 1/2, S. W. 14, section 34; 80 acres; July 12, 1848. 

Arthur Graham, W. V2, S. E. 14, section 34; 80 acres; July 12, 1848. 

Alex McCullough, N. E. 14, section 34; 160 acres; February 16, 1849. 

Wm. Kirker, N. W. i^, section 34; 160 acres; February 16, 1849. 

Josiah Tucker, E. 1/2, N. E. 14, section 35; 80 acres; October 10, 1848. 

Stephen Harris, S; "W. 14,'S. W. i/4> section 35; 40 acres; September 
5, 1849. 

Abraham Sarge, S. E. 14, section 36; 160 acres; March 25, 1848. 

Josiah Tucker, W. 1/2, N. W. 14, section 36; 80 acres; October 10, 

Clark Stewart, E. 1/0, N. W. 14 and W. Vo, N. E. Vi, section 36; 160 
acres; November 23, 1848. 

Jacob Bozarth, S. W. %, section 36; 160 acres; October 17, 1849. 

Railroad Township 
John Smith, S. W. 1/4, section 29; 160 acres; February 16, 1849. 


The sugar beet industry carried on so extensively in some localities 
would be a paying thing here if it was handled right. 

The raising of beets has been tried on a small scale here, but is not 
pushed since the onion raising became so common. 

We have excellent land for raising the sugar beet, and I presume 
that it is not a far distant day until the farmers will begin in earnest 
to raise them by cai-load lots. 

The raising of alfalfa is comparatively a new thing in this county, 
but those that have tried it report it with favor. 

There is no reason why alfalfa could not be raised upon our lands 
as well as anything else. 

It is just about the same thing as Samuel Lefever said during the 
'50s about raising wheat, as I made mention before: "He had lived 
here several years before he knew he could raise wheat on the lands 
in this county," when, in fact, we raise just as much wheat to the 
acre here as they raise anywhere. 

What it wants is an effort on the part of the farmer to see what 
he can do, and this is just what our farmers are doing for the last 
few years. 

This is an agi-icultural district and there is no crop but what can 
be raised liei'e successfully every year, except perhaps peaches and 
apples, that are not a positive certainty every year, although we do 
raise some of as tine apples and peaches here as can be found in any 
part of the state. Certainly it is the same here as other localities, we 
have some farmers that couldn't raise an umbrella on their farm and 
some farmers that are doing well, raising large crops of everything, 
which is a convincing argument that we have the soil to raise those 
crops upon. 

It is no fault of the land. If your crop is light it is perhaps the 
way you farm the land. I know of some farmers that are raising 
fine crops on the same land that years ago they condemned. Of course, 
those lands have been ditched and drained (as I have already commented 
on this drainage problem, will just allude to it and pass on), but we 
are beginning to look well into the proposition of fertilizing and 
manuring our land, which you see them doing in what they call the 
best countries. The idea of perpetually taking ofi' the land and never 
putting anything back would soon run any land down until the crops 



would be a failure and your labor lost. We are having experts looking 
up those questions for the benefit of our farmers. 

The county agricultural agent is also giving his time to the questions 
that are of vital interest to the farmers, it being his duty as well as 
a privilege to answer any questions you wish to ask him in reference 
to your farm, your stock, and how to make a success of all the branches 
of your farm, the fertilizer that is the most suitable for the different 
kinds of soil and the crops that are best adapted for the land. 

This reminds me that an expert is visiting this county and making 
tests and ascertaining what the farmers are doing in the way of success 
as farmers of the county. 

Taking a clipping from the newspapers published in our own 
county for your benefit, if you should read the item in the county papers 
of November 18th and 19th, it would greatly encourage the farmers, 
I will give it here, as follows: 

"Mr. W. E. Elser, who is connected with the office of Farm 
Management of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture and who works in co- 
operation with Purdue University, spent the past week here working 
with our County Agent. Mr. Elser is making a study of the various 
systems of farming which are being practiced in Indiana with a view 
of determining what farmers are making as a salary for their work, 
after paying interest on the money invested in their business. By 
taking a record of the farm for the year, including an inventory at 
the beginning of the year and again at the end of the year, taking 
into consideration the increase in value of live stock, supplies, his sales, 
purchases and expense, it is possible to determine fairly accurately 
how much the man on the farm is getting for his services. In nearly 
every case a set of figures like this will show what operations on the 
farm have been most profitable and what other operations have been 
unprofitable or have incurred losses and it is frequently found that 
where a complete record has been made and summarized that the farmer 
finds it very interesting and valuable to him and he would like to 
have a record made every year. Seven complete records were made 
last week and it is interesting to know that the labor incomes for 
these seven farms, that is, the salary which the farmer himself made 
after paying interest on the investment at 5 per cent, ranged from 
.$22.00 to $2,497.00 every year. Mr. Elser left a supply of these 
records and blanks with the County Agent, and if any farmer would 
like to find out as accurately as possible what he is doing in a financial 
way the County Agent will be glad to take his record for him and 
figure these things out." 

No class of men are more deserving of success than is the farmer. 
It is the farmer that raises the meat that you eat, it is the farmer 
that raises the potatoes you eat, it is the farmer that raises the fruit 
you eat, it is the farmer that raises the wool that goes into the clothes 
you wear, it is the farmer that we must look to for all the comforts 
of life. You should not condemn the farmer, for it is he who makes 
it possible for you to enjoy all those things. Of course the labor item 


is a great thing to consider in raising corn in this country. Statistics 
several years ago showed that the raising an acre of corn, including 
cost of rents for the land, was something like ten dollars. Certainly 
conditions have been wonderfully changed since those good old days. 

By scientific investigations it is found that it requires on an average 
the employment of one man for eight days and one horse nine days 
to raise one acre of corn. Counting the wages for the man at 10 cents 
per hour and allow one-half that sum for horse hire or the use of your 
own horse, would bring the cost of raising one acre of com to about 
$12. Calculating the com to be 60 cents per bushel, it would take 
20 bushels to come out even. If, in addition to this, the land can be 
rented for $5 per acre, it would take a little more than 10 cents a 
bushel to liquidate this item. 


If there be any profit to the grower there must be a greater yield 
than twenty bushels per acre. 

If corn should bring 50 cents a bushel, it would take nearly 25 
bushels to pay the cost of the labor of one man and a horse alone, 
and 10 bushels more to cover the cost of $5 for rent, so that if there 
is a profit in this instance it must be from a field that yields more 
than 30 bushels to each acre farmed. Gathered from some 200 fields, 
consisting of about 2,000 acres, representing 23 counties in the State 
of Ohio, it was shown, too, that wages were about 19 cents per hour. 
To figure on the theory the entire cost of raising an acre of corn would 
be very much higher, which would increase the first estimate from 
$12 an acre to about $16 per acre, which means about 25 per cent higher. 
In some cases it was found that the yield from many fields did not 
cover the cost of production. Some did not even cover the cost alone. 
This shows that in some cases the farmer with his home help falls 
short of the average wages even when he owned the land, so that when 


he rented the land the wages would be to the extent of the cost per 
acre for rent proportionately that much less for the year's work. In 
Starke County, ^vhere we raised on an average more com to the acre 
than did the adjoining counties, yet it was not all profit, for allowing 
that it did cost the renter farmer $16 per acre, you can readily see 
that his crop should equal or average 32 bushels per acre, counting the 
corn at 50 cents per bushel for the whole year, which would be rea- 

Now it is made plain that to make corn farming a profitable 
business we should give some attention to fertilization, putting something 
back on the land in place of always taking off and never putting any- 

thing on. When we were boys our parents gave considerable thought 
and attention to raising cattle, that too before the country was fenced 
up as it is now. This greatly improved the lands, and I can see very 
clearly that to make farming a complete success requires the raising 
of stock more abundantly than we are doing at the present time. 
Taken from the Iowa Homestead giving an analysis of the corn-belt 
cattle-feeding conditions, which has recently been made by Prof. H. W. 
Mumford and Prof. Louis D. Hall, of the Illinois Experiment Station, 
among other things, attention is called to the fact that about one-third 
of the cattle except milch cows are found in the seven corn surplus states 
of Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska. In 
value the cattle in these states equal about two-fifths of the total value 
of the cattle of the United States. In addition to this, large numbers 
of cattle are shipped into those states to be fattened for the markets, 
but with this being the ease it is not equal to raising the stock from 
calves to grown cattle upon your farms as in days long since passed. 
The test made from the Ohio experiment above related would not 
exactly apply to Starke County, it being higher than would necessarily 
be the case here. Our soil is easily cultivated and would not require 


-the time and labor upon an acre that it usually requires in some other 
states. From what some of our farmers say, it would be safe to estimate 
the entire cost of farming one acre of corn here at about one-half 
the iigure given. Then if it cost $12 there, it would cost $6 here, 
which looks reasonable to us. Then with a yield of 50 bushels to the 
acre would be $25, less $6, would equal $19. Then, allowing you rented 
the land and paid $5 per acre for rent, it would still leave you $14 
profit. The farming question is one that has not been watched and 
figured out by the farmers as close as it is now being done. Many 
farmers have harvested their corn crop in the fall of the year, heavy 
or light, just it happened to be, without stopping to calculate the cost 
of raising and harvesting it. 

The question of raising cowpea,? has attracted the attention of a 
great many farmers in this county. For several years past there has 


been a quantity of those peas raised more as an experiment than 
anything else, but in traveling over a portion of the countj' one can 
see great fields where a few years ago there was no thought given to 

During the years 1913 and 1914 there seems to be a general feeling 
among the farmers that the cowpea season is at hand, and for that 
reason it is no uncommon thing to see large fields of cowpeas. They 
are easily raised and to thresh them out is only a short job to do with 
the threshing machines with which the county is well supplied. As 
I said before, the farmer is giving the matter more attention of late 
years to see and determine what crops are best adapted to his particular 
kind of laud and then farm it to that end. Wheat does well here and 
so does rye. So far as vegetables are concerned, they grow abundantly 
in our soils, so do potatoes, but all land is not adapted to all kinds of 
products, so therefore the farmers are becoming convinced of this 
fact and are beginning to farm on a different basis, a more modern 


way of doing things. True, we have the muck lands that are cultivated 
to onions and peppermint and celery, but those muck lands in a favor- 
able year will raise a fine crop of com. Timothy hay, which was 
unknown to the boys of fifty years ago, is quite extensively raised in 
Starke County, it being as much of a curiosity to us to see a load of 
wild hay as it was years ago to see a load of timothy hay brought into 
our feed stables. 

The wild hay would sell for something like two dollars per ton, and 
the farmers have become aware that it is just as much labor to prepare 
a load of wild hay and market it as to prepare a load of tame hay 
and take it to market. Then you can get from five to ten times as 
much for the latter as you can for the wild hay. It is, however, a 
convincing argument within itself to see that the farmers have begun 

Modern Way op Threshing 

in the last few years to build silos and otherwise manage their farms 
upon a plan much different than they did when we were boys. 

You should, however, take into consideration that a majority of our 
farmers have good and commodious barns to house their stock in and to 
hold their summer's crops, which of course is a great advantage over 
the long-ago farmer who was in rather limited circumstances and could 
not provide those conveniences until he became in better circumstances. 
But it is all working the farmer's way, and it will not be many years 
until you will see a full and completed system of farming in this 
county. Then the farmer of several years ago had to work against 
difficulties — far from pleasant memories when he calls them to mind. 
Many farms were plowed or broken up with oxen, and that, too, when 
land was too wet to be cultivated \vith any degree of success. But a 
great change has taken place, with the machinery they have and the 
new methods of farming are bound to put the farmer ahead. Fertilizing 
his land and using the right crop on the different soils, as I have 
already said, is sure to bring him success. 


I have farmed for many years, 

I tried hard, I done my best, 
But among those difficulties 

It was hard to make it a success. 

Now with our new inventions, 

We can now proceed again 
To farm our plantations. 

Raising of the golden grain. 

Looking far over to the West, 

Against the setting sun, 
Viewing the landscape o'er 

And the grain a-blossoming. 

What pleasure now we see 

Above the days of yore. 
Reaping our golden grain. 

Thanks, those dreadful days are o'er. 

Fruit in this county has been wonderfully improved. The planting 
of peach trees has attracted the attention of the farmers, as you can 
see acres of peach orchards that have been set out in the last few years. 
Of course, as I said before, the peach crop is not an absolute certainty 
every year, but it has proved reasonably satisfactory to the farmer, 
otherwise he would not plant acres and acres of peach trees upon his 
land. Good care of those trees is a most sure for a successful 

The laud farmed, too, in the last few years is of a veiy different 
character from the land fanned in the early days. As has been men- 
tioned, the high sandy lauds were the only lands farmed until late 
years. The crops raised on the sandhills were necessarily very light, 
and as the farmer had no thought of trying to fai-m the lower or black 
lands, no wonder then that the land was considered of but little value. 
When the farmer began to cultivate the lowlands, as they have in the 
last few years, it was not until then that we found that we had the 
good and productive land that we have. Experience has brought all 
this out and every year farming is getting better. The county is getting 
in a better condition each year and machinery has so much improved 
that it is easy to see why we have better farms and better farmers as 
the years roll on. 

The farmers have long since abandoned the little log cabin and 
have built for themselves and their families good and substantial 
dwelling houses, and instead of the small log pen or a shed made from 
the sod they have fine barns and granaries that mark the location 
of their first settlement in the county. Of course, many of the first 
settlers have gone never to return, but those places are filled by the 
rising generations, who will farm on a very much different plan than 


the first farmer did, having all the modern conveniences at hand. 
Many farmers have their own automobiles, which is a gi-eat saving on 
their horses, for when they want to go to town to do some shopping 
they can get iato their automobile and in a very short time be in town, 
do their trading, and spin for home, thus leaving the tired, fatigued 
team in the barn to take its rest while the family makes the trip to 
town. Certainly those machines cost quite a sum of money, but while 
there may a little loss on the one hand, there is a great gain on the 
other. Automobiles are as common with the farmers as with the town 
people. Taking a trip into the country, it is surprising to see the 
automobiles that are on the public highways coming and going con- 
stantly. When some of us were boys we did not know what an auto- 
mobile was; in fact, there was none in those days. It will only be a 
few years until the farmers wiU market all their grain with auto tnicks, 
or some such machine. As we are getting good gravel roads all over 
the county, it would be an easy matter for the farmer to market his 
crop in that way. 

We should not forget the fact that the farmers of the present day 
have the railroads as an advantage that the first farmers knew nothing 
about. It was a veiy difficult thing for the first farmers to market their 
crops, if they did raise any grain, with no wagon road to haiil their 
gi-ain on, and no railroads to haul it to. It is easy to see why our 
farmers today have such advantage over those of years ago. 

It is, however, doubtful if fanning will be carried on here to the 
extent that it is in some counties, as for instance in Canada and Kansas, 
where harvesting is done by an oil tractor which draws four or five 
machines — all of which are managed by one man on each machine. 
On those wide prairies and level plains it is no uncommon thing to 
see an oil pull or tractor in a harvest field with five or six harvesters 
hitched behind, each one doing its part. A person can hardly perceive 
how this country has advanced. From a little crooked knife called a 
sickle to a gTain cradle, then the dropper, then the binder, of course 
drawn by horses, then the oil tractor hitching on behind it a row of 
binders. No horses are required to pull those machines. Wonderful 
to relate, a few rounds in an ordinary field would harvest the whole 
crop. The writer can recollect when a mere boy on our farm in Bedford 
County, Virginia, when harvesting was done with those crooked knives, 
or sickles, as they were called. What would you think, Mr. Farmer, 
if we had to go back to those days and harvest our crops in that way? 
With more than sixty thousand men at work in the factories of this 
country employed in manufacturiug this machinery, is it surprising to 
find the American made machinerj' scattered all over our land? Then 
it has got to the place -where the man that operates this machinery 
has it so constructed that he can sit and ride and operate his machine 
by working a lever from his seat. I am reliably informed that one 
man can run one of those oil tractors and operate two or three of those 
binders alone. Just a few years ago our prairies were broken up 
with ox teams ; now on the most extensive farms it is done by machinery. 


What has been the outcome of those fifty-five or sixty thousand 
men spoken of above? According to the advice of the year book of 
the department of agriculture, in forty years prior to 1894, the time 
of labor required to produce a bushel of corn was reduced from four 
hours and thirty-four minutes to forty-one minutes. Thus it was by 
reason of the farmers being provided with the gang-plow, the disk and 
the corn-planter operated by horse-power. Then there had been fur- 
nished to the farmer the harvester, operated by horses, to cut the corn 
and bind it into bundles, a corn shucking machine and at the same 
time cutting up stalks and shucks for feed, the power being a steana 
engine ; they had furnished to the farmer a marvelous machine to shell 
the corn, operated by steam, and shelling one bushel per minute instead 
of the old way, in which it would take one man one and half hours 
to perform the same work. I speak of those improvements because 

they are true, because we see the machinery and see it perform the 
work that it has been made to do, and also I feel interested in this 
proposition, having seen for myself this labor performed in all the 
phases and conditions above given. 

Having been raised on a farm, I can congratulate the farmer on his 
good fortune in having these improvements placed at his command. 

Everything done by machinery. Should not the farmer feel en- 
couraged when the modern way of farming is so far above the old way 
that he can rejoice in the advent of all the machinery that it takes 
to run a farm during the last thirty or forty years of his existence? 
The gasoline engine that you can hear in a great many farmers' yards 
gives rise to the thought that everything is coming to that point, where 
the farmer can not only grind his own feed, and pump the water for 
his stock, but saw his wood by his own machinery. There can be 
nothing more remarkable than introduction of farm machinery. This 


has reached the scene of potato digging by tractor or oil pull machinery. 
There is nothing left undone. Machinery for everything is the uni- 
versal aim of genius in our laud. 

One of the greatest advantages in harvesting outfits like the power- 
driven machinery is the chance to keep at it. In Canada they often 
work fourteen hours a day during the harvest season. In Kansas, 
however, twelve hours is considered plenty of time, even in a busy 
season. You could not keep up your horses and work them fourteen or 
fifteen hours a day. Besides, you escape the trouble and time that it 
takes to feed, water and curry the horses, which necessarily takes con- 
siderable time, for you would not slight your team under any considera- 
tion. There are localities where you could not use those oil pulls and 
harvesters, but usually those rough lands are planted to fruit and 
such crops as do not require machinery of this kind to gather it in the 
fall of the year. 

Fruits you usually have to gather by hand and the uneven land 
is usually better for an orchard anyway, so you do not lose anything 
in that respect. 

No doubt the farmer in Starke County will soon cut his harvest 
here with an oil pull and a reaper attached to it, saving his horses for 
other work on the farm. 

Whether or not farming will be done here as in Canada or Kansas, 
there is no reason why it should not. We already plow considerable 
of our prairie lands with machinery. One could do our harvesting 
here the same way. 

The Kankakee Valley in Starke County is well adapted to the use 
of oil pulls or tractor machines, and they could be used successfully 
in that part of the county to the full satisfaction of the farmer, and 
only wait till this kind of harvesting is done in earnest in this county. 
The wonderful improvements we have made in our roads makes it 
possible for the farmers to haul their grain to market, hauling as much 
at one load now as it was possible to haul in thi-ee loads prior to our 
good roads of recent years. 

No country on the face of the globe can beat Starke County in raising 
melons, both watermelons and muskmelons, some farmers giving a good 
deal of their time to that industry. Cabbage does well here and the 
farmers raise them by the carload lots, either selling them at the pickling 
plant here or shipping them to some foreign market. But, after all, 
there seems to be no difference about what you raise on the farm, so 
it leaves the farmer a fair income. 

Just as has been said before, much depends upon how the farmer 
manages his crops and endeavors to farm the land with the crop that 
is best adapted to that particular piece of land. A ten-acre field of 
land in W^ashingtou Township produced twenty-eight bushels of wheat 
to the acre just a few years ago, when the same ten acres thirty years 
ago produced only fourteen bushels to the acre. 

Now it is plain to the farmer why such a state of things as that 
exists. Thirty years ago that land was comparatively new, but the 


land lately has been fertilized and well taken care of, hence the twenty- 
eight bushels was easily produced. 

This would be exactly double the number of bushels raised on the 
same land, as above outlined, and again the labor required was less 
than half, as the ground in the last instance was prepared for the 
crop by machinery of our present day and the crop harvested with 
our modern machinery, which convinces every one that the farmer 
is on the road to success. 

A table formulated by the United States Agricultural Department 
for the year 1911 shows what effect the com yield makes as compared 
between the demonstration and the ordinary methods of farming in 
eleven states: 

Demonstration Ordinary Farming 

Average bushels 34 Average bushels 17 

Thus you will notice that the man that farms the old ordinary way 
will raise 17 bushels to the acre, while under the demonstration method 
he raises 34 bushels to the acre, or just double the grain that he has 
been raising in the old way. 

The very thought of the happy farmer, the ever-busy farm-hand, 
the busy farmer's wife too, with her duties so well taken care of, the 
meals so well provided for the farmers and his hired help all working 
in unison, never neglecting any part of the work that is required to 
be done on the farm from sunrise in the morning until the sun fades 
away in the western horizon. This brings to memory the little poem 

The valleys like a paper 

Lie spread out at my feet, 
'Tis the fall's last edition, 
'Tis her embellished sheet. 

Nature's tri-weekly I whisper. 

As my roving fancy reads. 
The chatter of the golden rods. 

The music of the weeds. 

The rhymes of the prairies 

You can hear everywhere, 
The broad acres of the stubble, 

So common over there. 

The broad expanses and 

The farmer's beauty plots. 
And the parental fences 

Around those homelike lots. 


Each page is loudly painted, 

And around the border runs 
A woodland red as crimson, 

Brightened by many a summer's sun. 

The photographic village 

In the far distance lies, 
Whose painted building 

Glimmer with many, many dyes. 

Scattered o'er its many places. 

With its golden green. 
The mansions of the farmers 

With their corn cribs between. 

It is a lovely edition, 

And I often wonder when. 
If it was produced in Heaven, 

And God signed it then. 

No set of men within the boundary lines of our planet have better 
machinery to farm with than they have in this counti'y, as I have said 

The auto trucks, the gasoline engine, the oil pull — all of which have 
mostly been introduced into this county since our well-improved roads 
became so common in each towuship^ — have revolutionized the plans of 
farming, and the auto truck can be seen plodding its way from the 
farmers' big granaries to the railroad stations with more grain at one 
load than they could haul with horses in a half dozen trips. 

The plan upon which the Germans purchased their trucks and auto- 
mobiles was very much different from our way of making a purchase 
of one of those machines. The government of such countries reserved 
the right to extend to you the privilege of purchase with the absolute 
understanding that they held the right of seizure of any automobile or 
truck so purchased if, in case of war or insurrection, they deemed it 
to their interest to do so to help in the transportation of men or munitions 
of war from one place to another. 

But in our own free and United States of America there are no 
prohibited or provisional clauses to interfere with our purchasing any 
one of those machines. Having the money to pay for an automobile 
or truck or anything else in this country to be used legitimately upon 
our farms is the privilege of all. Those provisions adopted by that 
country would greatly facilitate the movements of soldiers and supplies 
to the railroads, but those conditions are not imposed upon our free 
and worthy farmers in this country. The best paved roads in the world 
are found in Belgium and some other countries, and in ease of war 
they have the advantage of that ever grateful necessity — "the paved 
roading. ' ' 


The oil pull, or tractor engine, the automobile and the gasoline truck 
has reached a point in this country in which an experiment is uncalled 
for, as its use is fully known and established beyond any guess work 
or conjecture. It only remains for it to be more universally used in 
this country by the farmers, as its qualities are well known. Yes, the 
day has arrived, it has come to stay, the automobile shall forever be 
with us, the farmer and the merchant, the livery man, the contractor, 
the business man, the lawyer and the doctor, aU in possession of one of 
those machines, coming and going at a rate of speed beyond the knowl- 
edge of us all when we were young. Great is the reward for the fanner 
in the universal use of those horse-saving machines in this country. 

The farmei-s of our county, realizing the importance of farm ma- 
chinery, have taken advantage of the new and late improved machinery 
that it takes to farm with successfully. 

Then the same notice should be taken of the women folks in pro- 
viding them with the late methods of machinery. I was going to say 
farm machinery, and well I might, for the reason that the housewife 
is filling a very important part of the farming industry of our land. 
She should be supplied with the latest kinds of machinery that apply 
to her house affairs just as well as the men folks are supplied with every 
kind of machinery that lessen the labor of the farm. 

The washer, the churn, the iron, the sweeper and many other kinds 
of machinery, that fill the stores, should be placed at the hands of the 
farmers' wives so that they, too, may perform their part of the farming 
system with less manual labor than formerly done. Many good house- 
wives are engaged the whole livelong day putting out washing where 
she is compelled to do it by the old-fashioned washtub route, while the 
farmer himself is riding his machine aU day humming some sweet strains 
of music muffled by the hum and clatter of his machinery, sometimes, I 
fear, forgetting that his wife, too, is human, that she has a heart that 
feels for the comforts of home, that she so much deserves, being a part 
and parcel of that home that should be enjoyed by all. A vacuum cleaner 
is a wonderful help to farmers' wives. No one will claim that this is 
extravagance on the part of the farmer to provide those things for 
the house, as it all goes to make up a successful farmer's home. Many 
unpleasant hours were spent by us when children on the farm churning 
butter and many times the farmer's wife would labor with the butter 
proposition until all would be tired out waiting for the butter to come, 
while with the improved method of churning with a gasoline engine 
furnishing the power she could make herself busy in her other household 
duties while the churning was being done without her physical labor 
attached to it. The same Ruler that looks to yoii looks after your wives, 
and it is He that causes all things to be possible for you and your home 
surroundings. Then is it any wonder that the fair-minded wife of the 
farmer should demand those tilings, not asking more for herself than 
she is willing to grant her husband, but merely aiming to make life 
pleasant and profitable to all ? We often think of the mottoes framed and 


hung upon the wall of some kind farmer's home — "What is home with- 
out a mother," "Noble thought," "In remembrance of our home." 
There is uo one that takes pride in the house duties except the women, 
and it must be very embarrassing to them to work and keep everything 
in order ^\^thout the aid of some of the late and modern machinery to 
lighten the burden they have endured so long, ilauy times we have 
been stricken with sorrow at the sight of some women laboring to support 
a family without the use of some kind of facilities to aid them in their 

It is the ever-forgetful husband, not with any bad motive but with 
a lack of forethought, that allows his wife to perform her work by the 
most laborious methods while he enjoys the full benefit of our modem 
machinery performing his work without any physical labor on his part. 
"But there is a Divinity that shall shape our ends." 

Much has been said by the farmers as to the conditions of stock 
raising in this county and the most profitable stock to raise, taking in 
consideration the feed that is the cheapest and the easiest to obtain. 

Hogs are easily kept and will consume any kind of feed, while cattle 
need plenty of hay, corn or silage. 

The matter is comparatively small as to the difference in the kind 
of stock you keep, but the main point is to attend to it well and make 
the best thing possible out of whatever kind of stock you engage in 
raising. There can be no doubt about the profits in any kind of stock 
raising, let it be cattle, hogs or horses. 

Even the poultry raising is a thing that is carried on quite exten- 
sively in Starke County. Many farmers are giving considerable of their 
time to the raising of poultry. It is uo uncommon thing to see poultry 
houses on many farms. This you see in traveling over the county from 
one end of it to the other. 

The farmer is not confined to the oue kind of stock or the one 
particular kind of grain, as the lands on the different farms are perhaps 
better adapted to different kinds of grain, and this is what the farmer 
is watching with a desire to profit by such investigation. 

It is a pride and a pleasure to see fine, up-to-date farming in any 
community. It shows what interest the farmer has in his occupation. 
Farming is one of the most honorable pursuits that a man can engage 
in. Many young men that leave the farm and go to town with the 
expectation of becoming great men often make a great mistake. True 
it is that some make a success of whatever they engage in, but many 
go wrong and do not realize their condition until it is too late. 

The Government, through many learned professors and business men, 
has taken up this question and are recommending the young men to 
remain upon the farm, thereby in many cases making success instead of 

The manner of farming is so much different nowadays, as has been 
outlined, that it ought to appeal to the young man to take advantage of 
those privileges more abundantly than in the past, when all farming 
was performed by physical labor. Certainly it is the thought of the 


young men to go to town and eventually get into some office^ or engage 
in the mercantile business, or become a lawyer or some kind of occupa- 
tion besides farming; but it often leads to a loss of your precious time, 
and failure is the result. 

So far as the automobile is concerned, as we have spoken of it 
before, some idea can be formed as to the per cent of the inhabitants in 
Knox that are owners of the automobile when it is shown that on 
Main Street, south of the Free Methodist Church, there are twenty-two 
out of twenty-nine residents that are owners of an automobile. Now 
the same rule will apply to the farmers in some parts of the county. 

The Old Rail Fexce, Fast Disappk:Vring 

The automobile is a piece of machinery that has come to stay, and it 
will sooner or later be in the hands of all or almost all our farmers. 
It is the farmer that needs those machines. It is he who should 
own one, as he is in a location where an automobile will be of much 
use to him. 

When the automobile was first introduced into town there was 
no thought of it getting into the farmers' hands, but it was soon seen 
that the farmer was the person to profit by its use, hence the farmer 
is becoming the ma.jority owner of those very much used machines, 
and well may he too. It leaves his tired horses to rest after their 
big day's work is done, as the farmer can step into his automobile 


and go any place in a little time aud transact his business almost while 
he would be hitching up his team to make the drive. That, too, facing 
the storm of the cold autumn months; but the trip is soon over, where 
if he had to drive it would be a very disagreeable trip. Many a 
farmer's wife hesitated to ride in one of those machines for fear it 
would go into the ditch, but by careful management they are as safe 
as a horse team. True there are many automobile accidents, but the 
most of them are the result of tlic .li'ivri' liccDining so much interested 
in his associates that he lets the car ^et the advantage of him, and then 
something is going to happen, aud that very quick. 

The iirst automobile ever brought to Knox was by Sidney A. 
Uneapher in the year 1903. This was a Hoifman machine, one cylinder, 
five passenger, eight hoi-sepower car, and, as I said, was the first auto- 
mobile ever introduced in the town and was the first automobile owned 
and operated in Starke County. Mr. Uneapher was the sheriff of 
Starke County at that time and he soon discovered that it was a won- 
derful improvement over the old way of bringing his prisoners into 
town. There were no speed limits established at that time and each 
one, as they procured ears, soon after could cut a dash to his own fancy ; 
but the town councils soon passed a speed limit, since which time the 
cars are restricted to a speed-limit not to exceed eight miles an hour 
in the corporate limits of any of our incorporated towns. Soon after 
Mr. Uneapher brought the first machine to Knox there were othei's that 
did likewise, some running a line to Lake, hauling passengers and 
pleasui'e seekers to that very much imtid lake, and that is kept up 
every summer. Aetna Marvin introiliuid ilml iilea in the year of 1904, 
and it is kept up ever since. At first it was a hard haul to the lake, 
as we had just begun to make gravel roads in the county, and for a 
few years they had to run their cars on a dirt road the greater part of 
the way, but we now have good gravel roads all the way to the lake. 

This now, with the building of good gravel roads, is when the farmer 
took up the idea of purchasing the automobile, a thing that he will 
never regret, aud more will follow. 

The manufacture of automobiles in this country is wonderful. Those 
machines are shipped all over the country and the foreign demand is 
great for our American machines, as you can see by an order for 
.$2,000,000 worth of those automobiles from Indiana and Michigan, 
placed during the last few month.s. 

One thing is noticeable, and that is that there are almost as many 
motor trucks and cars of this character manufactured as there is of 
the pleasure ear and automobile, which strengthens the theory that the 
farmer and business man is onto the automobile as well as the pleasure 
seeker. In the electric care they are divided nearly evenly between 
the pleasure ear and the commercial trucks and ears made for carrying 
merchandise and other kinds of freight. The merchants and manu- 
facturers have these auto trucks in constant use, but the farmer has 
the same ehance to use them in his business as the business man. The 


oil pull or tractor engine can be used to a better advantage on the 
farm than most any other place. 

It is only a short time until the farmer will place all the burden 
of farming upon the machinery of the land and then the horses will 
be permitted to take their ease just like the men of the farm who have 
labored many years, who now see the benefit of the late improved 
machinery and are putting it in use. 

If our farmers were to hold to the idea that they could not purchase 
a piece of machinery on account of accident that might occur from 
their use, then they might as well conclude to not keep horses for the 
same reason. A farmer that drives his own machine seldom meets 
with an accident. It is generally the ease that it is brought about by 
the careless driving of some careless young man. 

We, however, frequently hear of some team running away and 
causing the occupants either to be injured or sometimes killed, but 
you can't always charge neglect to the driver, neither can you charge 
the accident to the ehaufi'eur of an automobile. Accidents will happen, 
always have and always will, and for that reason the use of the auto- 
mobile will continue evermore. 

Crop rotation should be adopted or practiced more than it is. All 
land will produce more and better crops if the land is farmed upon 
the rotary system. Then by applying plenty of manure, which it takes 
to give the soil the nitrogen and humus back to the land, you can make 
farming a successful occupation. Many of our farmers have those 
questions well in hand and are profiting by the new methods they have 

No farmer should get the notion that land will not wear out. It 
certainly will by constant usage unless the soil is replenished with some- 
thing that will take the place of that which you take off. Many farmers 
run their farm on the theory, or rather without any theorv, but just 
farm from one year to another, and so on without giving the soil any 
feed whatever and, as we said before, the land would soon wear out. 
No farm will raise good crops from one year continuously to another 
without something to build up the soil. 

Those conditions must be met if farming is made a successful busi- 
ness, even though you have No. 1 good land to farm. It will give 
way sooner or later just like a person that would not take nourishment, 
he would soon succumb. A farmer that sees no need of fertilizing his 
land will soon see the mistake that he is making. The farmer in the 
East felt like he could farm without fertilization of any kind, but the 
land became almost worthless so far as bringing a crop, and then it 
was that he too could see his mistakes and of course had a hard time 
bringing the soil back to a good and productive state. From the soil 
is produced our wealth, although it may not be in gold or silver coin, 
but in our crops that it bears, hence we should all look well to the 
matter of keeping our farms well fertilized. This theory has been 
learned perhaps from experience, and farmers are not getting their 


knowledge all from books or magazines, but have discovered many of 
those ideas from every-day experience upon the farm. 

It is also to the interest of the farmer to see that his land is well 
tilled. With the hundreds of miles of dredge ditches in this county 
there are but very few farmers but what have an outlet or a good 
stream to tile into, and a good many farms have some low spot of ground 
that could not be reached by the dredge in cutting the ditch, as it 
would have been impossible to reach all the lowest spots on the farm, 
but a proper amount of tile ditches put in on those lands will drain 
them out in good condition. This is being done by many farmers through- 
out the county. I expect that Starke County has as many miles of tile 
ditches as any county in the state, but there is always room for more, 
and when we get in a full and complete system of tiling and our lands 
are all drained out, then farming is a complete success in Starke County. 
I have gone over the question before of our open ditches, both shovel 
and dredge ditches, but what we need now is plenty of tiling and then 
the system is complete. 

We see good crops raised on land that before it was tiled was used 
for duck and goose ponds, where they would swim and quack and honk 
all day, but now those ponds are gone and large shocks of big-eared 
corn occupies the place. All this change was made by the farmer 
putting out a few dollars for tile and draining into a near-by dredge 
ditch, just like you can do too if you should desire to do so, making 
the duck pond pay you many times what it cost to tile it. 

Never in the history of Starke County has there been as much tiling 
done as has been in the last four or five years. On almost every prairie 
farm you pass you can see tile piled up ready to be placed in the 
ground as fast as the farmer can get it or employ some one acquainted 
with that kind of work to lay it for him. No farmer will make any 
mistake in tiling his land, as good results are bound to follow in every 
case. There is going to be a general revolution in farming next year 
if all calculations don't go amiss. Farmers are already making their 
plans for 1915 and 1916, some planning a big crop of potatoes, some 
planning to raise more corn and some going into the peppermint busi- 
ness more extensively than they have done heretofore. The good prices 
obtained the last year are an inducement for them to push farming, as 
it never has been done before. 

The condition of the lands will warrant this effort on the part of 
all farmers. The conveniences for taking care of their crops too are a 
great incentive for them, and take all the equipments and add that 
proposition to the other facilities, silos, barns, sheds, and pumps — makes 
the thought of farming one of pleasure instead of a burden as has been 
the case in former years. As a lady said, why do they call farming a 
burden nowadays — "why, law me, when I was a girl we had to churn 
by hand, we had to iron by hand, we had to wash by hand and the 
farmer had to cut his grain by hand and had to thresh it out by hand 
and had to walk all day behind a plow, when now all this is a thing of 
the past, all done l)y machinery, why do you lay so much stress on 


farming? If you had lived through what I have, then you would have 
some cause for complaint." It is an evident fact that some of us do not 
understand what it meant to farm the old way, but let some one who 
really did the farming in the long ago give you a true picture of what 
it was then. 

The question of seed selection is another thing that the farmer is 
giving more attention to than formerly. It used to be that the farmer 
would go into his corn-crib in the spring of the year, and after dis- 
patching a couple of big blacksnakes from among the corn, he would 
proceed to shell his seed corn from the most favorable looking ears of 
corn in the crib. But it is getting to be quite different from that now. 
Of late the farmer goes into the field in the fall of the year and selects 
his seed com for the coming year and puts it away in some dry place 
until spring, and then he will shell and plant the corn he has selected 
and kept for the year's planting. Seed corn should be kept in a dry 
place during the winter months. It is not the cold that hurts seed 
corn if it is kept dry. It is the freezing when wet that is injurious 
to the germ of the grain, and as I said, the care and preparation of 
seed corn is looked after with much interest by farmers in the last few 
years and the consequence is that it tells in the crop that is grown on 
the farms of those who take the time and pains to care for the seed 
as above outlined. Every year there comes something more impressive 
upon the minds of the farmers in the manner of more successful farming, 
and 1 presume such conditions will follow unto the end. 

Every farmer in the county is making improvements beyond what 
they formerly have done — breaking up land and bi'inging it into culti- 
vation, land that has lain out undisturbed except by the tread of cattle 
or viewed from above by the wild fowls of the air. Some employ the 
use of the tractor to do the breaking, turning four and five furrows 
at one time, breaking up those prairies in the fall of the year in order 
that they may have it in readiness for early spring farming. This is 
getting to be a common thing — plowing in the fall. It enables the 
farmer to be on time with his spring work. Besides it gives the sod 
some time to rot and become tillable by plowing it up in the fall. 
Disking is practiced universally all over the county. It is only a few 
years since the disk has been in general use and the farmers have found 
much benefit in its use, especially soddy land. It cuts up the sod and 
pulverizes it in such a way that it makes cultivation much easier than 
it would be without the use of the disk or pulverizer. This is another 
step in the wake of farm advancement, and the farmer is using it to 
an amazing advantage, as shown by its use on most of the farms in the 

Step by step the farmer is advancing, and why should he not? The 
farmer is an intelligent being, or at least the most of them are, and is 
keeping a close lookout for everything new in the shape of machinery 
and new inventions that will facilitate all the departments of farm 
life. Years ago it was very different. The farmer just used such imple- 
ments as he had without much concern about anything better, but not 


so today. Eveiything that can be had to help the cause of farming 
is resorted to of late years. The timber lands are left as nature has 
made them and the farmer is giving his attention to the cultivation of 
tlie prairie lauds, breaking whole tracts of forty or eighty acres in one 
field, which is made possible with the machinery at his command. 

Some, however, get the notion into their heads that there are no 
enjoyments in farm life, but that is a great mistake. No set of people 
upon the earth have more to feel proud of than the farmer and his family. 
The very soug of the robin and the bluejay ; the sound of the babbling 
brook; the wind as it furls the green leaves of the forest trees; the 
squirrel as it sits upon some magic oak above your head with that 
chattering sound and the honeybee buzzing over the fields gathering 
honey from every fiower. Those are the things that bring sweet 
memories to the heart of the farmer, when he can lie down to rest 
after his day 's work is done and there sleep and dream of the pleasant 
day just past. Then why can anyone complain of the farm life? 

Many times when you were boys on the farm you have sat down 
and watched the sinking sun settle in the western horizon with that 
dazzling light becoming to you a fond farewell for the night; then to 
rise the next morning with the merry songs of the forest birds making 
their sweet sound reverberate far over the hills, a melodious sound 
that you will listen for until its sweet strains shall die away beyond 
your reach in the meadows and the flower-laden valleys, for miles beyond 
the reach of the naked eye to see or the ear to hear ; beyond the golden 
grain-covered fields of the farms. 

It is no uncommon thing in the cities to see two persons living 
close together and not knowing each other. How much difi:erent is the 
farm life! The farmer, if he should need the assistance of his neighbor, 
would not hesitate to call upon him, should the occasion demand it. 
Many of us, if we would admit it, would have to acknowledge that we 
saw our best days upon the fanu. In the cities the life is so much 
different, and if you live in a city it's a question whether you know 
your neighbor on an adjoining lot. If you live on a faimi you will 
know your neighbors for miles around and frequently you will be 
brought together by some house-raising or corn-husking, or some other 
kind of business with much amusement thrown in for good measure. 
Stay on the farm is the advice of one who knows, one that has a 
feeling for your welfare, a feeling for the success of your boy or girl, 
a feeling for the success of you all, a pride we should have for each 
other's welfare, a devotion we owe to each other in this life and a life 
to come. 



By H. R. Smalley, County Ageicultural Agent 

Starke County has made its greatest agricultural development, by 
far, within the last twenty years; prior to this time hunting, trapping 
and fishing were the chief occupations of the rural inhabitants. Most 
of the farming that was done consisted in the making of marsh hay, 
which was until within the last few years a very expensive business in 
this county. The land had not been drained, the Kankakee River over- 
flowed everj' year and spread all over the surrounding country so that 
it was impossible to put in crops. About twenty years ago the Kankakee 
River, which forms the northwest boundary line of the county, was 
deepened and straightened and the first dredge ditches were dug and, 
although they were inadequate to carry off the water from the areas 
which they were supposed to drain, they demonstrated thoroughly that 
the land could be drained and that if it were properly drained it would 
be very valuable from an agricultural standpoint. Since that time a 
great many large ditches and many smaller tributaries have been dug 
and tile drains have been put in, to a greater or less extent, on most 
of our fanns. Although this drainage system still needs to be supple- 
mented by additional dredge ditches and by the laying of many more 
tile drains, it has transformed Starke County from a hunting and 
fishing gi-ound into one of the most valuable agi'icultural sections of 
the state. 

Starke County lies almost entirely in the Kankakee Valley, and for 
this reason its soils are different from soils found in nearly any other 
part of the state. Geologists tell us that the whole State of Indiana, 
except a small V-shaped portion in the southern part, was at one time 
covered by a huge ice-sheet and that when the climate changed and the 
ice melted there was formed a large lake in the present Valley of the 

Ages passed, for it has taken a very long time for the formation of 
soils, and this large lake washed an outlet through its western boundary 
and drained away, leaving the vast marshy region much as it was when 
first visited by white men. When one travels over this country and 
sees the sand-ridges and the low lying mai-sh land it is not hard to 
imagine the prehistoric lake with its sandbars, islands, low sloping 
beaches and deeper waters between. 

After the lake drained away and only the lower portions of its bed 
were occupied by water, a thick marsh vegetation sprang up, which 



grew, fell and decayed for many centuries. The high sands supported 
only a sparse vegetation which has never accumulated because it has 
been tlioroughly decomposed by the natural agencies of sunshine, air 
and limited 'moisture supply. Between the sands and the mucks are 
freciuently large areas of sandy loam and peaty sand soils which contain 
less vegetable matter than the mucks and more than the light sands. 
In fact, there is every gradation of soil from pure sand to pure muck 
or peat and often several radically different types are found within 
the same ten-acre field. 

Value of Potash Discovered 

About fifteen years ago investigators at the Indiana Agricultural 
Experiment Station discovered that in most cases marsh farm soils, 

Starke County Product 

which are chiefly mucks and black sands, are very deficient in potash, 
which is one of the elements of soil fertility and which is very necessary 
for the production of crops, and many of the soils which would foi'merly 
not produce a respectable yield of any crop are now producing excellent 
crops of corn, onions, potatoes, oats, wheat, timothy and other crops less 
extensively grown. In fact, these black marsh soils are destined to 
become the most valuable agricultural lands in the state. Since the 
discovery of the lack of potash in our muck and black sandy soils we 
have learned that in some other soils, which are inclined to grow dew- 
berry briars, red sorrel and other plants which indicate an acid condition 
of the soil, are in need of lime and phosphoric acid. We have also 
learned that for our upland sandy soils the cowpea is perhaps the crop 
best adapted to these soils. About six or seven years ago a few farmers 
began to grow cowpeas and the acreage is steadily increasing until in 
1914 there were raised fully six thousand acres of cowpeas, which 
yielded at least fifty thousand bushels, and if we estimate the price 


per bushel at two dollars, they have brought in one hundred thousand 
dollars to the fanners of this county. 

Onion growing, which was introduced to this county only a few 
years ago, has in most cases proven to be profitable. Many muck fields 
which were previously uncultivated have been drained out and are 
producing from three hundred to one thousand bushels per acre. The 
low price in 1912 served to discourage many growers and caused them 
to drop out of the business, but most of those who stayed in the game 
every year have come through with a good margin of profit. 

Another crop which is receiving considerable attention at this time 
is peppermint, and at present there is one farm in the county on 
which there were 300 acres of peppermint grown in 1914. The price 
of peppermint oil varies considerable and it is therefore about as 
uncertain a crop as onions, but some people are engaging in the business 
all the time and thus far they have all made a nice profit. 

Starke County will see an even greater development within the next 
few years. It needs more and better live stock in order that our farmers 
can manufacture their grains and roughages into some higher priced 
products, such as pork, beef, mutton, butter, cream, etc., for which 
there is an ever increasing demand and for which the prices are almost 
sure to be high, owing to the continued increase in our population, 
which is being brought about by our industrial development. 



Knox Schools 

List of the teachers in the Knox schools: J. Allen Barr, superin- 
tendent ; Miss Ada Ballard, principal high school ; Miss Mary Stilz, 
German and English; Miss Edith M. Beers, music and drawing; 
Mervyn Humphreys, commercial and eighth grade; Byron D. Roberts, 
manual training and seventh grade; John Talbert, sixth grade; Miss 
Anna Jain, fifth grade; Miss Mattie Hostetter, fourth grade; Miss 
Florence Seegrist, third grade; Miss Harriet Geddes, second grade; 
Miss Christena Foltz, first grade. 

Prof. J. Allen Barr, the superintendent of the Knox' schools, is a 
man well qualified for the position he holds, coming from North Judson, 
where he was superintendent for several years, and having taught else- 
where, he is well fitted to superintend this school. A well qualified 
superintendent is a very essential matter in any high school and our 
school board has certainly made a choice where the whole school and 
the patrons will have no cause to regret the choice made by them. 

Miss Ada Ballard comes from French Lick, Indiana, is well educated 
and will fill the place of principal of this school with credit. She is 
no stranger here. Having taught here for several years speaks well 
for her, and this the school board was well aware of, and being assured 
from her former experience here as a teacher they vei-y properly em- 
ployed her for the 1914-15 term, and well may all feel proud of having 
her for the principalship of our school. 

Miss Edith M. Beers has again been employed as the supervisor of 
music and drawing in our schools. Miss Beers has taught several years 
in this department of the school and is a lady well qualified for this 
place. Confidence in her as an able instructor is held by the entire 
school, the superintendent and the patrons of the town, all extending to 
her their best wishes, and when the term shall close she can look back 
over the last year with the assurance that she has performed her 
duty well. 

Mervyn Humphreys is a young man employed in our school to teach 
the commercial and the eighth grade, a young man with sterling integrity 
and a disposition to show to the school board that he is well qualified 
to teach in the branch for which he is employed, giving them no cause 
to regret their choice in employing him to teach the commercial and 
eighth grade. 



Byron D. Roberts, employed to teach manual training and the 
seventh grade in our city school, is a young man well acquainted here, 
a man that the people will honor and respect, a man well qualified to 
teach in the school the manual training and the seventh grade. We 
may all be justly proud of him and at the end of the term all will 
agree that he has filled his place creditably and with satisfaction to 
the school board, the people and the entire school. 

John Talbert, who was raised in Knox and is known by all her 
citizens, is engaged to teach the sixth grade in our school, a young 
man that all have implicit confidence in, a man that will go out of 
school at the close of his term with the full confidence of having 
performed his part as he has before with the good will of all. 

Miss Anna Jain is a lady not a stranger to us, but a teacher who 
has taught several terms and is kiiown to be able and well qualified to 

^M^^^ ^^"'^^'^^ 

-» HjS * 

High School, Knox 

teach the fifth grade in the Knox schools. Having been raised in the 
county and being well acquainted with the patrons of the school, all 
wish her the best success, as does the school board, all feeling confident 
of Miss Jain as a successful teacher and all wishing her well. 

Miss Mattie Hostetter is the fourth grade teacher in the Knox schools, 
who has lived here for several years and is a lady well qualified to 
teach in the department that she has taught in for several years. 
Having the good will and kind wishes for all who know her gives to her 
the assurance of meeting with success as she has before in the Knox 

Miss Florence Seegrist was born and raised in this county and is 
well and favorably known to all and when she closes her school term 
next spring she will have convinced the school board and the people 
that she has taught the third grade of the Knox schools with credit to 
herself and the admiration of the superintendent, the school board and 
the patrons of the entire town. 


Miss Harriet Geddes is also another lady born and raised in Starke 
County, who is engaged in teaching the second grade in our schools, a 
lady well qualified to teach in any school, one who will make success 
her aim and endeavor to teach a school that she will be proud of. This 
she is doing as the second-grade teacher in the Knox schools. 

Miss Christina Foltz, who was raised in Starke County, is teacher 
in the first grade of our school. She knows well how to teach the little 
folk, and having filled that place for a number of years is enough 
to convince everyone that she is the right teacher in the right place. 
Having the love and esteem of all those little folks gives her the assur- 
ance of success in teaching this class of pujiils in our school. 

It would be impolite to pass the janitor by without saying something 
of him, a man that has worked faithfully every day and part of the 
nights to keep the schoolhouse in a comfortable condition. "Firing up 
the furnace" and sweeping out the rooms and keeping everything in 
first-class order is no small task, but such is being done by our worthy 
and ever faithful janitor, Mr. Arthur Lockridge. 

According to the enumeration of 1914 there are 538 children in the 
corporation between the ages of six and twenty-one yeai-s and there are 
enrolled in the school 400 that are in attendance every day. 

Here, like in all other towns and cities, are some who do not attend 
the public schools for various i-easous. Some perhaps have got married 
since the enumeration was taken in April of this year. Some are com- 
pelled to stay away from school to work to support a widowed mother. 
Some choose to follow other pursuits and .some have left the neighbor- 
hood. The state law does not compel a child to go to school after he 
is fourteen years old. All goes to show why the full enumeration of 
children do not attend the schools. An average attendance of SO per 
cent of the number enumerated is considered very good. The law gives 
the right to all children between the ages of six and twenty-one years 
to go to school (unless they are married), but it is never the ease where 
all attend school even though they may not be employed. 

The law providing for the election of an attendance officer for the 
county has had a good effect as it is the means of many attending school 
that would otherwise play truant. This law gives the truant officer, or 
the attendance officer, as he is called under the law of 1912, to look after 
all delinquents in the schools and to visit their parents to see what is the 
cause of the child being out of school. If such children are not sick the 
attendance officer will request the parents to send the child to school at 
once (that is if the child is under fourteen years and over seven years 
of age). Should the parents refuse or neglect to comply with his request 
he has the right to arrest the parent and bring him into court to show 
cause why he kept the child out of school. If he can show no legal 
excuse the parent is subject to a fine. This law has a tendency to cause 
the parents to keep their children in school. This applies to the whole 
state and is a good law. Roy Lain, the attendance officer of Starke 
County, is looking well to the end that the law shall be enforced and 
the children kept in school as the law provides. Mr. Lain lives near 


North Judson, but never neglects his duties in the county. When 
some of us were school children we were not compelled to attend school. 
It merely depended on our parents, or perhaps ourselves, whether we 
went to school or not, but the school laws have been so improved that 
all may have the benefit of the school revenue. 

Old Time Schools 

In the first schools of the county you might see many vacant seats 
in the school room, and a number of the pupils with hook and line down 
on the "creek" back of the little log schoolhouse fishing and otherwise 
playing truant, while the teacher would sit and read and seem very 
much unconcerned about the school. 

With our well equipped school it ought to be a great inducement 
for children to go to school. The conditions are so much different than 
what they were fifty years ago, with no school supplies in those days, 
not even writing pens, no blackboards, goosequills used for writing pens, 
and the pupils were each required to bring some "fools cap" paper to 
write on. 

The fashion of making the paper into copy books was a usual thing. 
It would be no uncommon thing to see a dozen pupils sitting in a row 
with their backs toward the school, there writing on a slab desk as I 
have before spoken of. The conditions are so much difl:ereut now. We 
can go to school in a fine, elegant school building furnished and fitted 
up in all the modern fashion possible, school building with furnace heat, 
with a janitor to look after that part of the building, the pupils all 
classed off into rooms according to the gi-ade to which they belong, from 
first grade to the eighth grade, and then the high school with superin- 
tendent and assistant superintendent or principal, grammar teacher, 
commercial course or manual training — all taught in one building with 
a supervisor of music and dra\\ang, all under the supei'vision of a 
superintendent. Now is it any wonder that some of us must look with 
astonishment at the progress that has been made in the way that the edu- 
cational interests are conducted, when we look away back to the time 
when we attended school in the little red schoolhouse on the hillside, 
near some babbling brook, where the robin redbreast and other birds 
would sing from the treetops of the old maple and the oak, cheering 
us on to success. Our hearts may throb and our eyes grow dim when we 
look back to the days of our childhood, away back to the old school 
ground and the paths we made going and coming to school. But all is 
changed, all is grand now in improvement, far above the expectations 
of man of fifty yeai-s ago. 

You and I went to school, John, 

Some fifty years ago or more. 
Well do I remember, John, 

As we walked across the field of clover. 


It was in the little red sehoolhouse, John, 

The teacher would stand us all in a row 
And pronounce from the old spelling book, John, 

The kind we used so long ago. 
Well do I remember, John, 

We tried so hard each to win the race, 
But it was you that won the prize, John, 

(I feel the tears trickling down my face). 
But I have never begrudged it to you, John, 

It was all done as fair as fair could be, 
And hoping you have profited by it, John, 

Is the sincere wish of me. 

The school children going to our public schools have no thought, 
perhaps, of the inconveniences that were experienced away back in the 
'50s when some of the children went to school a long distance and some 
thinly dressed, and no roads but perhaps an Indian trail or "cow path" 
to follow. While all this is true, we must admit that there were noble 
statesmen and men of great business qualifications reared up in those 
days, men who could grasp the situation and handle problems with 
wonderful power and good judgment, men who went forward with 
the duties both national and domestic, with bravery, yet with calm and 
sure intelligence. Men not afraid to stand up and advocate aU ciues- 
Tions that in their opinion would better the conditions of our schools 
and school book ciuestions as well as all other matters coming before 

It is always a pride and a pleasure for those that attended the pub- 
lic schools of any town or city to have the privilege of reading the names 
in after years of the principal or superintendents that had charge of 
the school at that time. In looking back in after years to the time that 
you were a pupil I have no doubt but what the cherished memory of 
your teacher as well as your classmates comes vividly into your minds, 
and how much comfort you can take in reading the names of your 
principal and superintendents from a history giving those names and 
the dates that they filled that very important position. 

Ever since the town has been located we have had some kind of a 
school. The first schools we had were in a measure subscription schools, 
but as the country advanced so did the educational interests advance 
until we could have better schools than we were able to have in the 

Our schools were cari-ied on similar to our small country schools, 
getting better and larger until the year of 1873. We then had advanced 
so far that we employed a principal to manage the school and look over 
the other two or three teachers. 

We employed a principal each year from that time until the year 
of 1900. That is the year that the Knox school was commissioned 
as the Knox high school. Much credit is due J. Walter Dunn for the 
effort he put forth to have the school commissioned. This was the 


second year that JMi-. Dunn had been here. Coming here in 1898 he 
soon saw that we were to have our school commissioned, which was 
done in 1900, and has been known ever since that time as the Knox 
Commissioned High School. 

The following is a list of the principals and superintendents of the 
Knox schools: 1873-74, Oliver A. Rea, principal; 1874-75, Robert J. 
Ewing, principal; 1875-76, Jesse A. Williams, principal; 1876-77, E. 
L. Yarlott, principal; 1877-78, Jesse A. Williams, principal; 1878-79, 
George A. Scott, principal; 1879 and ending 1879, Henry H. Cannon, 
principal; 1879-80, J. S. Robinson, principal; 1880-83, William A. 
Foster, principal; 1883 and ending 1883, Jacob A. Cannon, principal: 
1883-84, Daniel P. Haley, principal; 1884-85, Jacob A. Cannon, princi- 
pal; 1885-87, C. W. Hoffman, principal; 1887-88, Leander E.. Conner, 
principal; 1888-89, C. A. Byers, principal; 1889-91 Henry C. Roney, 
principal; 1891-94, G. M. Alexander, principal; 1894-97, A. J. White- 
leather, principal ; 1897-98, A. H. Sherer, principal ; 1898-1900, J. Walter 
Dunn, principal; 1900-03, J. Walter Dunn, superintendent; 1903-05, 
C. W. Egner, superintendent; 1905-09, W. F. Ellis, superintendent; 
1909-10, O. S. Staley, superintendent ; 1910-14, James M. Leffel, superin- 
tendent; 1914, J. Allen Barr, superintendent. 

The same general spirit is manifest in the schools of other towns, 
all making an effort to build up the standard of education in all its 

Consolidated School 

It has only been a few years that the idea of consolidating schools 
in this county was first discussed. The schools being scattered over 
each township about three to four miles apart necessitated the pupils 
walking long distances to school. 

The plan of consolidating the schools has not, however, become 
general in this county. Center Township has a centralized school build- 
ing located on the southeast corner of the northeast quarter of section 
21, township 33 north, range 2 west, being just across the west line of 
the incorporated town of Knox. It is a fine two story brick and base- 
ment school building built three years ago, with an addition built to 
it the present year of 1914. This accommodates the pupils of the town- 
ship, they being hauled to the schoolhouse every day. There was an 
effort to consolidate the schools of California and some of the other 
townships, but instead of consolidating the schools in that township, 
Mr. Raschka, the township trustee, contracted and let to the lowest 
bidder the building of five new and up to date school buildings in 
that township. There had been built during Morgan Welsh's term 
three good schoolhouses in the township, this making ample room for 
all the pupils in the township. Hence the thought of consolidation 
in California Township went flickering in the sunshine of the past 
and all are now content with the schools, as they used to be called, 
"deestrict" schools, of California Township. It will be many years 


hence before consolidated schools will be established in that township. 
Some of the other towTiships have talked of consolidation, but I am 
of the opinion that it will be several years before that will be accom- 
plished in those townships. 

The schoolhouses in an early day were rude and cheap affairs, and 
afterward we began to build good district schoolhouses, they taking 
the place of the first ones built. 

It would be, no doubt, something for many people to understand 
the full value and meaning of the consolidated school as they have it 
today in a good many locations of the country. Until within the last 
few years the country people were entirely dependent on the district 
school for all the education that they received. Not even in our towns 
were there the facilities and opportunities for receiving a high school 
education. Nevertheless the country schoolhouse has turned out some 
wonderful men and women and will long be remembered by those who 
walked many miles through the almost unbroken forest with their 
dinner pails and their small supply of books going to school, there to 
study the lessons assigned to them. 

Another thing that might be mentioned here was that the early 
schools were subscription schools, all being conducted upon one and 
the same plan. Usually a term was twelve weeks and the teacher had 
to be paid by the patrons of each school and the fuel was paid for in 
the same way, or in some cases the neighbors would go together and 
cut and haul or drag in logs with oxen, there to be cut into convenient 
length to be placed upon the open fire or burned in stoves, if they were 
lucky in having one. 

Adoption of Fbek Schools 

Many of the people in Indiana could not read or write. This was 
the condition along about the years 1841 to 1850. Some of the eastern 
counties in the state were much better off and had advanced the standard 
of education materially. Such was the ease in the Quaker settlements. 
Caleb Mills was an active member who contributed memorials to the 
legislature touching the educational interest of the state. On the 20th 
day of May, 1847, a convention of the state met at Indianapolis. 
Leading men from all over the state resolved that our common schools 
must be free, the time had arrived when the state should take some 
action and that a revenue must be raised by taxation, a sufficient 
amount at least to pay for twelve weeks' school in each year. But it 
was not until the year 1848 that this question was referred to the 
voters. Fifty-nine counties voted in favor of this proposition. At this 
election more than 78,000 voted for and about 62,000 voted against the 

The north end of the state voted more libei-ally for the question 
than the southern counties. This was two years before Starke County 
was organized. Hence we have no vote for this county. 

The legislature after providing for this tax referred the law to 


the people for their endorsement. Some counties voted against it as 
it would increase the taxes, but a majority in the state voted in its 
favor, the vote being something like 79,000 in favor with 63,000 against 
it. A new constitution was adopted by the voters of the state, pro- 
viding for a genei-al system of education, hence the school law of June 
14, 1852. This was the beginning of the free schools in Indiana, con- 
verting the congressional township into civil townships. Thus the 
incorporated to\\Tis and cities were made school corporations separate 
from the townships. 

This was two years before Starke County was organized. Great 
advancement has been made since that time in all branches of the 

Prior to the year of 1837 the tmstees examined the applicants for 
their license to teach in the schools. Between that date and 1853 the 
coui'ts vested that right to three persons appointed by that court, then 
in 1853 the county commissioners controlled this power, that body reduc- 
ing the number of examiners from three to one, who was to hold his 
office for three years. Then in 1873 the law was changed so as to 
include the township trustees, who have elected the county superin- 
tendents ever since that time. It was at this time that the law pro- 
viding for township institutes was passed, the object being to raise the 
standard of teaching and to create a unity in the schools of the state. 
The law extending the term of county superintendent to a four-year 
term was passed in 1899. Since that time all county superintendents 
hold their office for four years for each term. They are, however, 
eligible for re-election. 

Hence the free school system dated from 1850 or 1852. Each dis- 
trict had controlled its own school affairs as to building new school- 
houses, providing fuel and regulating the pay of the teachers. The 
superintendent of school was not knowTa at this time. The taxes were 
assessed against the properties and all expense in conducting the schools 
was in the hands of each district to manage. 

There was but very little state school fund prior to 1838, hence the 
distribution made by the state of the school fund had but little effect 
on our public schools. The government made provisions for education 
by setting aside one section of land (section 16) in each township, 
which, when sold, the proceeds were to go into the school fund, and 
paid out toward the support of the schools. The law was veiy different 
in this state from that of Michigan. 

In that state the proceeds from the sale of their school lands was 
turned over to the state and distributed to the schools in proportion 
to the number of school children. This law was changed in Indiana, 
for in 1824 the general assembly passed an act providing for the 
election of three school trustees in each congressional township, turn- 
ing full power and control of the school and school funds over to that 
body. Every person not physically afflicted w^as requii-ed to give one 
day's work in each week or pay to the trustees the amount of 37i,4 
cents in place of the day's work until the schoolhouse was completed 


and ready for occupancy by the school. The examinations for teach- 
er's license to teach in the public schools could be held privately in 
those days. Those holding the examination or passing upon the ques- 
tions of the applicant were very incompetent. Many times the teacher 
would be employed without even having to pass the rudest kind of au 

Some of the old citizens recollect when the seminary was conducted 
in this state, the township high school now taking the place of the 
seminary, which was calculated to furnish the instruction that was 
required between the common schools and our state universities. The 
pupils would pass examinations and be promoted from the seminary 
instead of our high schools, which would be virtually the same thing. 

Centralized School 

The Center Township Centralized School having been before men- 
tioned as to the location, etc., I will now give the names of the teach- 
ers as follows: Mr. C. F. Dye, principal; Miss Alida A. Morris, assist- 
ant principal; Miss Vesta Golding, 8th grade; Mrs. Bessie D. Harden, 
6th and 7th grades; Miss Georgia Almenkrantz, 4th and 5th grades; 
Mrs. Harriet Fuller, 3d and part of 2d grades; Miss Hazel Comptou, 
1st and part of 2d grades; Miss Edith Beers, music and drawing; Mr. 
William 6. McCormick, janitor. 

Mr. C. F. Dye, the principal, comes from Claypool, Indiana, to 
take the place of Mr. Carson Rebstock, who had to give up the position 
as principal of the school on account of sickness. Mr. Dye comes well 
recommended and everyone interested in the Centralized School feels 
confident that he will give entire satisfaction and that he will teach 
and supervise the school in a way that will be a lasting credit to him, 
and a well remembered successful teacher will be the expression of 
all at the end of the term in the spring of 1915. 

Miss Alida A. Morris, the assistant principal, is a lady well quali- 
fied to teach in any school, and all are willing to assert that she will 
do her duty well as a teacher in the Centralized School of Center Town- 
ship. Having taught here before gives the township trustee and the 
patrons full assurance of her ability, and when she shall close her 
school next spring and bid adieu to her pupils she will have the 
pleasure to know she taught a good school and has the good will of all. 

Miss Vesta Golding, the teacher of the eighth grade in the Central- 
ized School of Center Township, is a lady raised in Knox and is well 
acquainted here and the township trastee will have no cause to regret 
that he employed her to teach in this school, and when her term shall 
end the patrons will have the best wishes for her and no doubt they 
will be glad to have her return for another year in the same depart- 
ment of the school. 

Mrs. Bessie D. Harden is no stranger here, having been raised in 
the county, and having taught several terms in the school she is now 
teaching in gives every one implicit confidence in her as a successful 


teacher. Mrs. Harden has the sixth and seventh grades in her care and 
is teaching a very fine school to the entire satisfaction of the whole 
school, and the endorsement of the principal and also the confidence 
of the township trustee who employed her. 

Miss Georgia Almenkrantz, engaged in teaching the fourth and fifth 
grades in the Center Township Centralized School, is a lady well quali- 
fied to teach in this school. Being kind but firm with her pupils denotes 
the love and respect she has for them, and in return they manifest the 
same good will towards her. 

Mrs. Harriet Fuller is a teacher who has taught for several years 
and was raised in Knox, being well acquainted here. The pupils in 
her charge at the Center Township Centralized School speak very 
highly of her as their teacher and when she shall close her school in the 
spring of 1915, she can be assured of having taught a successful school 
as she has always done before, no complaint coming from anyone, but 
all agi'ceing that Mrs. FuUer is a successful teacher in the third and 
part of the second grades of this school. 

Miss Hazel Compton comes fi-om Hamlet to teach the first and part of 
the second grades in the Centralized School of Center Township, and 
as she has taught in this locality before she is well acquainted with 
her pupils, who have the best wishes for her and doing their best to 
assure her that she is teaching them with success to them and an honor 
to herself. Pull assurance of a successful school year is the wish of all 
who know her. 

Miss Edith Beers, the teacher of music and art, is a successful 
teacher in this line and gives part of her time at this school and part 
of her time in the Knox schools. Miss Beers has taught here before 
and has the confidence of the whole school. She is teaching with the 
full confidence of all that she will close her school in the spring after 
another successful school year. 

"William G. McCormick, the janitor, comes in for a word, too, as he 
is the man who takes care of the school building, fires up the furnace 
and does a thousand and one things to make the schoolhouse com- 
fortable for the teachers and pupils, never idle a minute as it is no 
small job to do the work that he is required to do. Shoveling coal, 
sweeping the floors, brushing the from the seats and desks require 
his time to keep everything in place and in first class order. 

Public Schools of North Judson 

Having refen-ed to the schools in North Judson, I will now give 
the names of the faculty in the public school of that to^vn : Mr. E. C. 
Dilley, superintendent ; Mss Lois C. Foust, principal ; Mr. Aaron Miller, 
assistant principal; Miss Letta B. Deller, music, art; Mr. George W. 
Capouch, room No. .5; Miss Minnie Dell, room No. 4; Mrs. Mary Davis, 
room No. 3; Miss Charlotte Arnold, room No. 2; Miss Bertha Jain, room 
No. 1 ; Mr. Neal Bybee, janitor. 

This school is considered one of the best high schools in the state. 


having good, capable and competeut instructors, a fine two story build- 
ing situated on Keller Avenue, with basement, and a number one heat- 
ing plant with a hustling janitor who knows how to make the children 
happy and comfortable from the first day of the term until the bell 
rings announcing the close of the school for the term. Mr. Dilley having 
been the superintendent during the last year comes back for the 1914- 
1915 term with all the assurance of having a successful school year, 
also with the best wishes of all the patrons of the school. 

Miss Lois C. Foust having taught in this school for several years 
is doing her part to keep up the interest of the school and well may the 
patrons feel proud of her as an instructor. Filling the next highest 
position in the school speaks well for her as an able instructor in the 
North Judson school. 





ib^. ,'^ 





Public School, North Judson 

Miss Letta Deller, occupying that very important position as direc- 
tor of music and art, has shown the people of North Judson that they 
have made no mistake in engaging her for the place she so ably fills. 

Mr. George W. Capouch is no stranger to the people of North Jud- 
son and the school board certainly used good judgment in securing 
him to teach the fifth room pupils in their school, with the best wishes 
for him and believing that he will continue to serve in the future as 
he has iu the past. 

Miss Minnie Dell, the teacher for room No. four, is an able instruc- 
tor, always ready and willing to perform the duties assigned to her, a 
teacher that the pupils love and respect and one that the patrons much 

Mrs. Mary Kash Davis, having been raised in North Judson, is well 
known and capable as the teacher for the- third room, where she can 
instruct the children she knows so well, all of her school extending the 
best wishes toward her. 


Miss Charlotte Arnold is well qualified to teach the second room 
pupils with credit to herself and honor for them. Having the entire 
respect of the patrons of the town, she will close her school next spring 
with the assurance that she has performed her duty well. 

Miss Bertha Jain, having taught several years, is the teacher for 
room No. 1, a place she has filled so well that no one will ever regret 
that she is employed to teach in that department of the North Judson 
schools. Having the kindest feeling for her pupils gives her assurance' 
that they have the same feeling and respect for her. 

The school board of North Judson should be assured of the kindly 
and unanimous indorsement of the people in selecting good, com- 
petent teachers for their school as the present corps of teachers indicates. 

The school board is: L. E. Mosher, president; Charles Hruska, 
secretary; Perry H. McCormick, treasurer. 

The Gei-man Lutheran School of North Judson, situated on Tabna 
Avenue, is a school conducted in the interest of the church whose name 
it bears. Good and efficient instructors speak well for them and the 
school that they have chai-ge of. 

Mr. Theo Smith is the instnictor with the minister, Rev. W. Heine, 
as an assistant. No body of citizens have a better feeling to aU men 
than this class of people, having their own schools, which speaks well 
for them. This school under the kind of instructors it has will prosper 
and have the good wiU of all the people in the town. 

Catholic School, North Judson 

The Catholic school is well patronized. They have their own 
school with the following instinaetors : Sister M. Olivia, Sister M. Heu- 
netti, and Sister M. Floransenda, with Rev. August C. Van Rie as 
principal. The Catholics, like the Lutherans, have their own school, 
and this school is conducted in a manner that speaks well for the 
church and for the community in which it is located. 

It has always been the pride of the people to have good schools at 
North Judson. That same spirit has prevailed since the town was first 
laid out until the present day, always mindful of the fact that education 
should be the fii-st thought of man. True, it was a very hard and 
embarrassing matter for those people to keep pace with the countries 
around them that had the roads and other facilities that they did not 
have, but the efi:'orts of all her citizens, working to the end that nothing 
shall be left undone, but standing together and securing the best con- 
veniences they could, have eventually brought those conditions around, 
and North Judson can today point with pride to the good she has 
accomplished in the maintaining of her fine schools. As I said before, 
with her up-to-date and modern school building she is able to say to 
the surrounding towns that she is keeping her place among the best 
public schools in the land. This is fully demonstrated by the fine corps 
of instructors that has charge of this school, the names of which I 
have given above. 


The German and Catholic schools have been well maintained and 
kept up with their splendid teachers and their good school buildings 
as spoken of before. All are indicative of fine results from an educa- 
tional standpoint. Education has always been the main object of the 
German Lutherans as well as the Catholics, which you can see in all 
cities, where you never fail to find their fine school buildings. North 
Judsou is not behind her neighbors in this respect and we give to them 
the same good will and pleasant wishes that we do to any other people 
in their efforts to do something honorable among the human family, 
and winning the prize at the end of the race, a prize worthy of all who 
make the same effort in this world, a prize you are to receive in another 
world, in a world to come. 

Many of the older inhabitants of North Judson can recollect the 
little old log schoolhouse, the first one built in their town, and the 
inconveniences that the teacher and pupils had to encounter. Little 
did they think of the modern conveniences that they are enjoying today. 
While those older people could not enjoy those things they can take 
great pleasure in seeing their children and their children's children 
enjoying those things that they knew nothing of when they were young 
and going to school. 

This is only one of the indications of progress that we are making in 
this countiy. Every year adds something new to our ever onward 
march of progress from an educational standpoint as well as all other 
forms of improvement spread abroad in our land. Dating back to the 
time ever since our public school system was established there has been 
a disposition upon the part of the people to see what progress they 
could make upon the question of education. But until our country 
became somewhat improved and our roads opened up the school ques- 
tion was a hard proposition and we had no high school in the county 
at that time, nothing but the common small mixed school. Teaching 
the eight grades was all that was required by the state, but as the 
county improved and our towns began to assume greater proportions, 
then the building of more modern school buildings was undertaken by 
our citizens until we have several high school buildings in the county, 
among which is the fine high school building at North Judson spoken 
of. This school is not behind those of neighboring towns in graduating a 
goodly number of pupils every year. It is a pleasure to know that 
North Judson has shown to the world that she too is marked upon 
the map as a fii-st-class educational center and shall continue to hold 
her place as such. 

H.\MLET Schools 

The superintendent and teachers are given here : Prof. U. R. Young, 
superintendent; Miss Maiy Cobb, principal; Mrs. Burr Abner, 8th 
room ; Miss Lucile Seibold, 5th, 6th and 7th rooms ; Mrs. U. R. Young, 
3d and 4th rooms; Miss Fern Good, 1st and 2d rooms; Miss Eva Van- 
Derweele, music and drawing; Mr. Walter Diedrick, janitor. 


Hamlet is noted for her schools, which are managed by a first-class 
lot of instructors. U. R. Young, the superintendent, is a man well 
qualified for the position. Always wide-awake to the best interests of 
all branches of the school, looking after all the grade teachers and losing 
no time in all his duties, he is giving the pupils the whole benefit of 
his services and giving the school board and also the patrons of the 
school just cause to feel proud of their superintendent. A good, ener- 
getic superintendent is a great incentive to the school work over which 
he has charge. 

Miss Mary Cobb, the very well qualified principal of the Hamlet 
school, comes well recommended to the school board, and is employed 
to teach the present year, 1914-1915, which she is doing with credit 
to herself and a full benefit to the pupils in her care. No one will 
regret that the school board has selected her as principal of the Hamlet 
school. Doing her duty throughout her school work is her aim fi'om 
the first until the last day of the term. 

The eighth grade pupils are in charge of ilrs. Burr Abner, who is 
well qualified to teach this grade. No one will work harder to advance 
the pupils than will Mrs. Abner. Always showing a willingness to per- 
form the duties assigned to her, making success her motto throughout 
the whole school year, she is giving her pupils her best efforts to instruct 
them well for the compensation she receives for her services. 

Miss Lucile Seibold, the teacher of grades five, six and seven, is the 
right teacher in the right place. Having the full confidence and the 
best wislies of all her pupils is a strong indication that she is a success- 
ful teacher in any school she may be engaged in, ever ready to per- 
form her duty and showing to the school board that she is worthy of 
the place she fills in the Hamlet schools. 

The third and fourth grades are taught by Mrs. U. R. Young, who 
is a first class teacher and merits the praise of all her pupils and of 
the patrons as well. The assurance that she has the entire attention of 
the school and the respect and admiration of the citizens of Hamlet 
gives her full confidence of success and when school closes in the spring 
she can look back over the last year's works with satisfaction of having 
performed her work well. 

Miss Fern Good, having charge of grades Nos. 1 and 2 in the Ham- 
let school, is a teacher of experience and one who will command the 
love and respect of all her pupils and the best wishes and esteem of the 
patrons of the town. Assuring the school board that they will have no 
occasion to regi'ct that they selected her to teach in their town will be 
her aim during the whole term. 

The very important position, music and drawing, which is taught 
by Miss Eva VanDerweele, will have her undivided attention through- 
out the whole school year. She is well qualified to teach in that line 
and will aim at all times to show the school as well as to convince the 
school board and the patrons of Hamlet school that she merits the 
position she fills so well. 

Much depends also on the janitor of the school, for it falls on him 


to keep the buildiug warm and the children comfortable during school 
hours. This duty falls on Walter Diedrick, who will ever be at his 
post doing all in his power to perform his part well, and has the best 
wishes of the superintendent, the teachers and the entire school. 

The school board of Hamlet is Valentine Flora, president; Jacob 
Short, secretary; Wilber Dye, treasurer. 

The school board is a very important office to fill as much depeuds 
upon them for the success of the school in employing good and efficient 
teachers for our public schools. The town board of Hamlet has answered 
this call faithfully in electing the above school board, who will not 
neglect anything that they can do to keep the wheels of educational 
interests revolving around. Ever watchful as to their duties, aiming 
all the time to furnish anything that the school requires to help it along, 
always mindful of the fact that they will have as good schools in 
Hamlet as you find anywhere, this has been the motto of the school 
board since the present school system was first established in that town. 
The town well deserves much credit for the good feeling and kind 
assistance rendered in all the departments of the educational interest 
so broadly shown by them. 

The good feeling towards the board in the building marks the course 
they all pursue in matters educational, and when they find their school 
building too small and overcrowded and undertake to increase its 
dimensions to one of sufficient size to accommodate all the pupils the 
same desire will be shown as was shown by the board and the citizens 
of Knox when we built and enlarged our school building last year. 

Grovertown Schools 

A. F. Marsh, principal; Henry Clausen, assistant principal; jMrs. 
A. F. Mai'sh, Grammar grade, music, sewing; Amelia Nelson, Inter- 
mediate; Theressa Goppert, Primary. 

Mr. A. F. Marsh, the principal of the Grovertown schools, is no 
stranger in Grovertown, having been raised in that place, is a young 
man well qualified for the position which he so honorably holds and will 
fill his place well, maintaining the full confidence of the entire school 
and the good will and respect of the people in and around Grovertown. 

Mr. Henry Clausen, the assistant principal, knows full well the 
duties assigned to him and is well qualified to fill them with much 
credit to himself and the entire satisfaction of the whole school. Con- 
vincing all that the trustee has made no mistake in employing him as 
the assistant principal of the Grovertown schools shall be his motto 
from the first until the last day of the term. 

Mrs. A. F. Marsh, wife of A. F. Marsh, is employed to teach the 
grammer grades, music and sewing in the Grovertown High School, 
and is well qualified to teach the pupils in the line for which she is 
employed. Having the good wishes of her pupils as well as the princi- 
pal and tlie whole school and the patrons of the school will assure her 


of success from the first day of the term uutil the bell shall denote the 
closing of the term in the spring of 1915. 

Amelia Nelson, having been employed to teach the intermediate 
grades in this school, is a lady of whom the whole town may feel proud 
that she is one of the teachers employed in the Grovertown school, and 
shall close her term with the love and respect of the whole school. 

Theressa Goppert is a lady raised in Oregon Township and no one 
will doubt but what she will teach the primary department of the 
Grovertown school to the entire satisfaction of the whole school, the 
principals and the surrounding neighborhood. Winning the love and 
affection of all those little pupils shall be her aim. Doing all in her 
power to make her efforts successful is her motto. 

San Pierre 

The San Pierre High School has for its principal Miss Mae Falvey, 
who is a lady raised in San Pierre, well qualified to teach and superin- 
tend the school, a teacher that all the town may feel justly proud of, an 
instructor whom Mr. Daily and the entire neighborhood will honor and 
revere as the principal so suitably selected for the San Pierre schools. 

Augustine Dusek, the assistant principal, has been well chosen, all 
agreeing that the selection made for that important position was well 
made. This confidence in the assistant principal gives the whole com- 
munity the full assurance that the school will be taught with the aim 
in view to teach just such a school as will have the esteem and good 
will of all. 

Hannah Mundorf's position in charge of the grammar grades is 
an indication of the good judgment shown by the township trustee in 
selecting her for that part of the school which she is so well qualified to 
teach. Her full aim is to teach a school that all will be proud of. She 
believes that success comes to those who are worthy of it. 

Marie Maloney, the teacher selected to teach the intermediate depart- 
ment of our school, is exactly the right teacher for that very important 
place in the San Pierre schools, and well may the patrons as well as the 
school look for a succssful school year, which it is sure of with the kind 
of teachers so suitably employed by Mr. Daily. 

Anna Kays having been raised in San Pierre is well acquainted in 
her home town, and being employed to teach the primary department 
of the San Pierre school is giving entire satisfaction and merits the 
praise of all the school as well as the parents, and wishing her a success- 
ful school year is the sincere wish of all. 

North Bend Township, too, has a high school of which M. V. John- 
son is the principal, a man of sterling integrity, a man well chosen by 
the township trustee to so important a position, a position which he is 
well qualified to fill, a place that all will agree he is filling well. When 
the school term terminates in the spring of 1915 he can be assured of 
the fact that he left nothing undone. 

Charles Hetfield, assistant principal of this school, has been well 


chosen by Mr. Castleman to teach in the North Bend Township High 
School, a place that he is well qualified to till, and when the school shall 
have closed its term for 1914-1915 he will have the pleasure to know he 
'^las performed his duty well and maintained the good will of the entire 
school and the patrons as well. 

Mabel Copp, who has been employed to teach the grammar and 
intermediate departments of the North Bend High School, is a lady well 
known as a successful teacher and is capable of convincing the town- 
ship trustee, the superintendents, the whole school and the patrons too 
that she is the right teacher in the right place, performing her part in 
the North Bend Township High School with credit to herself and 
admiration of all. 

Minnie Chidister, the primary teacher in the North Bend Township 
High School, is a lady well suited for that very important place she 
holds. Kind and attentive to the small pupils, gaining the full con- 
fidence of them, when she shall have finished her term they will all 
wish her well and long for her return in coming years. 

The following is a list of the teachers outside of Knox, North Judson, 
Hamlet, Grovertown, San Pierre, the Centralized School of Center 
Township and the North Bend Township High School, given by town- 
ships : 

North Bend Township 

Harry Doyle, Rosa G. Rock, Forest Smith, Christena Fitting, Loyde 
Kingman, Mrs. Loyde Kingman and La Verne Green. 

Railroad Township 

Clara Arndt, Meta Reimawanz, Bertha Clawson, Sylvia Lindsey 
and IMarietta Miuidorf. 

\Yashington Township 

Cora Coffin, Roy Piper, Frank Cochenour, George Myers, Vlasta 
Lukes, Anna Price, John Ziegler and Zoi-a Rodgers. 

California Township 

Maude Mosher, Harry Hook, Earl Lucas, Minnie Coffin, Dale Short, 
Grover Short, C. E. Newlm and Florence Stephenson. 

Center Township 
Julia Geddes. 

Davis Township 

Rex "White, Frances Chapel, Ruth Palmer, C. G. Munderf, Edna 
Bunnell and Margaret Aultman. 


Oregon Township 

Forest Marsh, Henry Marsh, Edith Marsh, Sylvia Kraft, Walter 
Stutsman, Donald Reinhardt and Lois Falkenthal. 

Wayne Township 

Jeanette Smalley, Harriet Deardorf, Grace Clark, Frank Heilmau, 
Ester Atherton and Victor White. 

Jackson Township 

Ada Geddes, Irene Regnold, Laura Swabey. 

All of those teachers are deserving of the highest praise for the 
way they have conducted the schools in Starke County and may their 
lives be long and continue to be useful in the future as they have 
been in the past is the sincere wish of the people and the writer. 

OfScers of the County Institute : Carroll W. Cannon, president (ex 
ofBcio; Carson Rebstock, vice president; Ada Geddes, secretaiy; Ada 
Ballard, assistant secretary; J. Allen Barr, treasurer. 

Officers of the County Teachei-s' Association of 1914 : Maude Mosher, 
president ; Grover Short, vice president ; j\Iary Kasch, secretary ; Minnie 

Coffin, assistant secretary; , treasurer; Eva 

VanDerweele, music director; Carroll AV. Cannon, county superin- 

No set of people are more concerned about passing events than the 
patrons of those children going to our public schools. Giving those 
small folks over to the instructors in our schools is a matter of deep 
concern, a matter that we all have the most sincere interest in, a matter 
that we all can look to with pride, since our school laws are so con- 
structed that we can have the full assurance that our children will be 
well taken care of and that the taxes that we pay for the maintenance 
of our schools will not be spent in vain. It brings back to us and our 
children many times what it costs to educate them in our very well con- 
ducted schools, which are founded on the wholesome school laws of 


In the earlier days of the organization and settlement of Starke 
County there was very little money in circulation and not much demand 
or need for general banking business. The people that did have such 
use and public officials did their banking business at Winamac or 
Plymouth, mostly in Plymouth. 

The first real banking institution established in the county was 
started by the late Dr. Alexander Hamilton Henderson some time during 
the year 1882 in connection with his drug store located in the old frame 
building that stood where the Frank A. Green drug store is now 
located. Dr. Henderson in a small way conducted a banking business 
and continued for several years, but after the organization of the Citi- 
zens Bank gradually retired from the banking business. 

In 1889 the late Franklin Pierce Whitson, together with Lewis 
Keller of Winamac, organized the Citizens Bank and continued the 
banking business for several years. The first depositor on certificate ■ 
of this bank was Austin P. Dial. Mr. Whitson started his bank in a 
frame building on the east side of Main Street on a lot adjoining where 
the New Fairy Theatre is now located. Later he built the brick build- 
ing where the present Farmers State Bank is now located and moved 
his bank thereto, which building is used for banking purposes since 
that time. About 1892 Mr. Whitson sold out to some other parties 
and Jacob Bozarth was made cashier and conducted the business until 
the latter part of 1893, when they sold out to the Farmers Bank. 

Farmers Bank 

In January, 1893, Austin P. Dial and the late Andrew 0. Castle- 
man and Louis Keller of Winamac organized the Farmers Bank and 
started business in the room of the old Central Hotel. Of this bank 
A. P. Dial was president, A. 0. Castleman, cashier, and C. C. Kelly 
assistant cashier. After the purchase of the Citizens Bank they moved 
into the Whitson Building and remained there. 

Farmers State Bank 

In 1901 Austin P. Dial and associates converted the Farmers Bank 
into the Farmers State Bank, having obtained the charter for that pur- 
pose from the secretary of state. 



The first officers at that time were: Austin P. Dial, president; 
Hjahiiar A. Ellingson, vice president; Isaac Templin, cashier. Mr. Dial 
has continued as president of the Farmers State Bank to the present 
time. Mr. Ellingson resigned as vice president in 1910 and was suc- 
ceeded by J. W. Long. Isaac Templin, the cashier, remained as cashier 
of this institution until December, 1904, when he resigned to qualify 
as treasurer of Starke County and the duties of cashier devolved upon 
Guy M. Well, the assistant cashier, until June, 1905, when John W. 
Kurtz, who had just retired from the auditor's office, was elected 
cashier and has remained cashier of the institution continuously until 
the present time. 

The present officers of the Farmers State Bank are: President, 
Austin P. Dial ; vice president, John W. Long ; cashier, John W. Kurtz ; 
assistant cashier, David M. Baldwin. And the present board of direc- 
tors are the president, vice president, cashier, Herbert R. Koffel, Llahlon 
J. Hartzler, and Gus Reiss. In 1913 the Farmers State Bank had their 
building enlarged and remodeled, put in new fui'niture and fixtures and 
have at the present time a very modern and up-to-date bank that is a 
credit to the town, the bank and the county. 

FiEST National Bank 

In 1901 the late Oratio Darwin Fuller organized the Firet National 
Bank of Knox. The other incorporators with Mr. Fuller were : James 
C. Fletcher, Edgar W. Shilling, Robert H. Bender, John G. Kratli, 
Schuyler C. Shilling, Joseph Smith, Francis Yeager, WilUam L. McFar- 
land, Lawrence E. Good, Monroe C. McCormick, James A. Bell, Samuel 
Koontz, John L. Moorman, William E. Odell. 

This bank opened its doors for business in the same room that the 
Farmers Bank started, August 8, 1901, and the first depositor was 
Mrs. Alvira J. Bender. 

The first board of directors were, 0. D. Fuller, Monroe C. McCormick, 
Edgar W. Shilling, Robert Bender and Francis Yeager. Officers were: 
President, Oratio D. Fuller; vice president, Edgar W. Shilling, and 
cashier, Monroe C. McCormick. Mr. Fuller remained president of this 
institution until his death, February 4, 1914, when he was succeeded 
by James C. Fletcher, Mr. Fletcher having been made a member of the 
board of directors on the retirement of Robert H. Bender, and Henry F. 
Schricker was elected director to succeed Mr. Fuller on the board. 
Edgar W. Shilling has continued to the present time as vice president. 
Cashier McCormick resigned in September, 1911, as cashier and director 
and was succeeded in both positions by Mark D. Falvey, who still holds 
the position of cashier and director. In 1912 the board of directors 
was increased from five to seven and Frank A. Green and Lee M. Rans- 
bottom were elected as the two new members, which makes the present 
board of directors composed of James C. Fletcher, Edgar Shilling, 
Mark Falvey, Francis Y'eager, Frank A. Green and Lee M. Rausbottom. 
The present officers are : President, James C. Fletcher ; vice president, 


Edgar W. Shilling; cashier, Mark D. Palvey; assistant cashier, Perry 
W. Uncapher; bookkeeper, Ethel Sweitzer. This bank remained in its 
old quarters for a few years and then moved to its present location 
on the corner of Main and Washington streets. 

The general banking business of Starke County in the past few 
years has increased very rapidly. The total amount of deposits on the 
31st day of October, 1914, shows a very creditable and handsome 
inci-ease of deposits in the county and indicates that the people of 
Starke County not only have confidence in the present four banking 
institutions of the county but that the county has grown and increased 
not only in population and number of acreage of cultivated lands but in 
the general wealth of its citizens. It is no uncommon thing to hear 
remarks that Starke County is blessed ^^dth sound, substantial banking 
institutions and that the people who patronize the various banks have 
the utmost confidence in them, not only in the institutions but in the 
management of them. All of the banks are conducted along conserva- 
tive, sane and safe banking business lines, and are undoubtedly destined 
to make a larger and more substantial showing in the next ten years 
than they have in the past ten years. 

Report of the condition of the Farmers State Bank, a State Bank 
at Knox, in the State of Indiana, at the close of its business on October 
31, 1914: 


Loans and discounts $277,033.39 

Overdrafts 865.45 

Furniture and fixtures 4,317.85 

Other real estate 915.00 

Due from banks and trust companies 74,548.23 

Cash on hand 16,192.51 

Cash items 1,348.31 

Current expenses 456.38 

Interest paid 532.48 

Total $376,209.60 


Capital stock, paid in $ 25,000.00 

Surplus 25,000.00 

Undivided profits 5,107.11 

Exchange, discounts and interest 2,164.58 

Demand deposits 318,937.91 

Total $376,209.60 


State of Indiana, Starke County, ss: 

I, J. W. Kurtz, cashier of the Farmers State Bank, Kuox, Indiana, 
do solemnly swear that the above statement is true. 

J. W. Kurtz, Cashier. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 7th day of November, 1914. 

WiLLARD L. Wyman, Notary Public. 
My commission expires June 26, 1918. 

Report of the condition of the First National Bank (No. 5919), at 
Knox, in the State of Indiana, at the close of business, October 31, 1914: 


Loans and discounts $237,518.30 

Overdrafts, secured and unsecured 227.31 

U. S. bonds to secure circulation 25,000.00 

Premiums on U. S. bonds 700.00 

Bonds, securities, etc 8,636.94 

Stock in federal reserve bank 500.00 

Banking house, furniture, fixtures 1,500.00 

Other real estate owned 5,303.54 

Due from approved reserve agents in central resei*\'e cities in 

other reserve cities 45,033.25 

Checks and other cash items 149.62 

Notes of other national banks 1,100.00 

Fractional paper currency, nickels and cents 101.69 

Specie 15,223.50 

Legal tender notes 5,500.00 

Amount paid on account subscription to $1,000,000,000 gold 

fund (subscribed) less interest paid and expense 4,686.09 

Redemption fund with U. S. treasurer, 5 per cent of 

circulation 1,250.00 

Bills in transit 1,709.03 

Unknown resources 

Total $354,109.27 


Capital stock paid in $ 25,000.00 

Surplus fund 22,000.00 

Undivided profits, less expenses and taxes paid 

National bank notes outstanding 25,000.00 

Due to state banks and bankers 712.16 

Individual deposits subject to check 111,070.18 

Demand certificates of deposit 152,125.17 

Certified cheeks 850.00 

Securities, collateral security for same, interest received and 

other profits 4,158.92 


Bills payable, iucludiug obligations for money borrowed. . . . 10,000.00 

Savings accounts 2,989.00 

Liabilities other than above stated 208.81 

Total .$354,109.27 

State of Indiana, County of Starke, ss: 

I, Mark D. Falvey, cashier of the above named bank, do solemnly 
swear that the above statement is true to the best of my knowledge 
and belief. 

Mark D. Palvey, Cashier. 
Francis Yeager, 
L. M. Ransbottom, 
E. W. Shilling, 
Frank A. Green, 
H. P. Scheicker, 
James C. Fletcher, 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 7th day of November, 1914. 
(Seal) Daisy Cbabb, Notary Public. 

Daniel H. Stanton, President. 

James L. Denaut, Vice President. 

Jacob S. Short, Cashier. 
Report of the condition of the Hamlet State Bank, a state bank at 
Hamlet, in the State of Indiana, at the close of its business on October 
31, 1914: 


Loans and discounts $127,898.19 

Overdrafts 2,057.14 

Other bonds and securities 3,750.00 

Banking house 1,850.00 

Furniture and fixtures 2,000.00 

Due from hanks and trust companies 28,744.95 

Cash on hand 5,177.16 

Cash items 7.76 

Total resources .$171,485.20 


Capital stock paid in $ 25,000.00 

Surplus 4.500.00 

Undivided profits 222.49 

Exchange, discounts and interest 978.74 


Demand deposits 76,741.20 

Demand certificates 64,04:2.77 

Total liabmties $171,485.20 

State of Indiana, County of Starke, ss: 

I, Jacob S. Short, casliier of the Hamlet State Bank, do solemnly 
swear that the above statement is true. 

Jacob S. Short, Cashier. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 9th day of November, 1914. 

Jerry H. Brickles, Notary' Public. 
My commission expires March 30, 1918. 
Chas. W. Weningeb, President. P. H. McCormick, Cashier. 

Jacob F. Manz, Vice President. G. N. Peebson, Asst. Cashier. 

Report of condition of the First State Bank of North Judson, Indi- 
ana, at the close of business October 31, 1914 : 


Loans and discounts $ 86,028.09 

Overdrafts 166.44 

Other bonds and securities 95,218.74 

Banking house 5,000.00 

Furniture and fixtures 3,701.37 

Other real estate 2,674.67 

Due from banks and trust companies 28,408.18 

Cash on hand 7,656.06 

Cash items 547.04 

Current expenses 347.01 

Total $420,147.60 


Capital paid in .$ 25,000.00 

Surplus 10,000.00 

Undivided profits 4,189.87 

Exchange, discounts and interest 1,080.02 

Demand deposits 388,183.34 

Certified checks 5.00 

Due to banks and trust companies 390.98 

Contingent fund 298.39 

Total $420,147.60 

State of Indiana, County of Starke, ss: 

I, Perry H. IMoCormick, cashier of the First State Bank of North 
Judson, Indiana, do solemnly swear that the above statement is true. 
Perry H. McCormick, Cashier. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 7th day of November, 1914. 

Harry C. Miller, Notaiy Public. 
My commission expires December 12, 1915. 


Money and Banks 

About the year of 1786 the Congress of the Confederation established 
as the money unit of the United States the dollar of 375.64 grains of 
pure silver. This unit originated in the Spanish dollar, a milled coin, 
being the coin in general use up to that time. An act of Congress in 
April, 1792, adopted a monetary system upon a gold basis of 24.75 grains 
of gold and the silver dollar was reduced to 371.25 grains of pure silver. 
The first mint ever established in the United States was at Philadel- 
phia and there began the coinage of gold and silver at a ratio of 1 to 
15. Different acts of the Congress were passed between the years of 
1834 and 1853 readjusting the ratio of the two coins to agree with 
the commercial value of both metals, as the cheapest one generally forces 
the dearer out of circulation. It was not until the year of 1873 that 
the single standard of value was established of gold, as it was found to 
be impossible to keep them on an equality without frequently changing 
the ratio to conform to the commercial value of both metals. Gold 
from that time on has been the unit of value with silver as used for 
convenience in smaller business transactions and as subsidiary coins. 

In the early days of Indiana there seems to have been no paper 
money in circulation. Trading one article for another was used as a 
sort of money medium or used as a currency. Those values were based 
upon the fur, as mink, coon and muskrat skins at whatever they would 
sell for. Such conditions could only exist in a thinly settled country, 
as manufacturers were an unknown quantity in those days, and what 
trading they did was for the things they actually needed to sustain life. 
In those days the settlers raised on their small patches of clearing a 
part of their living, depending upon the wild game and wild fruits for 
the rest. They traded wheat or com for salt and such articles that 
tliey could not obtain in the country or make from the lands within 
tlieir range. They always met on certain days at a place designated, 
l)y giving notice beforehand, and there they would trade or "swap" 
one ai-ticle for another. They generally used the word "swap" or 
"swapping" in their dealings with each other. 

It was usually the case that they did a great deal of their trading 
at the close of some public or religious meeting, where they would 
remain for hours carrying on the trading of their different kinds of 
articles, sometimes to be delivered afterwards. Later they came in 
possession of a little government paper called "scrip," as also a British 
and silver coin which was introduced by settlers from the East. Should 
they want to make change they would cut a Spanish dollar into halves, 
quarters and eights, a practice that would be a violation of our laws in 
this day and age of civilized progi-ess. 

The first banks of Indiana when it was a territorial government 
were chartered in 1814. This was when the following banks were char- 
tered : The Bank of Vincennes and the Farmers and Merchants Bank of 
Madison. In 1816, at the time that Indiana became a state and the 
constitution recognized, the charters of those two banks were estab- 


lished. The bank at Vincennes was established as the state bauk in 
1817, makiug the bauk of Madison as a branch bank. Then came the 
establishing of the bank of Vevay and Corydon. The baak at Vin- 
cennes was so unsatisfactorily managed that the Legislature in 1821 
revoked their charter. This caused a heavy loss to some of its patrons 
but the branch at Madison paid out in full, continuing on until about 
the year 1834, when the state felt a great depression in financial circles 
and prices went down to a low figure. Epidemics broke out in which 
many people died and suffering reigned from 1821 to 1824. 

The government became convinced that a reduction in the price of 
land should be made thereby encouraging the coming of new settlers, 
and then the prices of the public lands were reduced from $2.00 per 
acre to .$1.25 per acre. It did, however, work out well, for better times 
were soon seen, prosperity gradually returned, public improvements 
were soon begun and hurried to completion. Among the public works 
were the building of canals and roads through the country. 

The State Bank of Indiana was chartered in 1834 (while the Gov- 
ernment surveyors were surveying the lands embraced in Starke County), 
with authority to establish branch banks. This bank became a complete 
monopoly. The charter was to run twenty-five years and during that 
time no other bank was allowed to operate in the state. Ti-ue, the 
management was conducted upon sound financial principles, but in 
1837 a panic, which it was claimed was caused principally by President 
Jackson's interference with the United States Bank, compelled the 
Indiana State Bank to suspend specie payments. But in the year 1842 
the Legislature ordered the bank to resume specie payment, and from 
that time on it was always ready to answer all demands and redeem 
all notes presented at the bank. In 1832 to 1840 the state was lending 
assistance toward the building of our canals and roads through the 
country, which involved the state materially, and in 1839 or 1840 the 
Legislature ordered an issue of $1,500,000 at the rate of 6 per cent 
interest. A depreciation of this scrip caused speculators to take advan- 
tage of the markets, but it was later redeemed. Then the issuing of 
scrip by the state created a still further inflation of the currency. 
All manner of business men and companies, contractors and men 
carrying on all trades began the issuing of paper money or scrip, 
which was redeemable in goods or merchandise, and it became a common 
thing among the people. The scrip issued by the plank road company 
had for its basis the receipts of toll, as there was toll fee charged upon 
those plank roads to meet the expense of keeping them up and in 

The denomination of this scrip ranged all the way from a 25-cent 
shinplaster to one of $3. Being jjrinted upon blue paper, it became 
derisively known and styled by the name of "Blue Pup," which was 
to distinguish it from "Red Dog" of the statB, as the last named was 
made of red paper. About the same time the State of Michigan char- 
tered its bank, with slow regard to the financial soundness of its paper 
money, which soon covered the whole northern part of Indiana and 


caused a depreciation of all currency and added to the difficulties 
in all the financial affairs of the country. It seems, however, that the 
state bank was well managed and those paper hills passed without 
discount, but ere long there were those that became discontented and 
envious, as it appeared to have become a monopoly. 

Then in the revision of the new constitution, the clause in the 
original bill of 1816 giving the state bank full and exclusive power 
and authority to issue money was stricken out and gave the Legislature 
the authority to establish free banking laws. This act was passed by 
that body in 1853, and two years later a charter was given to the State 
of Indiana which was vetoed by Governor Wright, but became a law 
over his veto. 

It was not until the year 1859 that the charter of the old bank 
expired, but there was an understanding entered into in which the 
new company was to buy out the old, and the change was made in 
1857 on certain conditions, which were to the effect that Hugh Mc- 
CuUough should be made president. This was done, and by the good 
and honorable course pursued by Mr. McCuUough he soon established 
a safe and sound basis of this bank, which went through all the financial 
difficulties of 1859 and continued its business until in 1865, when it 
was suppres.sed by the national banking system. 

, Banks of issue bobbed up in all directions and the banks made no 
claims to be banks of deposit. Their only thought was to issue and 
float notes. Then a company of individuals would throw their forces 
together and buy up a few thousand dollars' worth of depreciated 
bonds of some municipality, far away perhaps, deposit those with the 
state auditor, and thereby authorized to enter into the issuing of paper 
money. This privilege was often abused, for they would issue bills 
many times greater than the amount of securities that they would 
deposit, float them, and they would soon become worthless. A good 
many of those banks would start on just sufficient capital to secure 
the engraving and printing of the notes and the necessary fixtures to 
fit up an office, which was very scant in furniture. Mr. McCullough, in 
speaking of those banks, said: "Their life was pleasant and short; 
their demise ruinous and shameful. As soon as their notes began to 
be presented for payment, they died without a struggle." Mr. Mc- 
Cullough was the first to become controller of the currency under the 
act which established the national banking system in 1865, and was 
afterward the secretary of the treasury. 

Little is known of the floating of those bills in the first of the '50s 
in Starke County, but later this was a matter that gave to our pioneer 
citizens much concern. As there were but few people in this part 
of the state, the portion out of which Starke County was organized 
in 1850, as I have said before, the money question was not of so much 
importance then as it came to be soon after. Those bills might be 
worth one hundred cents on the dollar today, but there was no assur- 
ance of what it would be after a night's sleep. Those bills were 
commonly known as "wild cat" money. 


In looking over some history I find a sketch written by Wilson, an 
artic'le on banking, whieh was read before the historical society on 
February 26, 1909, which says, "The only bank I ever saw along the 
Wabash or the Kankakee River was a farmer banking up his house one 
day. And the snow banks, that bank up in the winter, and the sand 
banks that are banking up in May. But there's faro banks galore 
along the river and other banks in which you put your trust ; then 
there's another kind of bank you put your money in; there's a loud 
report and then that bank's bust." 

Much credit should be given to Abraham Lincoln, the President of 
the United States, for the conditions and changes in our monetary sys- 
tem. We now have a currency reliable, a currency that we can 
exchange any place upon our globe, which rule has held good and 
faithful ever since 1863, no one losing a dollar on account of our 
national banking laws. By the present laws state banks are allowed 
to issue their own notes, but the tax is so high that it is impracticable, 
and only national banks under control of the comptroller of the cur- 
rency have been issuing bank notes since the national bank system 
was established in 1863. We do have, however, state and private banks 
of discount and deposit and savings banks so well taken care of by 
legal conditions and restrictions, making the stockholders responsible, 
with examinations made often, and requiring the stockholders of savings 
banks to have been citizens of the county for at least five years, 
and to have in their possession a certain amount of unincumbered real 
estate. With the protections thrown about us we seldom hear of 
defalcations of banks since the days of "Wild Cat," the "Blue Pup" 
and the "Red Dog" are over. Just recently, in fact in the year of 
1893, our Legislature passed a law by which trust companies could 
be established, but they do not do a general banking business, they 
only receive deposits and make investments, execute bonds and admin- 
ister estates. We have a law also authorizing the organization of 
building and loan companies, especially to benefit and encourage the 
laboring class of people to secure their own home by paying a certain 
per cent of the loan each month. There were several of those asso- 
ciations or organizations in this part of the state which helped many 
to procure a home who perhaps otherwise would have had to do without. 
Those associations seem to be retiring, as we do not hear of them very 
much of late. 


The great Civil war experienced by our people fifty years ago was 
a fearful and heart-breaking thing to contemplate, a dread for the 
wives and children of those men who went forth at the country's call 
for "more men," leaving the plow standing in the field and the anvil 
in the shop. The most piteous thing of all was the leaving of their 
families. He bids adieu and starts for the field of action, to fight for 
the flag of his country that he and his family may be safe under its 
floating banner and that the nation be preserved. Such were the 
feelings of those who fought in the great Civil war, who so valiantly 
answered the country's call. 

When the cannon's roar resounded far beyond the hills at Fort 
Sumter on that eventful morning in April, 1861, then began the men 
of Starke County to volunteer and prepare for war, and it was in the 
summer of that long and lonesome year that the Twenty-ninth Regiment 
of soldiers started for the scenes of action. Our farmers, merchants 
and business men gave up their professions and enlisted in the service 
of our country. Many were killed upon the field of battle and others 
returned home after more than three years of hardships during that 
awful struggle in which the Union was preserved and peace and liberty 
once more prevailed. It was left to those that returned to relate the 
scenes and carnage of that great conflict then closed. 

Many were shot, many maimed and crippled for life; but such is 
war. So, we see, that Starke County responded promptly to our 
country's call, and its men among hundreds and thousands of brave 
and true boys fought through the war to the end. There are many yet 
living in the county that will never forget the hardships they endured 
during the rebellion from 1861 to 1865. When those that were left 
returned to their homes once more, many found their families — some 
dead, some gone or removed to some other location. Many of those 
soldiers that went into the war have never met each other since the 
war closed, some going to one part of the country and some to another. 

The blood spilled upon European soil during the present awful 
struggle makes the hearts of our old soldiers of the Civil war throb 
with emotion for the lives and suffering of those in that far away 
country. While the stoutest fathers and their sons are engaged in that 
dreadful warfare, we shall hope that we may never have a repetition 
of that great war between the North and South of fifty years ago. 


Living peaceably at rest, our country, not being engaged in this 
great foreign warfare, can give assurance that we are to live among 
men who shall advocate peace and prosperity among all nations of the 
earth. So awful is the thought of war, it ought to be a lesson well 
taught that to live in peace with our neighboring countries should 
be the watchword of us all. 

The following is a list of the Twenty-ninth Regiment, with the 
soldiers from Starke County included in the list : 

Leland H. Stoker, Cornelius Fymeson, Eli M. Albright. James 
H. Collins, Mentor J. Hill, Michael F. McCrorv', Charles Pierce, Charles 
Rogers, William P. Stevenson, Alonzo V. Wade, Henry- Lathrop, Ira 
S. Morey, Lewis Bentz, Aaron Deloter, Hutchinson Hutchinson, Wil- 
liam J. Otis, Frank Pierce, Peter L. Runyan, Jr., William M. Stock- 
dale, Ezra C. Albright, John C. Griffith, Edward G. Burgess, Charles 
Grosspitch, George F. Mame, Aquilla R. Philpot, Sylvanus Rathboue, 
Andrew Sack and Hamp W. Wright. 

Company A — Irenus McGowan, David B. Allen, James R. Wads- 
worth, Miletus McGowan, John Hunt, Hiram Bundy, Hiram Baker, 
John A. Berger, John Boyer, James M. Carpenter, Elias F. Contad, 
Barney Cummings, Claudene Dillingham, Willard Fales, Eli H. Friuk, 
Adam H. Gleason, DaWd Haines, Philip Haines. William H. Hansel- 
man, William Hunt, William H. Keyes, William Letcher, Frederick 
McGowan, Edward A. Parker, Lewis Phenecie, Eli Rinehart, Charles 
E. Sabin, Albert H. Stewart, Andrew Summerlot, Calib Talbot, Simeon 
Tingler, John J. West, Frederick B. Wood. George Brown, Nelson 
Berger, Gilbert Carpenter, James Conn. Benjamin K. Garfield, Orlando 
J. Dennison, Henry E. Elliott, Richard J. Gaskill, Jacob Ferrier, 
Charles H. Jennings, Joseph M. Everhart, William H. Cole, Moses B. 
Hushey, Webster Allen, Thomas J. Baker, Francis H. Beach, Anson 
Brown, George D. Cleveland, Chester Coe, John T. Dennis, Joseph J. 
Delabaugh, George Fisher, James Gatehouse, George E. Guthrie, George 
Hackett, Nathaniel Hanna, Harris V. Holdridge, John W. Huffman, 
William Kerns, George Myers, Cornelius Moore, Edwin L. Parker, James 
Phenecie, Daniel Ruth, Oscar C. Sabin, William Stevenson, Franklin 
Summerlot, Joshua E. Taylor, George D. Tuttle, Frank Willaby, Hiram 
W. Woodard, Lakin W. Bieknell, Michael Bowerman, Horace Cook, 
Jesse Craft, Jacob Dixon, John Eaton, Ezekiel Field, Andrew G. 
Gwin, John W. La Rue, Emery G. Melindy, Daniel Berger, Ziba H. 
Jsjger, John Hutchins, James J. Adkins, Abner W. Beck, William 
Bender, David Bromley, Alonzo Courtney, Fredrick Clock, William 
Deeler, John Elco, Chauncy French, Christian Gibbons, Hugh Guthrie, 
Henry Hanna, William Hanselman, Judah Hutchins, William Jenkins, 
Reuben Knowles, Hiram B. Melendy, William S. Moore, John Petty, 
William C. Phenecie, William H. Stitson, Lafayette R. Spangle, Levi 
A. Stuck, Franklin B. Sej-mour, William J. Taylor, Charles L. Wells, 
Lewis H. Wilkin, John P. Altman, Charles J. Berger, Aaron K. M. 
Crise, Samuel Coble, John B. Christenberry, James Darling, Jonathan 
L. Emery, Allen Ferguson, Smith Guthrie, William H. Grundman, 


Emery W. Hutchins, Frederick High, George W. Hills, Thomas M. 
Huey, Bland B. Ketchum, David Lord, Jacob C. Likes, Henry Mc- 
Kinney, Samuel H. Moore, Daniel C. Northway, Alvah Pattee, Hubert 
Rhodes, Mortimer Seymour, John Simpkins, James W. C. Shabls, 
Theodore Twitchell, Henry B. Tague, William A. Van Cleve, Nathaniel 
P. Walcott, Elijah J. Waller, Robert H. Garrett, Stephen E. Heley, 
Alfred Haywood, Price W. Hanley, Erastus P. Hall, Alex W. Kilpatriek, 
John B. Lacey, James McNabb, Noah Martoff, Joseph Miller, Thomas 
A. O'Neal, William Priest, John Roach, Valentine Summerlot, Henry 
Shook, John P. Tillottson, John Tingler, William H. Tolbert, Adrian 
Walker, William H. Walcott, Lewis G. C. Young, Preston Howarth, 
Robert A. Haffield, Henry Holden, Joseph H. Hall, James Inman, 
Peter J. King, Martin A. Lewis, William W. JMcVay, James S. MeCray, 
Lewis Y. Newhouse, William S. Polk, Edward J. Quigley, William 
Richman, William C. Sweeney. Alexander D. Sargeant, James E. 
Thompson, James E. Taylor, George L. Van Ankin, James M. Wil- 
loughby, Alexander G. Wilson and Philip L. Young. 

Company B — Levi M. Hess, Amos B. Butler, Richard W. Mc- 
Cumsey, Samuel Knight, Amos B. Mills, George Jackson, William 
Bums, John R. Buchanan, Albert Camp, Zora A. Clifford, John B. 
Grawson, Sprague P. Dewolf, Albert P. Fox, Charles Groesbeck, Scott 
Haynes, Jonathan Houck, Simeon Key, William Knight, Calvin Mar- 
shall, Milton Mills, Almond Mott, William P. Needham, Uriah Osborn, 
James J. Reem, Samuel Riefsnider, Philip Row, Henry Sebring, Luther 
Smith, Franklin M. Stewart, Ira Stetler, Elijah McCumber, Alfred 
W. Fenton, William Ivans, David B. Hutchinson, Garrett Ream, George 
P. Amidan, Cornelius M. Boyd, Manius Buchanan, William Chasey, 
Lewis Coleman, Webster Criss, Robert S. Dickson, Norman E. Gibson, 
John Groesbeck, John K. Harris, Owen D. Ivens, Seth W. Keesey, 
Benjamin McCumsey, Jacob Miller, George Minager, Samuel Mott, Jacob 
Odell, Webster F. Paxson, John Reed, Absalom Row, Samuel Saylor, 
Joseph Showalter, William H. H. Smith, John M. Stonebraker, George 
Temple, George W. McKain, Stephen Deardoff, John F. Youuts, Cyrus 
Hughs, Sylvester Seymour, Isaac T. Aldrieh, James P. Boyd, Thomas 
Buchanan, Henry C. Clifford, Richard W. Cook, Samuel Davis, Robert 
Fahliman, William Gonser, Jonathan Gushwa, James R. Hoyt, David 
James, Franklin Knight, Benjamin MeCreasey, Levi Mills, George 
Moore, Bethania Myers, John Osborn, Daniel Rager, Isaac Reed, Moses 
Row, Henry L. Seamon, Abner Smith, Lafayette Stauffer, William 
Stover, Simon Trego, Jacob J. Ulrich, William A. Worley, Cyrus 
Wyland, Thomas Anderson, William B. Allen, John Bowman, Jacob 
Bickel, Edson Blanchard, Joshua Boomershine, Woodford Cothran, 
Talmon L. Cross, James Coldwell, William Davenport, Lewis C. Foust, 
John Featherston, William Gladwell, Philip Gushwa, William Harri- 
man, George G. Howard, John R. Kimmel, Thomas L. Lacey, David 
Liby, James McCurdy, Henry Metealf, Zabnis A. McCumber, Peter 
Ricing, John R. Rugg, John F. Schofield, Jonas Simpson, Washington 


Snodgrass, Richard Snyder, John Teller, Charles W. Williams, Richard 
W. Wright, Joseph Wear, Adam A. Whitehead, Joel Wyland, Emanuel 
Aurand, Elias Bushong, David Baxter, John Bloomington, Joseph Beam. 
William J. Bowman, James M. Corns, John P. Cross, Christopher Clay, 
Hiram Drawley, John G. Fulk, John Gushwa, James Gilmore, Francis 
B. Griffith, Fredrick Harsh, Zeph Hollingswortli, George B. Looseman, 
John Lorents, John Moore, Solomon Mottiuger, Michael Miller, Allen 
Nickson, Samuel Rugg, John P. Rudy, Jonathan Shaffer, l^evi A. Sim- 
mons, Richard Shade, Tracy R. Terrell, David Tillpaugh, John C. Wade, 
George Weipert, Elias Wright, Thomas Williams, Henry Amidon, Jacob . 
Bents, James M. Bristol, David Beninger, John J. Berry, John Hutton, 
George W. Conner, Christopher Camp, Daniel Croop, William H. Estep, 
John Furr, Merritt Gibson, Peter Gonser, Eli Hires, James H. Hulls, 
David Haney, William Lants, David Luttsman, Alva Mott, Castile F. 
McCreary, James McCuen, Jonathan Poe, Robert Renner, John F. 
Shehan, William H. Stetler, Henry Shemory, Christopher Shade, 
Olystus Thornberg, Benjamin Williams and Jacob Walmer. 

Company C — Thomas S. Cogley, Columbus Gates, David F. Beach, 
Benjamin Matchett, Oscar Rockwell, John H. Chappell, Frank Batch, 
Isaac W. Bowen, Leroy M. Burdiek, Alfred A. Butler, Henry W. Cline, 
William H. Crane, David W. Crouch, Seth Eskridge, John Garver, 
Henry H. Graves, John H. Hauu, Augustus Hendricks, George W. Hop- 
kins, Adam Hull, Henry J. Jourdan, Walter Nevins, William VanWert, 
Henry L. Booth, Davis Williams, James W. Brink, William Backhaus, 
John Batch, Charles H. Bookhoyt, Henry C. Budd, David P. Bryant, 
James L. Cline, Alexander S. Crane, Robert Dinwiddle, George W. 
Fessenden, John W. H. J. Gillett, John W. Grover, Hiram A. Hall, 
Loomis Herrod, John C. Holtorf, John W. Johnson, Stephen Kish, 
Leroy S. Bureh, Samuel L. Lock, Francis A. Shoemaker, Daniel Shoe- 
maker, Richard W. Comfort, Fernando C. Barnes, Samuel H. Board- 
man, John Burdiek, Gilford D. Bureh, Bergen H. Brown, Charles 
Corkins, Ayers Crouch, George C. Dorland, Fletcher Garis, Jeremiah 
Goodman, Peter Groover, Patrick Hays, Harvey Holmes, James M. 
Huffman, Benjamin F. Jessup, Lafayette Keyes, George Lawrence, 
John McCune, Jacob W. Mandeville, John H. Michael, Archibald S. 
Morton, John Phillips, James H. Preston, Wallace H. Rockwell, John 
W. Shoemaker, William W. Taylor, Mart L. Vandenwalker, Francis M. 
Winchell, Albert Brown, Simon T. Bailey, Samuel M. Brady, Elijah 
B. Collins, Thornton Davis, William T. Graves, Alfred Grierson, Green 
L. Holtsclaw, Henry M. Harvey, John T. Jones, Isaiah H. Mitchell, 
Peter B. Mock, Alston Nichols, Robert F. Newby, Michael Phillips, John 
M. Powell, George W. Raines, Charles F. Ray, Jeremiah Swisher, 
Thomas Sweringen, William H. Tilton, Jolm M. Templin, Christian 
Wachstetter, Benjamin F. Wells, Walter Lightcap, Alonzo McLane, 
Rhymus S. Mandeville, Alonzo Miller, James M. Nelson, Nor\'al Phillips, 
Alfred Reed, Theodore D. Romans, Adam Sigrider, William Toyne, 
John A. Whitcraft, Clinton F. Worden, Absalom A. Bowers, Joel E. 


Bray, John E. Cox, John C. Cline, William English, Henry C. Gluekey, 
J-ohn M. Gully, Simon P. Hagee, James H. Jones, Albert P. Love, 
Samuel M. Mitchell, John L. May, James Nichols, George Phillips, 
James Phillips, George C. Robey, Alfred B. Richardson, Charles Russia, 
Lewis Sapling, John B. Sutton, Edward H. Thompson, Esquire Turner, 
Robert P. Williams, Jesse M. Wade, Silas Long, Richard McLaue, 
Thomas Marr, Sylvanus Monroe, Orlan R. Peck, Tristram Pike, Enoch 
Robinson, John Shaffer, Justin Smith, Jacob A. Troxel, CuUen J. 
Wickham, Philander C. Burch, John H. Biddle, John M. Barker, 
William Coburn, John Daily, Alfred B. Fox, Simpson C. Green, 
Emanuel Hickman, Seth Huron, Jr., William P. Jones, Joseph W. 
Lewis, William McCarty, William R. Mendenhall, James Newman, 
William Phillips, Dan C. Postill, George E. Riley, Washington Reyn- 
olds, Charles Scott, Marmaduke Smith, Richard B. Tiiiunons, John H. 
Tilton, Benjamin F. Walden and Jacob Whitehead. 

Company D — MeCaslin Moore, Joseph Phillips, Byron W. Worden, 
Jonathan F. Sanford, William R. McCormick, Daniel Rowell, William 
Anderson, James Baker, Silas J. Bascom, Asa Brown, William H. H. 
CofBn, Riley H. Craig, Benjamin Fairchilds, Harvey Goon, Thomas 
M. Hamlet, David S. Hepner, William H. Herrill, Andrew C. Shepherd, 
Alpheus Duulap, William T. Baker, Oliver S. Carpenter, Matthias T. 
Hepner, James Abbott, Oakley Askridge, Isaac R. Bascom, William S. 
Bidwell, Gilman Bryant, Park H. Collins, Ezekiel Cole, John M. Fisher, 
Harvey C. Green, John W. Hanshaw, William T. Hepner, Alexander 
Hewitt, John H. Geller, Elson A. Smith, James H. Dunlap, Alexander 
Young, Darius Ault, Caleb P. Adams, Barzilla Askridge, Jonathan 
Bascom, Michael Blew, John 0. Burton, James S. Collins, William 
Elmendorff, Arthur Girard, Franklin C. Hamlet, David Hay, Joseph 
Herrin, Jabez Izzard, Job W. Johnson, Sylvester Kennedy, Jacob Leiby, 
John McConnehey, Calvin Miller, John Oakmau, Thomas Pyne, Jacob 
Robbins, George W. Sherwood, Robert E. Short, Jeremiah Smith, Wil- 
liam H. Stephenson, Elkanah Strimbach, Peter F. Wambaugh, John 
Windbigler, Abraham L. Zook, Levi T. Bell, William J. Bell, James W. 
Boyle, Alonzo B. Craig, William Darragh, John C. Free, Albert H. 
Highway, Charles W. Hartman, John F. Johnson, Allen J. Kutch, 
Joseph Long, David McCumber, Edward McCann, John McMullen, 
Joshua Pryor, Robert L. Russell, Albert Stevenson, William H. Stout, 
Owen 0. Thompson, Joseph C. Vertner, George B. Whitaker, William 
Wallace, John J. Kaler, William Landon, Smith Love, John McMillen, 
William Miracle, Jeremiah L. Ormsby, Nathaniel Rebstock, Andrew B. 
Serrels, Jasper H. Shore, James Simmons, Jesse R. Smith, John Stick- 
ley, Napoleon B. Swires, Peter Warner, Charles Worden, William Zook, 
George H. Burch, Christopher C. Belcher, Edward Case, Jesse Chap- 
pell, Eli French, John Goodman, Andrew L. Hanshaw, Thomas J. 
Hobbs, John T. Johnson, Amett Lindsey, Joseph Larrimore, Joseph 
Miller, David McCann, Jacob S. MiUer, Robert Proyer, William Russell, 
Levi Stevenson, Jared Spooner, Henry C. Turnbull, Joseph Wajmian, 


Anthony Weise, Samuel M. Kelly, Peter Laguire, John H. Maekey, 
Charles Melcomb, Isham R. New, George D. Overly, David W. Rhodes, 
Abraham Shaffer, James Short, Ezra J. Smith, John Smith, Charles 
Stowell, William VanNote, Henry Windbigler, Joshua Wyant, Ben- 
jamin Anderson, Francis Bell, Adam Burgcaff, John E. Collins, Wil- 
liam H. H. Daugbty, David T. Ferguson, James Goldsberry, Julius 
C. Hatter, John W. Harrison, James E. Johnson, John M. Logan, Peter 
Lantz, Courtland Marsh, Isaac McMullen, John Orr, Charles Rossen, 
Hamilton Smith, Tipton Short, Samuel Shirley, Tucker Thornton, 
John W. Worden, John Wallace and Thomas J. Wilkius. 

Company E — Austin Sergent, Jefferson Boshop, Nelson B. Bennett, 
Milton Mitchell, William Griswold, George Johnson, Allen Brown, 
Henry Burns, Alexander H. Copner, Robert W. Christie, Daniel Calli- 
han, Tyra Douglass, Michael Folley, Jacob R. Powles, Oliver E. Felly, 
William H. H. McDonald, John G. Penrose, Sylvanus Bishop, George 
Myres, James P. Wilson, Thomas Athon, Samuel W. Bennett, John W. 
Chestnut, John N. Covert, James Campbell, Andrew M. Callihan, David 
Early, John Fouts, Edward G. Fry, Joseph B. Graham, Leander B. 
Sargent, Joseph M. Bennett, Benjamin F. Fickle, John Henderson, John 
F. Callihan, Aaron Booth, Thomas Black, Edward Campbell, Isaac 
Crane, Thomas J. Campbell, Joseph S. Calkins, Benjamin Elliott, George 
Pultz, Alfred Paunce, Cyrus A. Goodwin, John D. Green, John Humes, 
Samuel Helper, Enoch B. Jones, Willis H. Kelley, Bradford Louderback, 
Theodore Morrison, Job V. Pownall, William H. Pownall, Stephen H. 
Read, Edward S. Smith, Enos Studebaker, James Townsend, John 
Walkei-, William Yocum, William J. Blue, Felix G. Buck, Jacob L. 
Brockover, Harvey M. Coan, Edward R. Colstir, John W. Crouteh, 
Andrew Demoss, Robert Davis, Silas Elliott, Thomas F. Fickle, David 
H. Freeman, John A. Gordon, Zimri Holenbeek, John Horton, Peter 
Henderson, William H. Kinster, William Livingston, Gideon Martin, 
Philip Miller, Joshua Nelson, Jacob J. Power, Michael Rissing, Henry 
Risinear, William D. Stoddard, Enoch B. Smith, Charles Stinnett, 
Solomon Showalter, Oliver B. Sargent, John I. Vandever, John Wright, 
Harvey Grable, John B. Hollenbeck, Adam Jenkins, David S. Kahlen, 
John Louderback, John S. Lunsford, Samuel McElhany, Henry C. 
Pownall, John V. Read, Ezra Rhodes, Robert W. Smith, Alexander 
H. Thompson, James Ward, Daniel M. White, John Asher. Chauncy 
L. Blue, Henry Burns, James M. Bowser, Charles Cassaday, David H. 
Calkins, Charles Coray, Jacob R. Deekard, John Early, Oliver B. Enyart, 
Henry Perrell, Thomas H. Flemons, John A. Girt, Frederick Hem- 
minger, Thomas Hefty, Cornelius Jones, James Lemasters, Samuel 
Lamb, Henry C. McLaughlin, John Marsh, Henry C. OUiver, Thomas 
Pownall, Michael Rhodes, George W. Runnels, William Spiker, Henry 
Shakel, David R. Smock, Adam Sinder, George W. Thompson, John 
Wilson, James Youkum, Henry Grow, Philip C. Hinkle, William H. 
Jones, William J. Kline, Allen Louderback, Alfred C. Myers, John W. 
Martin, Isaac W. Pownall, Robinson B. Read, Daniel Smith, Alexander 


Seedam, John Tuttle, Jacob J. Warrick, John Wagoner, George W. 
Ash, Joseph H. Ball, William J. Buck, Samuel Clark, Charles C. Con- 
nell, William M. Cornelius, George Campbell, William H. Davidson, 
William B. Euyart, Joseph B. Enyart, Jonathan From, John A. Gris- 
wold, John W. Green, John Hortou, Plummer Hanson, Nathan Koons, 
John A. Lowery, Charles Michael, John Morgan, Samuel Norris, 
Andrew Potter, Joseph M. Henderson, David J. Reed, Isaac Smith, 
Henry C. Sellers, Henry Stinnett, Harvey Smock, Mordecai Sherman, 
Edward Tollotson and Gustin P. Wolfington. 

Company F — Isaac B. Goodrich, John Taylor, Daniel L. Shanks, 
Charles W. Sehenk, Charles W. Groff, John W. Anderson, Anthony 
Aubert, Franklin 0. Bentley, Timothy Paige, Owen M. Eddy, Alden 
Whitney, Zaehariah AUcock, Homer C. Eller, John T. Arbaugh, Israel 
Baker, Samuel Bowers, Calvin Stillson, Levi H. Sipes, John Glass, 
Robert Shields, George J. Epps, William H. Augustine, David Bell, 
Casper Bowers, Joseph A. Boquet, William H. Brewer, Joseph Burke, 
Solomon W. Christie, Asa Earls, Rowen Hagerty, James M. Hughes, 
Augustus Lario, Solomon Mangus, Eli Mangus, Samuel Matlock, Daniel 
R. Morehouse, Henry F. Parks, George W. Quigley, Elum W. Rice, 
Henry C. Sheddrick, Andrew Swintz, James F. Vinnedge, Henry S. 
Williams, Nathan York, Peter Brewer, George W. Bremer, John Bow- 
man, John R. Bullock, Lorenzo Casteel, James A. Creeh, Frank East, 
Charles E. Givens, Henry C. Grimm, Samuel T. Head, Jesse Henderson, 
Jacob Kerns, Amos Maheny, Russell McCormick, George W. Meldon, 
John Pierce, Jacob R. Parks, Samuel Ritter, James B. Russell, John 
Sigmoud, Nehemiah Smith, Charles R. Stewart, John Tuttle, Cyrus N. 
Wheatley, John C. Wright, Ashbel M. Brown, Edmond Burkhart, 
Edward Chase, John W. Duffield, David M. Frame, Fritz Hardy, Daniel 
Judie, Augustus Lioneous, Elias Mangus, Simon Manuel, David B. 
Miller, Charles Moritz, John Poff, Turpen Rentfrow, Chrincyauee I. 
Sehenck, William N. Sehultz, Jerry D. Snyder, Edward Tipton, Fred- 
erick Wively, Daniel E. Whitman, Christian Bark, William Black, 
James L. Baker, William C. Boyer, Hiram V. Corning, Scott Chambers, 
Jesse C. Davis, Nathan Parr, Allen N. Goodrich, William N. Grimes, 
David Harrison, Hugh A. Jordan, Horatio Lodge, James T. Martin, 
Henry W. IMiller, William L. Norris, William Parker, John A. Peterson, 
Charles Ridgeway, Lawrence Scott, John Sparrow, Michael Sowers, 
Ashley Sutherland, Elijah Watson, John B. Wilson, Covington Way, 
Lewis Brewer, Joseph N. Burdick, Joseph Caudle, William H. Dodd, 
James M. Gillan, Jacob Hardy, John W. Kiner, William Longacre, 
Peter Mangus, Henry Mapes, Solomon C. Miller, Warren Munday, 
William Pratt, George W. Rizor, Bernhard Segel, Abraham S. Shultz, 
Frederick Steimer, John J. Traub, Albion A. Williams, William Wood, 
Courtney Bonneville, James M. Blyler, Walter Bayse, Adam Bremer, 
William Craiger, Lawrence Cox, Abner P. Dodds, Ferdinand Giroud, 
Nicholas Gresling, Peter J. Grube, Taylor Hughes, Lewis Kline. Wil- 
liam Lawler, David McConnell, John Henry Myers, Daniel O'Shea, 


Henry W. Porter, Virgil Reynolds, Absalom Ringer, Uriah Shorte, 
Andrew Stillson, Andrew J. Stoops, Tilghman Swigart, Jason M. 
Wheeler, George Witherald and Adam W. Shearer. 

Company G — Griffin A. Coffin, John W. Vanderhoff, Samuel H. 
Gilmore, Alonzo Sturges, John E. Holland, James 0. Beahiii, Henry 
Adle, Orasmus Bushuell, Oscar Harris, Aaron H. Miller, Henry Haskins, 
William L. Eagleton, Wheeler Bartram, Harrison Baxter, David C. 
Clark, Francis Cunningham, James M. Donaldson, Sherry Evans, David 
Grice, Joseph J. Haskin, Kenyon Hyde, James R. Johnson, Daniel 
Leeper, David M. Love, Joseph McDonald, Benjamin S. Maudlin, John 
E. Oliver, Conrad Popp, Ilugli Roberts, William Saybold, Frank N. 
Sheets, William F. Stewart, William Tennis, Seth Vader, Allen W. 
Warnock, Chester F. Wilkinson, Abner Arrasmith, John D. Baker, 
John M. Boschat, Orren L. Closser, William H. Cahill, John Coy, 
Horace A. Edwards, Thomas W. Firll, John W. Green, Paris Goodwin, 
Hugh G. Harding, Thomas G. Ham, George W. Johnson. John Lee, 
Samuel McCarty, Jacob Maloue, William Moore, Clemens E. Phillips, 
Michael Pierce, Joseph A. Sherman, William V. Scarlett, John Snyder, 
Alexander Trent, Peter Walsh, Hiram H. Martin, Austin Steele, James 
Abbott, John Billfer, Charles Bishop, Henry Clymer, Christopher L. 
Davis, Heniy Dunn, Samuel Freet, John J. Grommon, ilichael Hunt, 
William Ivy, Simeon Key, Charles Lewis, James Love, James C. Megraw, 
George W. Morton, Sylvanus Palmer, Abraham Popple, Stephen A. Rol- 
lins, Benjamin F. Sharpe, Charles F. Skinner, Willard Trail, Henry Tow- 
elton, George W. Williams, John C. Watson, George Woodard, Thomas R. 
Adams, Joseph Batch, Lewis A. Brown, James Costillo, Joseph Conway, 
Elias Dahuff, Jasper Fogus, John D. Fields, Charles H. Grebe, Peter 
Hewler, Philip Hicks, Jacob Imel, Andrew Kramer, Henry Lapp, John 
Miller, John Moore, Artemus Norris, William R. Phillips, Gideon 
Palmer, David M. Smith, Thomas H. Smead, George W. Shippee, 
Edward Vanderventer, Americus Wells, Cation Weed, Alfred R. Ab- 
bot, Charles H. Blaekwell, John A. Bennett, Heury Charlesworth, 
George A. Collins, Jacob Daugherty, Andrew Eggenburger, Wheeler 
Gould, Henry C. Grove, John F. Huntley, John Jackson, John Leahman, 
Simeon Lightfoot, John McCormack, Philander Mackey, Edward Nor- 
wood, John W. Plummer, Amos H. Roberts, David Rhodes, Martin 
Sent, Michael Snyder, Jonathan J. Trupper, John E. Usher, James 
Ward, Joseph W. Wheaton, George H. Atwell, William Black, John 
Barnett, David J. Benjamin, Shelton L. Gulp, Franklin T. Clarkson, 
John W. Eaton, Albert A. Finley, Freeborn J. Fletters, Abrain J. 
Gillispie, Baytt Humble, Willett Ham, Henry C. James, James N. 
Kibler, Archibald Leach, Enoch May, Thomas Moore, John A. Ocker, 
David M. Price, George W. Steele, Thomas Smith, August Snyder, 
George W. Singleton, William Winchell and Robert J. York. 

Company H — Thomas H. IMusselman, Benjamin F. Stambaugh, 
Hiram B. Bates, Franklin G. ]\Ioore, Libnie H. Hunt, Cornelius Bogart, 
E. L. Bowden, Eli H. Clampitt, Thomas Dolan, Horatio French, Har- 


mon Heaeock, William Kemp, Adam Loventhall, Samuel E. Mettee, 
Patrick Moloney, William Noricks, Eli Reese, David Smith, Philander 
Thompson, John Ault, Charles Buckley, Samuel D. Burns, Noah Bolan, 
Jacob Bro\ra, Jefferson Conover, Joseph Douglas, Richard H. Dixoo, 
Jasper Edwards, James Foster, John Folley, Ezra Green, Parkinson 
P. George, Edward Harding, John A. Haskins, Henry H. Holstine, 
Amos A. Johnson, George W. Keim, David M. Leard, Isaac A. Linsey, 
Daniel Lahmar, Isaac Lanegar, Frank Meeker, Jacob W. Miller, Jacob 
Mussulman, James Petty, Charles W. Price, Daniel Porter, William H. 
Reavis, Jackson Raccoon, Josiah P. Smyzer, Lewis Senior, George 
Surdam, Gilbert Brainard, Elijah Hawkins, Nelson Earl, William Wil- 
liams, Byron Holly, John Barnes, W. J. Bowden, Gilbert Cranmore, 
Charles Earl, Joco Goodbo, James Horton, John Killin, Isaac Lehmer, 
George S. Manas, James MeClain, Theron Potter, Leonard Rider, James 
M. Stultz, Harvey S. Walker, Charles D. Allen, John Becraft, George 
W. Bair, Andrew J. Buckhart, Abraham Boocher, James A. Clemens, 
John Dailey, Lorenzo Elibee, Ottawa B. Evans, Jasper Farnham, Fred- 
erick Flagel, John Green, John Gruble, Henry Holwell, James Hodges, 
Madison F. Holburn, Asa Jones, John J. Kennedy, Thomas La Porey, 
Nelson Loughton, Joseph Liggett, Elias Miller, Alonzo Mussen, Anson 
M. McDonald, Erastus Miller, Elijah Poor, James Purhey, David M. 
Rennoe, Eli H. Reese, Alvin B. Stutsman, Daniel Swigart, Joseph 
School, Peter Tennis, William Thompson, Thomas H. Reese, Samuel 
Cade, Martin V. Kemp, Benjamin West, William W. Boyee, Robert 
H. Campbell, John Dailey, Benjamin Franklin, James H. Harshman, 
Charles L. Irish, Robert Keown, James McNair, John Miles, Andrew 
J. Moore, William Ream, Eli Secrist, William Sulkman, Robert Ward, 
Andrew Adams, Daniel Barlett, William Brumbarger, Oscar F. Brown, 
Noah Bowman, Byron T. Cooper, William Delany, William English, 
Henry Ebhart, William Fordyce, George Francis, Alexander Goodricli, 
Isaac J. Hippie, Phillip Haupris, Lewis Hetner, Frank Johnson, David 
Keller, Lewis Kearns, Moses A. Lyons, Lewis Loughton, Oscar Lafevre, 
Owen McLean, James P. Mareen, Benjamin F. Muttesbaiigh, William 
H. Petty, Madison Piper, William Persing, John W. Robinson, Peter 
Raccoon, Jacob Smith, William Streable, Jesse Shoemaker, Martin 
Thornton, Quigley Thomas, Benjamin F. AVright, Henry E. Welch, 
David F. Willard, John Thalls, Elwood Ward, George H. Winslow, 
Jacob Yeidicker, James Underwood, William J. Walters, Anthony Willis 
and John Zoleman. 

Company I — John Flucard, John D. Armstrong, William H. George, 
Wilson Cherry, Anson Badgley, James E. Bivens, Russel Bowen, 
Loyal Bureh, Franklin Coil. William Crawford, Charles Decker, Robert 
Dilworth, Warren D. Edwards, Joseph Gibbons, Frank Harris, John 
Hexel, Edwin C. Imley, Frederick Kocher, Michael Miller, Griswold 
Phelps, William Saylor, George C. Smith, George W. Van Kirk, Oliver 
Allen, William H. Burton, Joseph Buckles, Allen Bodine, Eli Burk, 
James H. Chappel, John Deep, Jacob H. Ehret, Edmond Everhart, 


Alexander Gilmore, Samuel Gipe, Artemus G. Harrington, John Haley, 
John A. Johnson, Lewis C. Lee, Levi Lewis, Michael MeCormac, Andrew 
J. Middleton, William Maples, Jacob McLaughlin, Frederick Nolting, 
James (^uigley, William S. Reprogle, Israel Rose, Daniel Shotwell, 
Francis Sherwin, George W. Harper, Viat E. Smith, John R. Green, 
Benjamin Dilworth, Alphonso Kidwell, Warren Babbitt, John Bromley, 
Charles Burton, Patrick Collins, Sylvester Crawford, Peter Deggo, John 
Eavers, Asbury Flewellen, William H. Grover, William W. Hawkins, 
Lyban Hunt, Michael Katin, John N. McBroom, George Mossholder, 
William K. Polly, Jacob SheU, Henry Taylor, William H. Whited, 
Owen A. Ames, John Beiderman, Levi Buzzard, Joseph P. Bishop, 
Levi Bixler, William B. Chasteen, Orson Dunham, Jolin Edgar, John 
T. Everhart, Joshua A. Gibbs, James Higbee, Joel G. Holley, Charles 
Hutchinson, George H. Lee, Oliver Loomis, Sylvester Lovell, Charles 
Metzker, William A. McCurry, Clinton MuUis, John W. Mace, Samuel E. 
Pitts, George Reprogle, William R. Robbius, Thomas Sage, Charles 
Singleton, Francis Smith, Robert B. Patterson, Albert Z. Norton, James 
R. Gregory, David Redding, Jesse N. Marks, Michael Bain, Russel 
Bureh, Benjamin F. Chandler, Patrick Conway, Levi F. Dawson, Lewis 
Dickie, John Erb, Edmond Fuller, Josiah Grover, John Hall, Martin 
Howley, Patrick Kelin, Thomas McChesney, Thomas O'Neal, Patrick 
Ryan, Heni-y C. Smith, Charles F. Tucker, John Whited, Robert Ames, 
Leonard Bigger, William Birch, John W. Burton, John W. Cost, Michael 
B. Clark, William H. Dawson, Theodore Emerson, Thomas J. Flinn, 
Harvey Gibbs, John Hays, John Holderman, William H. Jamerson, 
John jM. Loomis, Riley Listen, Franklin Lane, Hem-y F. jNIcLaughlin, 
Daniel Mason, Arthur Mackey, Frederick Miller, Daniel Pfaff, Alex- 
ander Rhea, Peter Rothman, James Simmons, Josiah Shutts, Samuel 
Sutton, Squire H. Tague, -John Tennis, William Williams, Daniel 
Wright, Joel Wall, Silas Tongate, William H. Tucker, Nathan Watson, 
Martin AYetzel, William Weaver, Thadeus Tanner, William Thompson, 
James Williams and Jeremiah Walker. 

Company K — John Cutler, Edwin Henderson, James M. Ducomb, 
Jacob Wynn, Charles J. Swezey, Abner Leonard, William Annis, John 
L. Bunch, William Cline, John Donahue, Jasper Fogus, Henry C. 
Hathaway, Henry Hardzog, Parris Henderson, Simon S. Huyler, Philip 
Kirkendall, John A. Lamb, Frederick Mangus, Zebadiah Oliver, Perry 
J. Rhue, Solomon 0. Shoup, Henry Tener, George W. Ullery, Bur- 
roughs Wolverton, Gotlip Wagley, William Akise, Thomas Boone, Harri- 
son Beal, Anthony E. Burnett, Christian H. Casler, William Chateen, 
Christian Dietrich, Joseph H. Ellis, Thomas Fritch, Jacob Fry, John 
R. Grant, William Henderson, Hiram Hook, Hiram E. Jackson, Jordan 
Keen, Francis Kist, George W. King, Milton P. Kizer, Charles H. Lehr, 
Henry Murphy, John F. McKay, John Ott, Philip Duncomb, Daniel 
T. Welch, John Sample, Richard J. Henderson, Henry Perry, Luke 
Aldrich, Simon Bailey, Eli Burns, Tobias Cole, John M. Elder, Jacob 
Ging, Jesse Hathaway, John W. Hart, Elijah Hildebrand, William 


Jackson, Nelson King, James S. Lees, John Mangus, Charles Purdy, 
Benjamin F. Seybold, Francis M. Smith, Philip Tener, Leander Venedge, 
John Wood, Frederick Wagley, Joshua B. Barnum, Seymour S. Butler, 
Henry C. Bell, Lewis P. Baxter, John H. Conliff, Isham Cordill, Peter 
Dietrich, Leander J. Edwards, George W. Fox, James B. Gearhart, 
Thomas Grace, Lewis Hitchcock, James B. Henry, Henry B. Jay, David 
Knepper, Martin L. Kennedy, Peter Kizer, Andrew J. Knoblock, Millard 
F. Lukens, Daniel Miller, David S. MeChesney, Thomas Parker, John 
R. Moon, Joseph A. Bunch, Andrew Mounts, George W. Parker, Arelius 
Decamp, Lorenzo Annis, Otis T. Brown, William B. Burnsides, Wilson 
C. Cotton, John Eslinger, John Hildebrand, Christian Hardzog, Dayton 
Henderson, John Hughes, Cyrus Jones, John B. Kizer, Morgan McGuire, 
Eli Mountz, Charles Ream, Peter D. Shoup, Benjamin F. Steiner, Samuel 
Tener, George W. Wiles, John C. Wynn, Levi Arty, Eliska Brown, 
Levi N. Bodley, Michael G. Byers, John N. Bitters, Francis M. Collins, 
Francis M. Chapman, Levi Duvall, Jacob Fried, Sylvester A. Fast, 
Elijah D. GunsuUes, John Henderson, William S. Harris, John Hardesty, 
Joseph C. Kinsey, Philip Kelly, Lewis King, Jeremiah Kizer, Samuel 
Lauderman, Lafayette Lewis, David C. Miller, George W. wings, 
Finley Fowling, Adam C. Pollard, Levi Roberts, Jacob Sneland, Henry 
Steiner, Rinehart Shroyer, Harmon Tabert, Theodore Titus, Samuel T. 
Whiteman, Jacob M. Waltei-, John J. Weaver, Sylvester Young, Michael 
Price, Samuel J. Rose, Lewis Smith, James T. Shelton, Frank C. S. 
Sinner, Eli Tippet, Jacob E. Talbert, Deloss Wood, Elias Webster, 
William Weaver, George W. Yanna, George Ringle, Benjamin Ritter, 
Christian Sailor, Edward A. Stone, Frederick Stickley, James Tranter, 
Rezin Watkins, John Willey, Charles H. Winslow and Joshua B. Ward. 

Unassigned Recruits — William Aldridge, Walker Bays, Elijah H. 
Collins, Benjamin Clayton, William Cooper, Thomas Dolen, Charles 
Davis, David Heney, John H. Logan, Valentine Lang, James McEwen, 
Kennedy L. Martin, John Norton, Nelis Olson, Jacob Roop, Hamilton 
Smith, Gillon Troyer, Henry W. Thomas, John Worden, Thomas I. Wil- 
kins, Louis Wiseman, George Brown, Charles Brevier, William Cahill, 
Andrew Camp, Allen J. Couch, John Dean, James T. Ferguson, James 
H. Hoffield, Peter Long, John Lininger, Jacob Metzler, James Mc Wil- 
liams, James Odell, James Patterson, John W. Smith, Ashley S. Suther- 
land, Thomas W. TirU, Silas Tongate, James White, James Webster, 
John Wallace, William C. Bennett, Jacob Bowman, James Conroy, 
James Casad, Mitchel Dolen, Daniel Deeds, William W. Gamer, James 
Highie, Peter Lepp, John Morris, James Moore, Josiah Neidig, Alex- 
ander Osborn, Robert Pryor, Albert Smith, Andrew J. Sculley, John 
M. Tennis, Samuel Wetzel, Felix Wallard, William H. Wade and Jacob 

Spanish American Soldiers 

Starke County boys mustered into service of the United States May 
10, 1898, for the Spanish-American war. Company A, One Hundred 
and Fifty-seventh Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry: 


Captain — Charles Windisch. 

First Lieutenant — Bradford D. L. Glazebi'ook. 

Second Lieutenant — George D. Laramore. 

Sergeants — William H. Clayburn, Louis N. Laramore, Charles H. 
Peele, Thomas V. Wilson, Othar C. Wamsley and Charles M. Hart. 

Corporals — Samuel J. Cunningham, Eber Foote, John R. Braden, 
Robert F. Rennewantz, Arthur B. Howland and Charles Potter. 

Artificer — Henry Garner. 

Wagoner — George Evans. 

Musicians — Charles E. Eikenbary and Lloyd C. Brown. 

Privates — Mark Anderson, Arthur A. Alexander. Arthur A. Bayne, 
Clayton Bonta, William H. Barrick, John C. Bence, Norman E. Car- 
penter, John S. Chamberlain, Warren Chapman, Abraham B. Chidister, 
William E. Dueteh, William E. Dillon, Samuel W. Defreese, Albert J. 
English, Edward Fawley, James B. Finch, Worthy M. Green, William 
A. Gall, John L. Griffith, Frank M. Haskins, August R. Hilberg, Alvaro 
Hunter, Wellington Harmon, Frank Humphries, Jarry S. Jennings, 
William F. Kincel, Ross Latshaw, Joseph W. Loudermilk, George C. 
Mann, Harry Miller, Matthew McDonald, Frank Nowinski, Clarence E. 
Platz, William N. Anderson, Byron H. Badgley, Harry L. Badger, Max 
Biniakowski, Willard S. Beaston, Andy J. Bressler, George W. Car- 
penter, John M. Chandler, Thomas J. Clark, Harry Davidson, Scott 
Delong, William M. Draper, Anthony Durken, George D. Elder, Julius 
Forkies, William Fielder, Chester Grzesk, Edward D. Geller, William 
N. Harmon, Clayton Hewlett, William Horn, Joseph Hunter, John 
Haines, Clyde E. Jacks, Spencer S. Koontz, John J. Koseicski, Charles 
T. Lohse, Elmer E. Louderback, Michael Martin, William Miltenberger, 
Merl N. Musselman, Franklin E. Phillipi, Charles 0. Phillips, James L. 
Rater, Francis S. Rathfon, Charles L. Scott, Stanley Szalewski, William 
H. Smith, Daniel V. Summers, John D. Vanhorn, William H. Wash, 
Walter J. Woods, John J. Whalen, Charley Wolfenberger, William H. 
Walters, Lloyd Rader, Wilford E. Savage, Milton L. Seagraves, Thomas 
T. Sloan, Walter F. Stevenson, George A. Vanderwalker, Daniel C. 
Walters, Haddie L. West, Frank Woltman, Frank Wilders and Frank 

Those boys having the same spirit of their fathers who responded to 
the call for men at the beginning of the Civil w^ar, they too quickly 
answered the call for soldiers at the first of the Spanish-American war, 
when on the 10th day of May, 1898, the above young men were mustered 
into service. 

Many mothers wept and many sisters shed tears as those boys 
marched to the front ready to do their duty just like all patriotic 
citizens have always done when our country needs their services. 

Many no doubt felt a longing for the old home, for father, for mother, 
for sister or brother and for his sweetheart he left behind, but there is 
a disposition and a desire as well as a duty to his countrj^ that spurs 
us on, that fills the heart of man to ever be ready and willing to tread 


the battlefield, to meet the hardships of war that our country might 
be saved aud our laws respected and obeyed, maintaining the integrity 
of our nation, assuring peace and happiness to all its citizens. The above 
list is official and correct, having been furnished to the writer by Captain 
Windish and Sergeant Peele. 

Many times the old soldiers of the Civil war will read the names of 
their comrades upon some chart or list otherwise kept which is a great 
consolation to them, just as these boys will in after years read the 
names of their company of the Spanish-American war, bringing back 
the memories fresh and green of the time they shared each other's com- 
pany, the hardships, the pleasures and peace of their soldier days. 

There must be a feeling for each other especially when in their 
declining yeara they shall look liaek into the past to see what has been 
and what might have been, should this war have continued as did the 
Revolution or the Civil war. Well do we remember, at the breaking out 
of the Spanish-American war in the spring of 1898, that the Cubans' 
antipathy, opposing Spanish rule and their desire for independence had 
become so great for several years that it became a menace to the com- 
merce of this country and largely injurious to American interests, to the 
extent that the Congress of the United States acknowledged Cuba's 
independence, which brought on the war with Spain. Then the Presi- 
dent, William McKinley, issued his proclamatioji call for 125,000 men, 
which was in April of the year 1898. 

Many have wondered how it was that the first battery was numbered 
27, and 157 for the regiment of infantry. In the Civil war this 
state furnished 26 batteries and 156 regiments and in number- 
ing the batteries and regiments in the Spanish-American war they 
commenced to number with 27 for the batteries and 157 for the 
regiments of infantry. The quota to be furnished by Indiana was two 
batteries of artillery and four regiments, and on the 25th of April, 1898, 
the governor issued a call for the number of men that Indiana was to 
furnish. Soon after this the President called upon Indiana for another 
regiment of men which was promptly raised. 

As already shown the company from Starke County was Companj' A 
of the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh Regiment and they remained in 
that company until muster day, which was in the spring of 1899. 

The result of this war was that Cuba gained her independence and 
Spain also gave up the Philippine Islands as well as Porto Rico to the 
United States. Our Government did, however, as a matter of generosity, 
pay to the Spanish Government the sum of $20,000,000 for those islands. 
Thus ended the Spanish-American war. 

Roster op Members 

of the Starke County Association of Soldiers taken in the year 1908, 
giving the number of the regiment, company and the state in which they 
enlisted but now belonging to the above association, in Knox : 


A. J. Liuza, Henry Upp, H. C. Hisey, Forty-first Illinois, Company 
F; Joseph Carter, Abraham Wilson, J. B. Barnum, Alexander Horner, 
G. W. Wolfe, Thirtieth Indiana; Grant Fletcher, Orleando A. Hays, 
John Giles, One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Indiana, Company C ; 
John Rose, Seventy-fourth Ohio; George C. Carr, Fourth Indiana, Com- 
pany C ; Cyrus Wyland, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company B ; Abe 
Emigh, Fifty-fourth Pennsylvania, Company C ; Henry Coleman, Four- 
teenth Indiana ; Joseph Rhodes, Forty-eighth Indiana ; Stephen D. 
Wiser, Twenty-eighth Indiana ; Cornelius Phillips, One Hundred and 
Fifty-first Indiana ; John Lowery, Seventy-third Indiana ; G. W. Wil- 
liams, Twenty-first Indiana Battery; J. H. Snyder, Twenty-third 
Indiana ; L. M. Stewart, Sixty-sixth Illinois, Company I ; Joseph Nelson, 
Twenty -ninth Indiana, Company E ; Tyre Douglas, Twenty-ninth 
Indiana ; James Vermillion, Twelfth Indiana Cavalry, Company E ; 
William Myers, Ninth Indiana; J. A. Bettcher, Eleventh Indiana, 
Fifty-fourth Indiana Cavalry ; W. H. Love, Forty-eighth Indiana, Com- 
pany I ; S. L. Wilson, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company G ; Hiram Peeler, 
Thirty-fifth Indiana ; William Manson, Twelfth Indiana Cavalry ; Her- 
man A. Seyferth, First United States Cavalry ; Clark Dillon, One 
Hundred and Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company I; Albert H. Taylor, 
Forty-eighth Indiana, Company H; 0. P. Fulmer, Twelfth Indiana 
Cavalry, Company H; Enoch Simmons, Seventeenth Indiana, Company 
E ; Jacob Plotts, Ninth Michigan, Company B ; Henry Crocker, Twelfth 
Indiana Cavalry ; John H. Bernard, Forty-ninth Ohio, Company E ; 
Allen Ramsey, Fifty-fifth Indiana, Company D; George Cannon, One 
Hundred and Fifty-third Indiana ; James Casad, Twenty-ninth Indiana, 
Company C ; George G. Leopold, Ninth Illinois Cavalry ; Isaac N. Bailey, 
One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Indiana, Company H ; William James, 
One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Indiana; George Ringle, Twenty-ninth 
Indiana, Company C ; John C. Kuhn, Thirty-second Indiana, Company 
D ; Geo. Hilficker, Thirteenth Indiana Cavalry, Company K ; George W. 
Beeman, Sixth ^Missouri Cavaliy ; J. V. Moore, Eleventh Indiana Cavalry, 
Company C ; George Favorite, Fifty-seventh Indiana, Company I ; Moses 
Rose, Eighty-eighth Pennsylvania Company ; John Thomas, One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-eighth Indiana, Company E ; Samuel Getlig, One 
Hundred and Twenty-eighth Indiana, Company D ; Jolui E. Collins, 
Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company D; William Inks, Thirtieth Indiana, 
Company K; Charles Laramore, One Hundred and Fifty-first Indiana, 
Company H; John W. Golding, One Hundred and Fifty-first Indiana; 
I. N. Deere, Thirty-ninth Indiana, Company G; M. C. Parker, Second 
Indiana Artillery, Company M; C. Schultz, Fifty-seventh Ohio; J. W. 
Falconberry, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company F; James Surpless, 
Eighty-first Ohio, Company D; Joseph W. Hiler, Seventeenth Indiana, 
Company E ; Leyo N. Vermillion, Twelfth Indiana Cavalry ; An Cross, 
Twenty-ninth Indiana; James F. Masterson, One Hundred and Fifty- 
third Indiana, Company H; Benjamin F. Anderson, Twenty-ninth 
Indiana, Company D; W. E. Gorsuch, Seventy- third Indiana, Company 


C ; John Miller, One Hundred and Thirteenth Ohio, Company K ; J. M. 
Caulfield, Seventy-third Indiana, Company G; L. B. Cutshall, Twelfth 
Indiana, Company I ; John W. Inks, Twenty-sixth and Thirtieth Indiana, 
Company E ; C. H. Collins, Thirty-eighth Iowa, Company F; James 
Good, One Hundred and Thirty-second Ohio, Company B ; Royal Bereh, 
Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company I; John M. Wolfram, Fifty-third 
Indiana, Company H; James Groves, One Hundred and Eighteenth 
Indiana, Company A; J. V. Pownall, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company 
E ; Solomon Speehman, Forty -second Indiana, Company D ; William H. 
Spiker, Third Virginia, Company H ; S. M. Maharter, One Hundred and 
Fifty-second Indiana, Company P ; Al Hagle, Eighty-fifth Illinois, Com- 
pany B ; S. S. Mann, Fifty-seventh Indiana, Company K ; J. Grounds, 
Ninth Pennsylvania, Company E ; L. M. Stewart, Twenty -ninth Indiana, 
Company E; H. McMillen, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company D; R. R. 
New, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company D; F. G. Bock, Twenty-ninth 
Indiana, Company E; J. W. Lowderback, Twenty -ninth Indiana, Com- 
pany E ; Charles Becter, Thirty-fifth Indiana, Company H ; J. J. Wind- 
bigler, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company D ; C. W. Sarber, One Hundred 
and Sixtieth Indiana, Company H; Charles W. Coldwell, Forty-sixth 
Indiana, Company K ; D. C. Wamsley, Forty-eighth Indiana, Company 
D; W. Y. Hine, One Hundred and Fifty-first Maryland, Company H; 
Harvey Wagoner, Seventh-seventh Illinois, Company D ; Michael Timm, 
Second Indiana Cavalry, Company D ; F. C. Barnes, Twenty-ninth 
Indiana, Company C ; John Barnes, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company H ; 
E. M. Williamson, Seventy-third Indiana, Company I ; Julius C. Hatter, 
Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company D ; J. D. Fields, Twenty-ninth Indiana, 
Company G ; Isaac R. Bascom, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company D ; John 
W. Price, One Hundred and Twenty-third Ohio, Company A ; Franklin 
B. Hart, Fifth Indiana, Company I ; James M. White, Nineteenth Illi- 
nois, Company E ; Joseph F. Chapman, Twelfth Indiana Cavalry, Com- 
pany K ; James M. Reese, Nineteenth Ohio, Company F ; John G. Kratli, 
Twelfth Indiana, Company B; A. L. Duddleson, One Hundred and 
Forty-fourth Ohio, Company A ; Levi Stevenson, Twenty-ninth Indiana, 
Company D ; Ira Brown, Forty-sixth Indiana, Company II ; Jasper 
Byer, Twenty-third Indiana, Company H ; John Cox, One Hundred and 
Thirty-sixth Ohio, Company A ; Homer Chapman, Forty-eighth Indiana, 
Company C; Jesse Fletcher, Forty-second Indiana, Company C; Harvey 
Goon, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company D ; Matthias T. Hepner, Twenty- 
ninth Indiana, Company D ; John B. Jain, Thirty-third Wisconsin, Com- 
pany K ; Jacob Keiser, One Hundred and Forty-fifth Ohio, Company D ; 
Andrew J. Laramore, One Hundred and Fifty-first Indiana, Company 
A ; Leonard Long, Thirteenth Indiana Cavalry, Company K ; William J. 
Marsh, Eighteenth Massachusetts, Company F; Benjamin Oglesby, 
Seventeenth Indiana, Company A ; Samuel M. Quick, Third Iowa, Com- 
pany G ; Oscar B. Rockwell, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company C ; James 
Reed, Ninth Indiana, Company I ; A. G. W. Sherman, Ninth Indiana, 
Company D ; Truman Smith, One Hundred and Fifty-first Indiana, 


Company I ; Frauk Smith, Ninth Michigan, Company B ; James Smith, 
One Hundred and Twenty-second New York, Company D ; L. P. Wil- 
liams, Seventy-third Indiana, Company K; S. M. White, Twenty-ninth 
Indiana, Company H; J. B. Grover, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company 
I ; W. Kelley, Twenty-ninth Indiana, Quarter Master ; Albert Stevenson, 
Twenty-ninth Indiana, Company D ; J. W. Heath, Sixth Indiana Cavalry, 
Company D; Henry Baker, Twenty -sixth Indiana Battalion; Samuel 
Osborn, Fifty-third Indiana, Company H. 

Many of the above soldiers were from different states, but the object 
of this list is to show the names of the soldiers residing in Starke County 
in 1908 and belonging to the association as above stated. This shows 
how the old soldiers change their location and their residences years after 
the close of that awful struggle which terminated its bloody conflict 
in 1865. 

The above association was organized especially with the view of 
bringing together the old soldiers of the Civil war where they could 
enjoy each other 's company and talk over the many hardships and priva- 
tions that they experienced during those war days while in the South. 
Many pleasant days were also experienced in their soldier lives. There 
were many pleasant days that they enjoyed together, but when the bugle 
call was sounded every man was in line at a moment's notice and all 
through that engagement they fought side by side, some falling mortally 
wounded, some killed outright, but those were the days that tried the 
courage of every soldier, who with that determination to fight to the end, 
stood brave and true until the breeze should clear away the smoke from 
the battlefield, there to expose to their view the brothers slain, giving 
up their lives in a glorious cause, defending the American flag that our 
country should be free. 

Many new acquaintances were formed by those soldiers coming 
together from different states and from various regiments into close 
relationship with each other. All are brothers in the sense of the life 
they lived during the years they were away from their families and 
friends, dreaming perhaps of that good wife, that boy, that daughter, 
that home so far away. By their faithful service those that survived 
came home after four long years of perpetual warfare, there to greet 
the families they loved so well, and again to take up the duties of their 
farm life or continue in whatever occupation presented itself most 
favorable to them. 

Many of those old soldiers are among us at this time. Many of them 
are drawing pensions, having been disabled in the army, but money will 
not restore those old soldiers to the good health that they enjoyed before 
going to war. Content with their conditions they are seeking to provide 
and maintain their living, trying to enjoy themselves as best they can 
under all those difSculties that have followed them from the battlefield. 

Those old soldiers, with throbbing hearts and eyes dimmed with years, 
are ever mindful of the thought that they too shall give up the struggles 
of this life to be made more joyous for having acted their part so well. 


having fought the good fight, having shown to the world their courage, 
their ambition, their devotion to so sacred a cause, a love for our country, 
a determination to establish and maintain a government where your 
children shall be protected from all harm, where they can enjoy the 
blessing so valiantly defended by the misery, the pi'ivations and the 
suffering of those old soldiers. 

One by one the old soldiers are leaving us. Instead of going to war 
they are going to that peaceful rest where the cannon's roar is never 
heard and the bayonet flashes not, but all is peace and happiness beyond 
this vale of tears. Many who fell upon the battlefield while engaged in 
battle have been sleeping that sleep that knows no awakening, just gone 
on before, waiting for all the hereos of the great Civil war to join them 
where they can sing that national air of "a heavenly home beyond the 
skies." No set of men in the world more display a feeling of gratitude 
towards each other than do the soldiers of this country, and I have often 
thought that perhaps this friendship and veneration is prompted more 
by the thought that ere many years shall pass away there shall be laid to 
rest many more of their dear comrades, consigned to the tomb just like 
those who have already given up this life and all that this world con- 
tains, only to be remembered by those not yet called upon to receive their 
reward. The first impulse of man is to overcome his enemy, and to ride 
triumphantly to victory is the ever-prevailing thought of us all — a 
thought brought down all along the rugged ages of time. 

You who never witnessed the field of battle, you who never faced the 
awful foe, looking down into the very mouths of the cannons before you 
ready to go thundering through the ranks of soldiers at a touch, you 
dear friends have not the knowledge of that mother's boy standing there 
with drawn gun and sword to protect his home, his country and his 
Government though he should fall before the enemy; with courage and 
a true heart he never flinches or shirks his duty but stands firm in the 
fond hope of coming out of the battle sound and well, gaining the victory 
for which he offered up his life and all that was in him to give that the 
nation he preserved and prosperity reign throughout our land from 
North to South and from the Pacific to New England 's ocean shore. 

We thank the citizens and soldiers of Starke County for the respect 
shown us in arranging these meetings. This is the universal feeling of all 
the old soldiers of our country, grateful for the provisions made for the 
accommodation of all the old soldiers, who come together from year to 
year to hold sweet communion one with another and to visit and to talk 
over those long days of sufi^eriug that they experienced for four years 
fighting the battles of our country, climbing up rugged mountain sides 
and then descending on the other side, sometimes marching right into 
the jaws of death. Such is warfare. 

Thanks to Him aliove for the favors shown us that we too were not 
slain upon that battlefield. While our sympathy goes out for those that 
fell by our side and the kind wishes for those families left destitute of 
a father or son, yet many are the kind words spoken by the enemy who 


fell wounded in that same conflict, sometimes beckoning to a dear brother 
some signs of comfort that his condition might be relieved and both 
restored to their friends once more. 

Well do you remember the day that you were mustered out of service 
and then returning to your home with your honorable discharge from the 
war that you had been engaged in so long. No wonder then that you 
congratulate yourselves for the part you took in the war and your return 
to your old homes there to greet your families and friends and then 
settle down in peace once more. War is an awful thing. So many of 
our brave men and boys that go into the battle never know the pleasure 
of a returning trip to their old home, but many were laid to rest in some 
southern cemetery lot, there to be known no more by their friends at 

Hoping that we may all meet again in years to come where we can 
visit as before and all have a good time together, is the sincere wish of 
all the old soldiers that have met with you, our friends, on so happy an 
occasion as those meetings prove to be. 

Next year no doubt the old soldier society will be revived and they 
will join in holding a meeting of all those that are left of the now living 
in the county. Some have passed away already since the last association 
was held but many are yet left to unite in the coming meeting of 1915. 


Before the time of the Revolutionary war there was no such thing as 
a political party in this country. Following the discontent of the people 
in regard to the old country, the people divided and organized what was 
known as tories and whigs. The whig party resisting the demands of 
England and the tories advocating submission. About the time that the 
colonists gained their independence, the whig party became divided, one 
branch calling themselves the federal party and the other the republican 
party. The federal party was led by Alexander Hamilton, who had the 
endorsement of Washington. Both advocated a strong centralized form 
of government. The republican party, led by Thomas Jefferson, main- 
tained and stood for state rights. Those parties became almost a thing 
of the past in 1816, James Monroe being elected over Rufus King, a 
federalist, receiving all the votes but three states, which were Delaware, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut. With this election ended the federal 
party and James Monroe was reelected in 1820 with but one vote against 
him which was cast for John Quincy Adams. 

The presidential election four years later was a personal one as there 
was no real organized political parties at this time. This was the cam- 
paign when there were four candidates in the field for the presidency. 
They were Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson and Wil- 
liam H. Crawford. The result of that election showed that neither candi- 
date had received a majority of the electoral votes cast and this threw 
the election into the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy 

It was during this time that the whig party had been organizing to 
succeed the federal party, being led by Henry Clay. The vote cast for 
him was the action of this new party. 

The democrats in 1828 during that campaign came into existence as 
the successors of the old original republican party. Sometimes it was 
called the Jeffersonian party under the leadership of Andrew Jackson, 
who was elected President in that year, and the whig party came into 
existence under the leadership of Henry Clay. 

The whig party is a name of Scottish origin and was at fii'st sup- 
posed to mean peasantry, which was given to the covenanters when they 
took up arms against the oppression of the Government. 

After Jackson's first election in 1828 the democratic party was 



ushered into existence under that name, and has been known by that 
name from that day until the present time, showing a greater tenacity 
of strength and power of endurance than any other party within the 
history of this country. 

This party has never given up. Although many times beaten, it 
always appears upon the scene at each election, putting on a brave front, 
showing the greatest confidence, a courage only belonging to a party 
with grand hopes before them. The whig party had existed since 1824, 
but was not regularly organized until four years later. It continued its 
party organization until the year of 1854, when it was succeeded by the 
republican party, which has gone through, many vicissitudes and endured 
many ups and downs all along until the present day. 

Starke County's First Courthouse 

Then there was the know nothing party, who were strictly opposed to 
foreigners voting until they had resided and been citizens for a period of 
twenty-one yeai-s in this country. It was organized under that name in 
the year of 1852 and four years later, 1856, Millard Fillmore was intro- 
duced as the candidate for the presidency for that party. This party 
never elected a candidate during their short existence, for in the next 
campaign the party had gone out of existence. 

Now it was after the resumption of specie payment, which was in 
1873, that the greenback party remembered so well by the writer sprung 
up. They were so much opposed to that measure of resuming specie 
payment, that they nominated a ticket and put it into the field at the 
next election, but were unsuccessful, and some years after they went with 
the people's party and the national party, which soon went to defeat 
and ceased to exist. 



Next we have the prohibition party organized in the year of 1872. 
Their object was to prevent the manufacture' and sale of all liquors and 
beverages, and has continued ever since, but never has been successful 
as a party, yet maintaining and holding to the principles of bettering 
and educating the people to a higher plane of morals from a political 
standard of principles. No one will accuse it of holding to anything but 
high and elevating principles. 

During the last score years or more there have been a number of 
parties formed, as the socialist, the union labor party, the socialist labor 
party and the labor party, as well as the people's party, but all lying in 
the background, not showing any great degree of success. Then we have 

Old Starke County Courthouse 

the progressive party which swung into line perhaps through the in- 
fluence of Theodore Roosevelt, who not receiving the republican nomina- 
tion for president in 1912 has worked in that party with those followers 
up to the present time. The vote in Starke County, at the election, on 
the 3d day of November, 1914, showed the progressive vote to be 344 out 
of a total of 1,782 given for secretary of state by this county. In August 
of 1912 a convention was held in Chicago at which Theodore Roosevelt 
was nominated for President and Johnson for vice president. They 
received a larger vote than the regular republican candidates. It is a 
question what this party will do in years to come. 

The democrats made good under the leadership of Andrew Jackson 


from 1828 to 1832 and their success was repeated again in 1836 when 
they elected Martin VanBuren. But in the election of 1840 the whigs 
were successful, electing William H. Harrison over Martin VanBuren, 
who was running for re-election. Harrison was known as the log-cabin 
candidate and was frequently jeered as such by the democrats, who some- 
times called him the backwoods candidate, using that as a campaign 

Many great public speakings and meetings were held during this 
campaign, hauling whole log cabins on wagons with barrels of hard cider 
and coons that were alive. Harrison was wrongfully accused by the 
democrats of cowardice at the battle of Tippecanoe. The whigs held a 
great rally at Tippecanoe, and some of our older citizens' parents often 
told about the barrels of hard cider and the log cabins and the coons 
very much alive, all using the phrase "Tippecanoe and Tyler too." 

Harrison lived only about one month after he was inaugurated Presi- 
dent and John Tyler, by virtue of his office, became the President. It is 
said that Tyler so confused and tyrannized the whigs that they lost the 
election in 1844, thereby making James K. Polk, a democrat, President in 
that year. Four years later, the whigs not giving up, nominated Zaeh- 
ariah Taylor, who was known as the hero of the Mexican war, and elected 
him as the President of the United States. But in 1852 the democrats 
were successful in electing Franklin Pierce. Then it was that the whig 
party died to rise no more and the republican party was organized in 
1854. Then in 1856 John C. Fremont was the first republican candidate 
for the presidency, and the writer recollects Allen Richardson well, who 
sang in the Glee Club during that campaign. 

The republicans put up a hard fight, but went down in defeat as 
James Buchanan was elected as the President of the United States at that 
election. Starke County has quite a number of citizens that will recollect 
that campaign as long as they Live. Some are living in Knox now that 
can sit and talk about that eventful campaign for hours at a time. 
The writer has a faint remembrance of that campaign, can just recollect 
hearing the name of Buchanan mentioned, which was just after his 
parents moved to Starke County. In the year of 1856 the republicans 
held their first national convention, which was presided over by an 
Indiana man, Henry S. Lane, who was a brilliant speaker. 

Mr. Pratt acted as secretary at the convention that nominated Abra- 
ham Lincoln in 1860. This was a three cornered campaign, but the 
republicans gained the day and Abraham Lincoln became the President 
on the 4th of March following. Starke County gave Lincoln a small 
majority of course. Had he got the full vote, it would have even been 
quite small, as at that time the country polled a small vote. 

The Civil war of 1861 to 1865 wrought the whole nation into a state 
of turmoil. Many democrats advocating the cause of the republican 
party called themselves the union party, who were opposed to a division 
of the Union. The Legislature did not endorse Governor Morton 's policy 
and that body adjourned without making any appropriations, thus em- 


barrassing the state. Governor Morton did, however, borrow money to 
meet the state's obligations and came out victorioiis. In the campaign 
of 1864 Mr. Lincoln was re-elected over Gen. George B. McCleUan. 
Ulysses S. Grant was elected in 1868 over Horatio Seymour, the demo- 
cratic candidate, by a handsome majority. Starke County went demo- 
cratic by a small majority. General Grant was re-elected in 1872. 

In 1876 the republicans ran Hayes and Wheeler, while the democrats 
had nominated Tilden and Hendricks. In this election Hayes was 
declared elected by an electoral commission. Hayes was elected by one 
vote, although Samuel J. Tilden had a majority of the popular vote of 
the United States. Garfield and Hancock were the opposing candidates 
in 1880, but the republicans were successful and elected James A. Gar- 
field as President. 

Then in 1884 James G. Blaine was defeated by Grover Cleveland, who 
took up the reins of the National Government on the 4th of March, 1885. 
It was left for the campaign to turn the tide and elect Benjamin Harri- 
son over Mr. Cleveland in 1888. In 1892 Mr. Cleveland defeated Mr. 
Harrison in that election and again administered the affairs of the 
Government. It was during that very exciting year of 1896 that William 
McKinley ran against that ever free-silver coinage sixteen to one demo- 
crat William J. Bryan for President. Mr. McKinley was elected and 
in 1900, four years later, Mr. Bryan was again defeated by the same 
William McKinley. 

In 1904 Theodore Roosevelt was elected over Alton B. Parker. Then 
in 1908 William H. Taft took up the reins of the Government, having 
defeated William Jennings Bryan at the election in 1908. Woodrow 
Wilson was elected over Taft in 1912 on the democratic ticket. 


The different religious deiiominatious represented in tlie county are: 
The Methodist Episcopal Church, the Christian Church, the Free Metho- 
dist Church, the Roman Catholic Church and the Latter-Day Saints 
Church all located in Knox and each have a good membership ; the Bap- 
tist Church, the Lutheran Church, the Roman Catholic Church, the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, United Brethren Church at North Judson ; 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Lutheran Church, the Roman 
Catholic Church at San Pierre; the Methodist Episcopal Church, the 
Roman Catholic Church, the Wesleyan Methodist Church at Hamlet ; the 
United Brethren Church at Grovertown ; the United Brethren Church at 
Round Lake, and several churches over different parts of the county. 

These go to show that the religious life is not forgotten by the people 
of Starke County. In the country where there were no church buildings 
especially provided, the schoolhouses in the neighborhood were used for 
that purpose so that all who desired to attend might feel at liberty to do 
so. The time was before schoolhouses were a common thing for meet- 
ings to be held in private houses but that is a rare thing now as churches 
have been built in all towns and some in the country accommodating aU 
the people. 

In various chapters, mention has been made of several of the leading 
church organizations of the county. In the following are found some 
individual sketches of leading church organizations : 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

No community is complete without churches. Almost the first thing 
that is asked by a "newcomer" coming into a town or community is — 
How is the town in regard to churches? No one contemplating to move 
into a strange place regardless of just what he believes or whether he is 
a church member or not, but admires and respects any town or com- 
munity all the more if he sees above the elms, the oaks and the maples 
the steeples and spires of church buildings. 

In addition to what has been said before about the churclies it would 
be well here to present you with a list of the Methodist ministers, the 
names and the year that they had charge of the churches here, beginning 
with the year 1853, two years after the organization of Knox, as follows : 
Francis Cox, 1853; N. L. Brakeman, 1854; (supply), 1855-56; John 


T. Jones, 1857; J. B. Odel, 1858-59; Wilsou Beckner, I860; (supply), 
1861; J. C. Crouch, 1862; R. D. Utter, 1863; R. H. Sanders, 1864; 

(supply), 1865-66-67-68; W. J. Forbes, 1869; (marked S), 1870; 

Atkinson, 1871; Geo. Guild, 1872; (supply), 1873; J. C. Taylor, 1874; 
Levi Moore (also marked supply), 1875; A. J. Clifton, 1876; (supply), 
1877-78 ; S. C. Platts, 1879 ; J. M. Jackson, 1880 ; S. M. Brown, 1881 ; 
Z. Lambert (also marked supply), 1882-83; (supply), 1884-85-86-87; 
E. P. Bennett, 1888-89 ; S. W. Goss, 1890-91 ; R. G. Hammond one-half^ 
N. E. Tinkham one-half, 1892-93; G. M. Williams, 1894; C. H. Leason, 
1895 ; B. H. Beall, 1896-97 ; W. F. Clark, 1898-99 ; Robert J. Reid (re- 
signed, G. A. Reeder), 1900-01; 0. H. Berry, 1902-03-04-05; E. W. 
Strecker, 1906-07-08-09; J. M. Williams, 1910; Robert 0. Kemberlin, 

There is a tradition that Reverend Munson preached the first sermon 
in the Slethodist Episcopal Church in Kno.x. Although it is so given in 
some of the histories, his name does not appear on the church record. 

Christian Church at Knox 

The Christian denomination has existed in this place for a good many 
years and they have had preaching from time to time by local preachers 
perhaps but there seems to be no record or list of their names or the time 
they filled the pulpit before 1892. The information obtained from some 
of the members I have succeeded in securing shows the following names 
and the dates so far as could be ascertained from them. Having tried 
to find a record of those ministers and failed I give the names as well 
as I can. It seems as though there is no record, back of 1892, although 
the Christians were an organization prior to that time. Mr. Guy M. 
Wells furnished me with the following list: E. C. Faunce, from 1892 to 
1896 ; W. W. Denham, from 1896 to 1898 ; E. C. Faunce, January 1, 1898, 
to September 1, 1898 ; Grant Waller, September 1, 1898, to January 1, 
1899; no regular minister until June 1, 1899; Fannie E. Mickel, June 
1, 1899, to January 1, 1900; then no regular minister until June, 1900; 
H. B. Luck, June 1, 1900, to Jl^ly 1, 1901 ; M. W. Nethercut, July 1, 1901, 
to August 1, 1902; W. A. Foster, August 1, 1902, to January 1, 1904; 
D. W. Wakeman, January 1, 1904, to August 1, 1905; W. A. Foster, 
August 1, 1905, to July 1, 1906 ; H. M. Streibeck, July 1, 1906, to January 
1, 1907 ; T. P. Bauer, March 1, 1908, to January 1, 1909 ; E. B. Cross, 
July 1, 1909, to January 1, 1910; L. E. Page, April 1, 1910, and is the 
present minister. 

Prior to the year of 1892 it appears as though no record was kept 
of those ministers until E. C. Faunce came here and took charge of 
the church in that year. 

The present new building was built during the time that Rev. D. W. 
Wakeman was in charge in 1904-05. They have a good merabei-ship and 
take great pride in all their church affairs, always having an organist 
and also a splendid choir. They have their regular Sunday School in 


charge of a competent superintendent. The Christian Endeavor is a 
great auxiliary to the church, which is not neglected by those ever wide- 
awake Christians. One thing is very noticeable in their church and that 
is the organist, who is always at her place to play the organ, never 
hesitating to do her part. Mr. Page, the minister in charge, is a man 
well versed in the Bible and besides he has traveled considerably over 
the world and can interest all who have the opportunity of hearing him 
tell of the dift'erent countries he has had the privilege of visiting, telling 
of the character, the customs and the manner of living in a foreign land. 

Latter-Day Saints 

The following is a list of the ministers that have been engaged to 
preach at this church, also giving the state from which they came, but 
the date that each occupied that place could not be ascertained, although 
the names are given in rotation beginning with the year 1860 : 1, Elder 
James Blaksley, Galien, Mich.; 2, Elder Wilsley, Illinois; 3, Elder E. C. 
Briggs, Lamoni, Iowa ; 4, Elder L. B. Scott, Galien, Mich. ; 5, Elder 
Lamfere, Piano, 111. ; 6, Elder Jesse L. Adams, Buffalo Prairie, 111. ; 7, 
Elder Steven J. Stone, Illinois; 8, Elder James B. Prettyman, Knox, 
Ind. ; 9, Elder Francis Earl, Chicago, III; 10, Elder W. S. L. Scott, 
South Park, Ind. ; 11, Elder Samuel Stroch, Coldwater, Mich. ; 12, Elder 
Charles W. Prettyman, Knox, Ind. ; 13, Elder E. L. Kelley, Indianapolis, 
Ind. ; 14, Elder Wm. Kelley, New Albany, Ind. ; 15, Elder Edward 
Blaksley, Galien, Mich. ; 16, Elder J. W. McKnight, Galien, Mich. ; 17, 
Elder Colmnbus Scott, Lamoni, Iowa; 18, Elder J. M. Smith, Flora, 111. ; 
19, Elder Wildred J. Smith, Michigan ; 20, Elder G. H. Hillerd, Jefferson- 
ville. 111.; 21, Elder W. H. Pender, Nebraska; 22, Elder M. T. Short, 
Indianapolis, Ind. ; 23, Elder Wm. Waterman, Lamoni, Iowa ; 24, Elder 
Joshua B. Prettyman, Knox, Ind. ; 25, Elder W. W. Blair, Lamoni, Iowa ; 
26, Elder Clyde Ellis, Michigan; 27, Elder James Eagerly, Southern 
Indiana; 28, Elder John Scott, Southern Indiana. 

Thus you see that while the Latter-Day Saints have not had regular 
ministers hired by the term or year, they have been a long way from not 
having ministers to preach to them as the above list shows beginning with 
1860, one year before the great Civil war swept the southern states. 
Some of those ministers are residents of Knox and many more of them 
were well and favorably known by our people here. There are a goodly 
number of those Latter-Day Saints located in Knox and they are good 
quiet law-abiding citizens. 

This list was handed to the writer by Elder Joshua B. Prettyman, 
whose name appears on above list as No. 24, and I take it to be correct 
as Mr. Prettyman was personally acquainted with every one of those 
ministers, having lived here himself since 1846 except perhaps for a short 
absence from the county. 

This shows that the Prettyman family were residents of this county 


or where Starke County was afterwards surveyed out, before the couuty 
was organized, about four years ahead of that date, and are living in the 
town today in apparently good health. 

Free Methodist Church 

Having referred to tlie Free Methodist Church at Knox, and not hav- 
ing the names of the ministers and the years in which they were employed. 
Rev. P. W. Newcomer furnished the following list of the pastors who 
served Knox Free Methodist Chui-ch from 1882 to 1914 as follows : J. 0. 
C. Huston, 1882; Henry H. Cannon, 1883-84; C. P. Miller and E. H. 
Calkins (supply), 1885; H. Ferguson (supply), 1886; George B. Day, 
1887-88; Robert Clark, 1889; William Davis, 1890-91; A. F. Goodwin, 
1892-93 ; U. V. Hoover and J. A. J. Tanuehill, 1894-95-96 ; N. S. Cotterel 
and J. A. J. Tanuehill, 1897 ; J. A. J. Tanuehill, 1898 ; D. G. Briggs, 
1899; B. J. Vincent, 1900-1901; H. G. Ingersoll, 1902-03; John Fenner, 
1904 ; T. J. Russell, 1905-06-07 ; J. A. J. Tanuehill, 1908 ; Monroe Wil- 
liams, 1909; Anna Bright, 1910-11; J. A. J. Tanuehill, 1912; W. T. 
Loring, 1913 ; P. W. Newcomer, 1914. 

Those ministers were all weU known by the people of Knox, especially 
was this the case among the members of the Free Methodist Church. 
Some of those ministers reside in and near Knox and are all knowu to 
be first-class citizens, faithful to the church that they belong to, always 
being present at their services unless detained or kept away by sickness. 
The present pastor, Reverend Mr. Newcomer, is a man of great ability 
as a minister and will see to it that the Free Methodist Church wall 
prosper under his care as long as he shall stay with them. There are 
some of the church members belongiug to that church living here that 
have been residents of the eouuty before it was organized (since 1844) and 
are active members of that church, filling their places in the services from 
the foundation of that church in Knox until the present day. 

Like all churches in a new country they had many severe battles to 
fight in order to keep up all the expense incident to maintaining their 
church and paying their pastors, but good Providence has furnished a 
way whereby they could meet all those demands and has brought them 
triumphantly above all those obstacles and put them upon a sound finan- 
cial basis where they can now worship God as all others do ''according 
to the dictates of their own conscience." 

Churches at Hamlet 

The minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Hamlet is Rev. 
George Albert Emerich. The minister of the German Lutheran Church 
is Rev. B. C. Earth. The minister of the Wesleyan Church is Rev. K. C. 
McCullum. The Catholic Church is in charge of their priest. 

Any town without churches is lacking in a great measure of the 
uplift of the moral and religious standards of the place. But Hamlet is 


well provided for in this line ; churches so essential for the betterment 
of all its citizens. Each denomination has its good and commodious 
church building, with its spire pointing toward the skies. This speaks 
well for the town and surrounding neighborhood. 

No one, whether he is a member of a church or not, would care to live 
in a community where there are no churches. It is an indication of 
morality and good citizenship to see neat and commodious churches in 
any town. It shows the respect the people have for the neighborhood in 
which they live. It indicates the attitude the people have toward the 
principle of right and the advancement they hold in their homes and their 
respect for the Bible, the book of all books, a book that should be read 
and studied more and more by everybody in the land. It is an inspira- 
tion for the young people in any town or countiy to live in the midst of 
churches. To hear the ringing of the church bells gives an invitation to 
come together where they can meet in friendly fellowship w-ith each 

Having referred to the churches at Hamlet, after endeavoring to get 
some information concerning the names of the pastors I met with little 
success except the names of the present ministers. I have since been 
furnished with the names of the ministers of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at Hamlet by the Rev. George Albert Emerich, whose name ap- 
pears elsewhere. Their names are as follows : 

Rev. W. A. Mathews, pastor 1891 to 1892 ; Rev. Lyman Bates, pastor 
1892 to 1895 ; Rev. J. 0. Linock, pastor 1896 to 1897 ; Rev. J. N. Harmon, 
pastor 1897 to 1899 ; Rev. C. P. Taylor, pastor 1899 to 1900 ; Rev. E. H. 
Edwards, pastor 1900 to 1902 ; Rev. John B. Smith, pastor 1902 until the 
summer of 1904, when he died ; Rev. Robert Turner, filling his place until 
conference in the fall of 1904; Rev. J. E. Watson, pastor 1904 to 1907; 
Rev. J. J. Rankius, pastor 1907 to 1909 ; Rev. G. C. Richardson, pastor 
1909 to 1910 ; Rev. H. H. Cannon, pastor 1910 to 1912 ; Rev. G. H. Black, 
pastor 1912 to 1913 ; Rev. C. L. Marsh, pastor 1913 to 1914 ; Rev. George 
Albert Emerich, pastor 1914, is the present pastor, who so kindly fur- 
nished the above list to the writer, for which he has my kind thanks. 
This society was organized in 1890 by Rev. W. A. Mathews and the 
church was built in 1891. The parsonage was built in 1894. Much 
credit is due to the ministera, the members and to others for the liberal 
donations they gave and the assistance they rendered in building this 
elegant church building at Hamlet. It stands on the west side of Main 
Street with an east front, with its spires pointing towards the skies, 
beckoning to all the citizens of Hamlet in good will and affection, 
that feeling that all good people should have for each other, that love 
and esteem we owe to our neighbors, our church members and our God. 
Several active members who so faithfully worked and gave their time 
in building this church have long since gone to their final rest, but they 
are not forgotten and will ever remain in the minds of those who stood 
heart to heart and hand to hand until the last nail was driven and the 
last bit of paint was spread, and the dollar was raised, thus complet- 


ing their building, an honor to them, a credit to the town and a 
to all. Many hard battles are fought and many discouragements have 
to be met in building churches, for not many have the funds to build 
from the foundation to completion, but the pluck and good will towards 
each other, such as the people in Hamlet have, will accomplish much and 
this is why this fine building was raised, built, completed and paid for 
without a hitch, without a murmur from any one. The writer extends 
to them his best wishes and may they all be happy to the end. 

The first one of the church buildings in Hamlet was built by the 
Catholics in the year 1891. The German Lutherans built in 1902. The 
Methodist Church was built in 1891. The Wesleyan Church was built 
in 1893. 

Not many towns the size of Hamlet have four good substantial 
churches. As near as I can learn, they are all paid for, which speaks well 
for the people of Hamlet. Many hard efforts are put forth by some of 
the citizens to accomplish some enterprise commenced, but to stick to 
it is the only solution and then success is yours. 

There is one thing very noticeable about the people of Hamlet and 
that is they all take pride in standing together and boosting any good 
thing that will promote the welfare of the town. 

This is a disposition that will help to build up any town and maintain 
a friendly feeling towards each other. It maintains their churches, 
maintains the schools and maintains good eitizeosliip in all classes of 
business, in everything they undertake to do. 

This has been the prevailing watchword from the earliest settlement 
of the town to the present time. No community can accomplish much 
unless this disposition is shown among its citizens. 

There may be churches of different denominations .just as you find 
it to be in Hamlet and for that matter in all towns, but while that is 
true the same friendly spirit can prevail and tlie work of all be carried to 
a successful end. 

Bach church having its own Sunday School where the young can be 
taught many good lessons regardless of what church or denomination 
it is, it all counts for the better education of the whole community from 
a religious standpoint, and a standpoint of morality which shall go with 
them through the many vicissitudes of this life. 

' ' Church op the First Born ' ' 

There is a class of Christians in this county knovm as the ' ' Church 
of the First Born," which holds its meetings in schoolhouses or rented 
halls. They are a very conscientious people, advocating and preaching 
what they honestly believe to be the true scriptures, keeping Saturday 
for the Sabbath day, and they strictly adhere to that belief, never 
yielding or shrinking from that faith. They are a vei-y kind and honest 
people, always ready to assist in case of sickness, always willing to do 
any kind of Christian kindness that will help to alleviate the distress 


of any sufiferer and render any assistance to those bereaved by death of 
any member of the family. 

R€v. Charles Edward Groshans living in Hamlet, Indiana, is the 
only minister in Starke County of the Church of - the First Born, 
although it is frequently the ease that some minister from abroad will 
assist in their meetings. There are some thirty members of this church 
and all are very strict in living up to their faith. 

Nothing could be said against their belief that would in any wise dis- 
turb or change their views upon the Bible. Mr. Groshans was born and 
raised four miles from the Town of Hamlet, the town where he resides, 
and is well and favorably knowTi by all the people within a radius of 
several miles and is universally honored and respected by all who know 
him. While there may be some that would take issue with Mr. Groshans 
in his church belief, there can be none as neighbors and friends that 
would say he and his estimable wife would overlook any act of kind- 
ness that it was in their power to render to those deserving of a kind 
and sympathetic word or any act of kindness that lies in his power to 
give. It is not so much as to the name of the church to which one 
belongs as it is to the acts of Christian kindness bestowed by the members 
upon the unfortunate that furnishes the true basis for judgment of any 


Since the organization of Starke County there have been 4,380 mar- 
riage licenses granted up to Christmas of 1914, and during that time 
there has been about one divorce to ten marriages, making about four 
hundred and thirty-eight divorces granted during the same time. 

It is a pleasure to hear some of the old citizens tell of their ways of 
living in an early day. Then there are the younger generation that 
recollect what their parents had to say about the county and its condi- 
tion before they were old enough to recollect anything about the early 
days. Many of those now living here were not born at that time, but like 
the writer they can recollect the story that has been so often told by 
their parents. A good many, however, can look back into the dim ages 
of the past and see and have some knowledge of the early days, which of 
course is not clear to them but gives them a sort of distant knowledge of 
the past history of the early settlers in Starke County. 

It seems though that marriage has not been overlooked in the county, 
notwithstanding the hardships encountered, for as I have said the 
first marriage license was issued to James Cannon in 1850 and marriage 
continues to be the practice ever since that time. Those first settlers, 
wanting to make life as pleasant as possible, could do so much easier 
with a companion to cheer them on the way and encourage them to 
endure those obstacles that so often loom up before the face of man in 
an unknown land. 

The following gives the dates and names of some of the old settlers' 
marriages and where they located soon after; some locating in Knox 
and some in the country, but aU with that one aim in view, to live the 
best life that it was possible to do under all the circumstances con- 
fronting them. Many old citizens of the pioneer days could sit and talk 
over the old days for hours, telling of the hardships they endured when 
first locating in Starke County. With no roads, no bridges and but very 
little of the land in cultivation, it was an awful trying time. Many of 
our early citizens would, when going a few miles away from their little 
cabins, blaze the trees to designate their route on their return home, 
many time encountering a wild wolf or some other wild animal before 
arriving at their own cabin door. 

Jesse Fletcher, now living here in Knox, with his parents was among 
the first settlers of Washington Township, locating there in 1844. 



There were Stephen Lark and the Coffin families, the Daums, the Van 
Notes, the Deeus, Tilla Page and the Pecks, the Swartzells, the Poormans, 
the Goons, the Bakers, the Van Arsdolls, the Walkers, the Andersons, 
and many more that settled in Starke County about the time of the 
organization of the county and some before that time. Some yet living 
can tell of the hardship, the privations and the suffering of those pioneer 
days in a new country. The same is true of all the townships in the 
county. Horace Stow located in Center Township in 1848 and often he 
has told of his experience in this county, with no roads, no schools, no 

Interior View op Early Home 

churches and in fact no neighbors. It was a desolate and an uncom- 
fortable experience to him and his family. Soon among them came the 
Laramores, the Hatters, the Shorts, and the Tibbits and many more that 
settled in Center Township ere the county seat was located, but by their 
long suffering they endured to the end and lived and prospered in a 
new land. 

Oregon Townsliip, like those .just spoken of, has some of the old 
citizens still living. The Koontz, the Awalds, the Gopperts, the Un- 
caphers, the Suits, and many more who located in that township about 
the time that the county was organized, still live to tell of the early days 
that they experienced just after locating liere. Many privations and 


hard spent days they passed before they could accumulate enough of 
this world's goods to place them upon easy living, but those same citizens 
can look back to the cold bleak days of perpetual hardship upon those 
broad plains and can now acknowledge the pleasure of living upon the 
same land where was then a hard struggle for life, a place that many 
of us would surrender and give up in despair if we were placed in 
the same conditions as were those people when the county was so new. 
We could take up each township separately but it would be sufBcient 
to say that from what can be learned of them that about the same con- 
ditions prevailed in all parts of the county at that time. James Cannon, 
who married Nancy Lane the year that Starke County was organized, 
and Abraham Welsh one year later, who married Elizabeth Collins of 
California Township, and Samuel Tinkey, who married Catharine Kibler 
of Oregon Township, and James Evans, who married Mary J. Graham 
of Washington Township, and David L. Wood, who married Frances 
Cunningham of North Bend Township, all in the year of 1851, if they 
were living today could give you an interesting history of their pioneer 
days in this county when living here several years after their fii'st 
location in this county. William Osborn, now living in Culver, Indiana, 
about three miles from the farm he located in the '40s, made a speech at 
the old settlers' meeting here a year ago that was very interesting to 
those that had the pleasure of hearing him. In it he spoke briefly of his 
pioneer days in this county. Mr. Osborn is in the enjoyment of fairly 
good health and is wddely known by most of the citizens of Starke 
County, liaving been one among the first to locate here about the year 

Then there was Andrew W. Porter, who was afterwards the clerk of 
the Starke Circuit Court, whose wife was Rebecca Mahan, whom he mar- 
ried in 1852 ; and Solon 0. Whitson, who married Mrs. Sarah Case in 
1852 and located in section 5 in North Bend Township; and Charles 
Humphrey, who as I have already said was the first practicing physician 
in Starke County, who married Miss Marsha Abbot in the year of 1852. 
Jacob Bozarth, who was the first county recorder of Starke County, 
married Charlotte Short in the year 1852. Adam Lambert married 
Rachel Tillman (given elsewhere in this volume as Rachel Tillman 
Lambert) , she being the first white woman to locate in Starke County, 
as has been mentioned elsewhere in this history, having married the said 
Adam Tillman in the year 1852, and took up their residence in Knox and 
remained here until their death. The first marriage license issued in 
Starke County after the writer came to the county when a mere boy, 
was issued to John W. Osborn of North Bend Township to marry Sarah 
Mishler on the 11th of November, 1853. Mr. Osborn died a few years 
ago. He was a brother of William Osborn, who lives in Culver, Indiana. 
The writer was personally acquainted with nearly all of those men- 
tioned and of course was acquainted with many more mentioned in the 
list taken from the tract book in the early days of Starke County to the 
present time. The Wyants and Van Blarions were residents of Wash- 


ington Township in 1853. Hiram Jones, who married Elizabeth Van 
Note, was a resident of Washington Township when they were married 
in 1853. Alfred Hiunphrey, who was a brother to Dr. Charles 
Humphrey, lived in Knox until he died and left quite a family. Some 
of them are residents of Knox at this time. 

The Fletchers took up their abode in Washington Township in 1844 
and some of the younger people of that family are citizens of Knox, liv- 
ing on South Main Street, among whom is James G. Fletcher, who served 
this county as clerk of the Starke Circuit Court for eight years, having 
gone out of that ofSce sixteen years ago. 

Alfred B. Wiley, who married Jennebeck Prettyman on the 24th of 
October, 1855, was known to the older citizens, and so far as the Pretty- 
mans are concerned there are several of that family living in Knox, 
among them being Joshua B. Prettyman, who married Mary Boots in 
Knox on the 17th of Mai'ch, 1857, and are both living in Knox on the 
corner of Bower and Washington streets. 

Then there is Conrad Groshaus, now living in Walkerton, Indiana, 
who is enjoying good health; he married Liza Jane Demasters, June 4, 

1856. Mr. Groshans after getting married began housekeeping on their 
farm in section 6 in Washington Township, but a few years ago he moved 
to Walkerton with his second wife, who was a sister to George and Aires 
W. Swartzell of Knox, his first wife dying while he still lived on the 

John Collins, who married Ellen Reed on the 26th of November, 

1857, lived in this county until recently, when he took up his residence in 
Kewanna, Ind., where he and his wife are enjoying fairly good health. 
Cornelius Stevenson, who died a few years ago, was married in Knox on 
the 21st of April, 1858, to Chloe Crites and his children live in Knox 
afrthis time. 

Samuel Koontz of Oregon Township, who built the fii-st grist mill in 
Starke County on the west bank of Koontz Lake, formerly called 
Woodsworth's Lake, in Oregon Township, procured license to marry 
Sarah Suit on July 22, 1858. He was the owner and operator of that 
mill and when he died the miU fell into the hands of his son, Samuel 
Koontz, Jr., who operates it up to this time. 

Joseph Austin was known as the fiddler of the Kankakee neighbor- 
hood. He was married to Delila Dial on the 7th of October, 1858, and 
moved to Knox some time afterwards and opened up a small grocery 
store on Main Street. He was known by all the citizens of Knox on 
account of his musical talent. 

John McGill or Megill, who married Mary Miller on the 26th of 
January, 1859, was engaged in the mercantile business on North Llain 
Street for several years, and was the owner of the farm which he after- 
wards sold to the county for a "poor farm," as is shown elsewhere in 
this history. He conducted a general store during the Civil war, and 
well do some of us remember paying him $14 and $16 per barrel for 
flour, which was very high during that war. 



Matthias T. Hepner was married to Lovisa Spoor on the 2d of 
January, 1861, and he and his wife live on the corner of Shields and 
Lake streets in Knox in first rate health. Mr. Hepner served this county 
as sheriff and for eight years he was clerk of the court after the war. 

Pioneers Wea 

and having heen one of the pioneer citizens of Starke Count.v he can 
tell of some of the adventures of an early resident, years ago when the 
people experienced what it was to live in a new country. 

Francis Yeager, living on Heaton Street in Knox, married Matilda 
Koontz on April 10, 1861. Mr. Yeager is well acquainted over the 


county, having been the county drainage commissioner for several years, 
having just recently given up that occupation on account of failing 
health. Mr. Yeager was an old resident of Oregon Township, having 
lived for a number of years on his farm one-half mile north of Grover- 
town, where he commenced keeping house after getting married. 

Cornelius Tanner, living at Bass Lake, moved to Starke County with 
his parents in an early day and is familiar with the conditions and the 
ways of living in the pioneer days of the county. He married Cordelia 
Corey in April, 1866, and has been and is now a citizen of Starke 
County and lives on a part of the old homestead at Bass Lake. His 
parents were among the first settlers of that neighborhood, having 
located in section 18 in North Bend Township in the early '50s. The list 
of the early entries of the land by those old citizens is given in the list 
taken from the tract book, which is contained in the history. Many of 
those old citizens lived through those early days whose experience can 
only be told by themselves who had that experience so wonderfully seen 
and felt by them. Jlany more have gone, to be seen or known no more, 
never to tell of the hardship of their early days soon after the organiza- 
tion of Starke County. 

We could mention the Windfries that located on section 29 in Oregon 
Township in 1852. A small cabin of rude construction housed that 
destitute family, who made their living principally by digging gentian 
roots upon the little island upon which they lived and some they pro- 
cured from the surrounding highlands. 

Edward Welch, the Triplets, the Rockwells, the Dailys and Mulvains, 
the McLaughlins and Eikeus located in Railroad Township about the 
'50s and were all highly respected citizens of that neighborhood, where 
the wild deer and other animals inhabited the swamps so common in the 
vicinity of San Pierre and the Kankakee Valley. Nathan M. Gerrard 
was married to Nancy Bright February 5, 1853. 

James McCormick, who was living in Bedford County, Virginia, 
about the year of 1852 conceived the idea that he could find cheaper 
lands than he was able to procure in the East, and in the spring of 
1852 turned his face westward and purchased the west half of section 
6 in Washington Township in 1853. Here he made a fair living for his 
family, although he met with many trials in that wild country. His 
neighbors took part and parcel in those trying times. The women folks 
would help with the farm work. It would be no uncommon thing to see 
the farmer and his good wife and perchance a daughter, if he had one, 
aU working side by side in the hay fields or even plowing com if neces- 
sary. This the women could not do so well, as almost everyone used 
oxen in those days. 

When Paschal Ferguson got married in the spring of 1852 and 
located on a piece of land four miles northeast of Knox, Mrs. Ferguson 
said she believed that it was her duty to help Mr. Ferguson with his farm 
work until he got a start, and many days she would be seen working in 
the fields with her hu.sband. It would be an unusual sight to see the 


women working in the fields at this time. In fact it is not expected of 
them to do so in this enlightened land, that day having passed beyond. 

George Anderson located in section 32 in Oregon Township in that 
same year. South of him was what was called Jager Lake, which has 
long since disappeared and the same spot of ground once covered by 
that body of water is now fine farm land. The Kellers came to Starke 
County in the '50s and opened up what might be called the first mer- 
cantile establishment in North Judsou about the time of the building 
of the Pan Handle Railroad. 

John Daum, living with his parents in section 7 in Washington Town- 
ship, who located there in 1848, was married to Eliza Smith of Oregon 
Township, August 28, 1858. This marriage took place at Philander 
Coffin's, the couple remained seated in their buggy while " 'Squire" 
Coffin performed the marriage ceremony, and then they drove away, 
those present bidding them a happy future. 

Then there was Isaac Reed, who owned the northeast quarter of sec- 
tion 5, in North Bend Township, who married Mrs. Susannah Guernsey 
for his second wife (both having been previously married) on the 18th 
of October, 1866. 

Joseph F. Chapman, who was raised on a farm in section 15, town- 
ship 32 north, range 1 west, married Emaline Turner on the 16th of 
March, 1867. John Cougle married Sarah Coats of Davis Township the 
same year, and many others that might be mentioned if they could be 
brought into remembrance, but all of those mentioned were among the 
early settlers. Some of them are dead and some living, enjoying life 
since rising above those dark clouds of long ago. 

William A. Turnbull was married to Eliza Osborn on the 27th of 
September, 1853, and located on a fanu in North Bend Townshij), where 
he died several years ago, but his widow still lives on the farm enjoying 
good health, she being the oldest living female citizen in Starke County. 
David McCumber, who married Caroline Coffin five years after the 
county was organized, the 10th of April, 1855, died several years ago, 
but his widow still lives in Knox. 

Samuel Dunkelbarger was an old citizen of the north part of Wayne 
Township, some of the Dunkelbargers locating in Jackson Township just 
over the township line from Samuel Dunkelbarger 's. He was married to 
Sarah Bell on the 29th of December, 1852, when Starke County was 
in its infancy. Kendall L. Short married Martha Ann Elkins in 1857, 
of Wayne Township, and Henry C. Petro of Railroad Township was 
married to Sarah Jane Adair in the same year and began housekeeping 
in that township. So those people were scattered all over the county, 
all meeting their trials as best they could where they reared their 
families, many of them living among us, and many times talking over 
the history of the past as their parents gave it to them, a history that 
they will not forget as long as time with them shall last. 

Jolm P. KeUey, who located on the northeast quarter of section 1 in 
Center Township early in the spring of 1853, if he were living could 


give an interesting account of this county as it appeared to him and 
his family at that time. Mr. Kelley shot and killed two deer at one shot 
about Christmas day in 1854. It was a common thing for a farmer to 
go out from his little log cabin, especially of an icy morning, and shoot 
a nice deer for breakfast, they being very plentiful in an early day. A 
good many of those pioneers made it a rule after getting married to 
go out and kill a nice fat deer so as to have some nice venison for an 
infair dinner. Dear citizen, would you not like to have a chance to sit 
down to a table spread with some of the fine deer meat and other wild 
game relished by those people long perhaps before you were born? 
Many were the varied experiences witnessed in our wild swamps and 
wide extended prairies by the early settlers who after getting married 
took up the struggles for life in a wilderness country. 

James Evans married Mary J. Graham on the 28th day of May, 
1851. Benjamin P. Wyant married Mary M. VanBlaricon on the 11th 
of April, 1853. Tilly Page secured license to marry Mary Crismore 
April 13, 1853, which was soon after the organization of the county. 
There are those living that' recollect those people well, having grown 
up by them and helped to share the ups and downs and the trials so 
common among those at that time. 

David Beebe, who married Mary Lain on the 22d of April, 1856, 
was a man well known by the old inhabitants of Starke County. He 
opened up a farm and eomjmeuced housekeeping about one-half mile 
east of what is known as Lena Park in Wayne Township and lived 
there until his death a short while ago. Then there lived in the county 
Ralph Williams, who married Jane Watkins on the 12th of October, 
1857; and George Anderson, Jr., who married Cynthia J. Monroe 
July 22, 1858, known by everyone in the east part of the county. The 
Monroe families were numerous in their neighborhood before and even 
after the Civil war. 

Aaron Morrow, who took up the occupation of farmer, located on 
the southeast quarter of section 15 in Oregon Township, where he 
lived for a number of years, marrying Elizabeth Koontz in February, 
1860. Mr. Morrow was a man well posted in legislative affairs and 
could interest anyone talking upon the events of the day. He was well 
versed in the Bible and occupied his leisure time in posting himself 
upon the religious subjects as he could see and understand them. 

The Van Derweele familj' located in Starke County in or about the 
year 1856. Albert VanDalen, who was a brother to Mrs. Van Derweele, 
located on a tract of land about six miles east of Knox and remained 
there until his death. He lived a bachelor life until he married Mary 
Hacker of Ober, Indiana. The Van Derweeles and VanDalens were 
successful farmers and demonstrated that fact by turning the wild and 
unbroken land into farms and made them blossom as the rose. 

Robert H. Bender, who located in Starke County in the early '509 
with his parents, pitched tent in section 13, to^vnship 34 north, range 1 
west, and lived there a few years, going to Knox from the farm, where 


he married Elvin J. Morris on the first day of December, 1863. This 
was during the great and awful strife between the North and South, 
and eleven days thereafter Austin P. Dial married Miss Edna Beatty, 
stepsister of Mrs. Bender. John Raschka married Mary Ken Febiniary 5, 
186-4, and took up the duties of a farmer boy on the southeast quarter 
of section 9 in California Township. Jesse Roose married Julia Ann 
Anderson March 15, 1864, and located on a tract of land just south of 
where Hamlet is located. Mr. Roose met with a fatal accident by 
falling from the top of a freight train upon which he was braking soon 
after his marriage. Peter Dipert of Oregon Township married Florilla 
Cup March 26, 1863. Philip Awald married Lydia Koontz on the 22d 
day of March, 1864. William Ayres married Nancy AVood on the 16th 
of July, 1864. John H. Geller married Ruth Green October 20, 1863. 
George Jones to Felitha Fletcher October 27, 1863. James M. Scott to 
Sarah Swartz. 


All towns of any size have a medical society, and of course there is 
one in Knox. It was established in the year 1912 with the following 
ofScers: Dr. S. I. Brown, president; Dr. P. 0. Englerth, treasurer; 
Dr. James L. Denaut, secretary. The members: Dr. W. C. Schwier, 
began practice in Knox in 1905; Dr. D. 0. White, began practice in 
Kjiox in 1897; Dr. Harry L. Bell, began practice in Knox, 1908; Dr. 
S. I. Brown, began practice in Knox in 1890; Dr. James L. Denaut, 
began practice in Hamlet in 1897; Dr. J. R. Abner, began practice in 
Hamlet in 1898; Dr. P. O. Englerth, began practice in North Judson 
in 1894; Dr. Albert Fisher, began practice in North Judson in 1904; 
Doctor Robler, began practice in Hamlet in 1914; Dr. Albert Parker, 
began practice in Ora about 1900 ; Dr. J. W. Solt, began practice in 
San Pierre in 1900 ; Doctor Hunter,, began practice in Grovertown in 

Those doctors all seem to have a fairly good practice. Being located 
part in North Judson, Hamlet, Knox, Ora and Grovertown gives them 
a wide range and, while we have a practically healthy neighborhood, 
yet there is more or less need of a physician in all localities during 
almost any season of the year. 

The first physician to locate in Knox was Dr. Charles Humphrey 
in the year of 1852. Then after him came Doctor Swingel, Doctor Hoag, 
Doctor Sparr, Doctor Garner and many others. It is impossible to 
name all in rotation in the absence of a directory or a list of their 
names. The names above given are the names of the present practicing 
physicians in the county. 

Doctor Durr practiced in the county in the early '50s, but never 
lived in Knox. He resided in Pulaski County and when Dr. Charles 
Humphrey took up the practice of medicine in Knox, having become 
a permanent resident of the town, he was the only recognized physician 
for several years. He built the second good frame dwelling house in 
Knox on the lot south of the present courthouse on the same spot of 
ground where Aug. H. Knosman now lives. That dwelling was built 
by Doctor Humphrey in the year of 1854, but burned down in after 
years, when Oliver Mussellman built the present dwelling on the same 
place. Doctors, like all other cla.sses of people, have experienced many 
vicissitudes and spots of pleasure, of privation and "ups and do^vns" 


in their practice of medicine in the county. At the time when this 
county was a howling wUderuess and its broad expanses of timberless 
swamps, with no road except an Indian trail to guide them from one 
little settlement to another, it was an awful hardship for doctors to 
visit the sick. 

With no telegraphs or telephones to call a physician to some honest 
farmer's cabin, the farmer had to wind his way as best he could to 
call the doctor to see his sick wife, his son or his daughter, and fre- 
quently when the doctor did arrive it was too late, having done his 
best to reach the bedside of that poor family. Fording the streams, 
as we did not have a bridge in the county; trailing through the swamp, 
and sometimes hid from view by the tall blue-joint so common on our 
driest prairies, is it any wonder that the physician would be too late 
to render any assistance to the sick mother or other members of the 
family ? Now a physician can go miles and miles in a remarkably short 
time with his automobile, as our county has improved, roads opened 
up, gravel roads running in all directions, making it possible for the 
doctors to travel in that way. There are not many in Knox at this 
time that lived here in those days. Not many here now to teU of the 
hardships and privations experienced in old times. None of our physi- 
cians of the early '50s are here to tell you of their personal experience 
while practicing their professions at that time; but there are those 
who lived here then that can tell you that they witnessed those condi- 
tions and had a part in them in and around the year of 1850, the year 
that Starke County was organized. 

The members of the Starke County Medical Society can console 
themselves with the knowledge that they will not be called upon to 
brave the storm or face the wild fei-ocious animals as did their brother 
physicians of the years gone by. The physician had to make his visits 
mostly on horseback until we began to have better roads through the 
country, and it was a common thing in those days for a doctor to stay 
all night when he visited the sick, as he often had to go a long distance, 
and to ride through the sparsely settled country was not very pleasant, 
especially after night, with nothing to guide him on his way but some 
Indian trail and the star-lit heavens above. He often guided his course 
by the north star, if it should be a clear night; sometimes of a dark 
night he would dismount and feel his way along the trail as best he 

It was a common practice for those at home to open wide the window 
shades, ' ' if they had a window, ' ' to let the light shine from their cabins 
in order to guide the doctor and the farmer to the home of the sick 
patients, for with nothing but an Indian trail to follow, frequently of 
a very dark night they would lose the trail and then would depend 
upon the light to guide them home. 

Our people of today do not realize what trials the physician had 
to endure in the pioneer days. We can step into our automobiles and 
glide over the country with the swiftness of a steam locomotive, never 


thinking or realizing what those doctors had to meet before the advent 
of fine gravel roads. I have often thought that perhaps it was well 
enough that we did not understand such conditions as those doctors had 
to meet. 

It would only make the heart ache and perchance a tear drop from 
the eye to understand the condition of the sick and the efforts made by 
the doctors and the farmer doing their best to alleviate the suffering 
at their little cabin home. But all is changed now. We have outlived 
those conditions and can now look with pride and satisfaction upon 
the scenes of the present day. To go back to the time of those trying 
days will never be done by us again, and our children can feel assured 
of the fact that they will never experience what some of us have expe- 
rienced in a new and unsettled countiy like this was fifty and sixty 
years ago. If Dr. Charles Humphrey could come back and call you all 
around him where he could give to you the true history of his expe- 
rience when practicing medicine in this county in the early '50s you 
could then perhaps sympathize with those who witnessed similar condi- 
tions. Then would you realize what it is to practice medicine under 
the same difficulties as Doctor Humphrey did and some others that 
followed him soon after he passed on beyond the scenes of time. 



By Henry R. Robbiiis 

Prior to 1852 Starke County, so far as its courts were concerned, was 
a part of Marshall County, and Plymouth was the county seat where all 
litigants and others who had business with the county government re- 
sorted on court days or in order to pay their taxes. Thus the early legal 
business was performed by attorneys from Marshall County as well as 
from Starke County. Courts of law and equity are a public necessity in 
every well regulated community, and before taking up consideration 
of some of the courts and the judges and lawyers of Starke County as 
an individual civil division, it will be of interest to refer briefly to the 
origin of the chief courts of Indiana. 

Under the first state constitution of 1816 it was provided that the 
judiciary power, both as to matters of law and equity, should be vested 
in the Supreme Court, Circuit Court, and in such inferior courts as the 
Legislature might from time to time direct and establish. Circuit Courts 
were established, each having a presiding judge who must reside in the 
circuit, and two associate judges in each county of the circuit. This was 
the arrangement until the adoption of the new state constitution in 1852. 
Therefore it is evident that only the older settlers of Starke County had 
experience with the old form of Circuit Court. As described by Judge 
McDonald in his history of Marshall County, the old Circuit Court had 
three judges, the presiding judge being flanked on both sides by the asso- 
ciate judges. "The associate judges did not have much to do. They 
occupied their seats on the bench, looked solemn and dignified, and when 
the presiding judge had decided a point or a case he would turn to one 
of the associates and ask him if he agreed with him in that opinion; 
he would nod his head in assent, when he would turn to the other asso- 
ciate, who wjjuld also give his consent, and that was all the duties they 
had to perform." 

Thus when Starke County was entitled to its own sessions of the Cir- 
cuit Court, these sessions were presided over by one circuit judge, and 
Starke County was for several years a part of the old Ninth Judicial 
District, the judge of which was Thomas S. Stanfield of South Bend. 
Besides the Circuit Coiu-t at the beginning of its organized existence 
iStarke County had a Common Pleas Court and the various justice courts 
now in existence, only not so many of them. 



Under the first constitution the Indiana Legislature provided for 
probate courts, but with this court also Starke County had no experi- 
ence save as its early residents resorted in chancery cases to the old 
Probate Court in Plymouth. The Probate Court as a separate institu- 
tion passed away with the adoption of the new constitution in 1852. In 
its place was established the Court of Common Pleas, with which the 
older residents of Starke Coujity were familiar. The Common Pleas 
Court was a sort of circuit court with chancery jurisdiction, and pre- 
sided over by a judge who was elected in a prescribed district. Elisha 
Egbert was the first judge of the Common Pleas Court for a district 
comprising Marshall, St. Joseph and Starke counties, and presided over 
its sessions until a rearrangement of the district was effected in 1859. 
Judge Egbert was a resident of St. Joseph County, was an able man and 
very friendly with all his associates. He was bom in New Jersey in 
1806, and is described by Judge McDonald as "an impartial and upright 
judge." The Common Pleas Court continued as a separate institution 
until it was abolished in March, 1873, jurisdiction in probate matters 
then being turned over to the Circuit Court. 

The first executive officer of the courts in Starke County was Solon 
"Whitson, who was elected sheriff. At the first sessions of court in this 
county Judge Egbert admitted to practice in his court Horace Corbin, 
of Plymouth, who had located in Marshall County about 1852, who be- 
came prominent as a lawyer, later served as state senator, and filled 
the office of judge of Circuit Court; also Albert S. Deavitt, who was 
admitted to the bar in 1854 ; William G. Pomeroy, who was one of the 
pioneers of Marshall County. Andrew G. Porter was also an early 
attorney and afterwards became clerk of the Starke Circuit Court. 

The first criminal case held in Starke County was against Henry 
Dom, who was charged with perjury, but was acquitted. 

At the beginning of Starke County's existence Sylvester A. Mc- 
Crackin was a justice of the peace, and in that office became very clever 
in justice practice, possessing good natural ability and in 1854 was 
admitted as attorney at law. Mr. McCrackin years afterwards became 
prosecuting attorney of the 44th Judicial Circuit, and acquitted himself 
with reasonable cleverness. Samuel Beatty was also one of the old attor- 
neys, and afterwards became a member of the House of Representatives 
of the State Legislature. His ability was not very flattering, but suffi- 
cient for the business that was carried on at that time in Starke County. 

Thomas J. Merrifield, who figured prominently as an attorney in 
Porter County and elsewhere in Northern Indiana, often came to Starke 
County to try cases while Starke was in his judicial circuit. Merrifield 
was an attorney of exceptional fine ability. His habits overcame his 
usefulness to a great extent, and but for that he would have been classed 
as one of the ablest attorneys in the United States. While on the subject 
of the first Circuit Court in Starke County it should be mentioned that 
Thomas J. Staiifield, who presided over its early sessions, was as able 
and honorable a judge as we have ever had in any circuit in the state. 
Lytle Jones became a regular practitioner in the Starke County bar in 


1867, was a regular traveler for several, years around the circuit with 
Judge Stanfield. In passing it may be remarked that it was customary 
for the lawyers of that time to follow the Circuit Court in its peregrina- 
tions about the district. Thus the sessions of court, lasting sometimes for 
two weeks in one county seat, would be attended by lawyers from every 
part of the district, and when court adjourned, all the lawyers would 
get on their horses or take places in the stage coach and follow the judge 
to the next place on the circuit. 

From 1852 to 1856 Wingate Prettyman was sheriff of Starke County. 
(This seems to conflict with the previous statement about Solon Whitson.) 
In 1856 Austin P. Dial became sheriff of Starke County. Both of these 
gentlemen were efficient and honorable officers. In 1852 John S. Bender 
became clerk of the Starke Circuit Court and also an attorney. He was 
about that time or shortly afterwards elected county surveyor; also 
county auditor, and was a civil engineer of unquestioned ability. He 
moved from Knox to Plymouth, and about ten years ago passed to the 
other life. 

One of the early tragedies in the local bar requires mention. James 
O'Brien, who was an attorney of promise, was in attendance at one of 
the sessions of court in 1854 at Knox. It illustrates some of the diver- 
sions of early lawyers to state that during a recess some of the attorneys 
went out into the woods surrounding the then village of Knox, to hunt 
squirrels and rabbits. O'Brien was wearing a fur cap, and as he was 
separated some distance from the other hunters it was mistaken for a 
fox squirrel, and received a shot which killed him instantly. 

John D. ilcLaren practiced law for several years at Knox, moved 
from here to Plymouth, and was recognized as the leader of the bar there 
for a number of years until his death. William B. Hess was also an 
attorney of Knox, subsequently removed to Plymouth, and later became 
judge of the ilarshall Circuit Court. 

Albert I. Gould became a resident attorney of Starke county in the 
year 1880. He was a jovial man. Besides his mental qualifications 
he had a stature of six feet four inches, and an avoirdupois of 480 pounds. 
He was a great joker and comedian of rare quality. His remains were 
cremated in 1906, his spirit passing to the beyond, from whence it has on 
several occasions returned to converse with his surviving friends. 

L. Harvey Shatto figured as an attorney and editor in Starke County 
from 1876 to 1882. About 1882 George A. Murphy was admitted to prac- 
tice, gaining a reputation as a brilliant attorney and later going west 
to Beatrice, Nebraska. George W. Beeman moved from Lake County to 
Starke County about 1856, built up a very fair practice, and was elected 
judge of the Forty-fourth Judicial Circuit, serving a term of six years, 
when his successor was elected. His popularity was less when his term 
expired than when he was first elected. 

We might mention here that M. T. Hepner was also clerk of the Circuit 
Court and filled many other offices in the county, and was almost, it 
might be said, a member of the court. 


Henry R. Robbius was admitted an attorney to the court about 1863, 
became a resident of Starke County in 1885, and is still in practice. 

Along about the same time James W. Nichols was an attorney, moved 
away from town, then returned, moved away again, and at present is 
practicing at Danville, Indiana. Within the past few weeks his son 
has come to practice in the territory abandoned by his father. 

Charles H. Peters, who was admitted to practice in 1895, went into 
business with an older attorney, Albert I. Gould, who has since died. 
His son, Glenn D. Peters, was also a local attorney, practicing with his 
father, but has since gone to Hammond, Indiana, and is in practice in 
that city. 

B. D. L. Glazebrook about 1890 took up the practice of law in Starke 
County, was twice elected prosecuting attorney, was one time appointed 
special judge on the bench by George W. Beeman, and is now practicing 
with success at Indiana Harbor. 

One of the recent additions to the bar of Starke County is Robert D. 
Peters. Oscar B. Smith is an attorney of ability and is still practicing 
law at Knox. Adrian L. Courtright practiced law in Knox from 1900 to 
1905, and served one term as prosecuting attorney. 

One of the more recent attorneys practicing at Knox was Charles C. 
Kelley, who later received appointment to public ofSce in the auditor's 
department in Indianapolis, went from that position to a sanitarium, and 
died without regaining his health. 

William C. Pentecost, who is one of the more modern attorneys, 
achieved a very fair practice in Knox, and at the last election was chosen 
to the ofSce of judge in the Forty-fourth Judicial Circuit. 

Another member of the Starke County bar is William J. Reed, and 
mention should also be made of Charles S. Lundin, who recently estab- 
lished himself as a Starke County lawyer and is doing a good business. 
E. L. ^IcGruder, an attorney from West Virginia, has formed a partner- 
ship with one of the older attorneys and is doing reasonably well. 

John M. Fuller, one of the alumni of the Michigan State University, 
having graduated at Ann Arbor in 1863, has served as a justice of the 
peace of Starke County, is the dean of the local bar, and will be ninety 
years of age his next birthday. 

Thomas J. Hurley, whose practice began here several years ago, gives 
his attention principally to criminal practice in prosecuting pleas for 
the State. He located in the county in 1911. 

Simon Bybee, a former editor of the North Judson News, formerly a 
preacher in the Christian Church and an all around good fellow, was 
admitted as an attorney to the Starke County bar in 1890, but passed 
on to the higher life and his reward on January 4, 1915. Mr. Bybee was 
a magnetic orator, very successful as a lawyer, and possessed a talent and 
ability rather unusual. 

Since his admission to practice in 1905, Harry C. Miller has served a 
term in the Indiana Legislature, and is one of the effective lawyers at 
North Judson. A more recent addition to the list of attorneys is Marvin 
E. Sclirock. 


James C. Fletcher, who was former clerk of the Starke Circuit Court 
and president of the First National Bank and of the Abstract Company, 
has been recently enrolled among the local attorneys. Another lawyer is 
Herbert R. Kofifel, who is a member of the State Board of Pardons. 

0. U. Holdermau, who was formerly an attorney of Starke County, 
moved from Knox to South Bend, from there to Oklahoma, and died in 
the latter State. 

A recent comer is Robert H. Moore, who remained only a short time, 
then moved to Michigan City, where he is now engaged in practice. 

Henry P. Schricker, who was an active member of the Starke County 
bar from 1905 to 1910, giving an excellent account of himself as a lawyer, 
finally quit practice and now edits the Democrat county paper. 

Hugh E. Kreuter, who was a member of the Starke County bar, has 
since been elected to the office of clerk of the Starke Circuit Court. 

The writer cannot resist stating his conclusiou that if the reputation 
of the various lawyers was left for themselves to determine, Starke 
County would have the ablest bar in the United States. In an estimate 
prepared in that way, each one would give the reputation of himself 
particularly and not of his neighbors, and assuming such a course in this 
brief judgment, the Starke County Bar Association wiU stand A No. 1. 


FiKE Companies 

Almost any town, even though it be small, is always in great need 
of some sort of tire protection. This our people at Kjiox well knew years 
ago, but without a water system iu the town it was looked upon as a thing 
almost impossible. But in order to protect the properties in the town 
they organized a sort of free tire company on July 20, 1894, and pro- 
curing a small chemical engine with buckets, etc., they started out to 
meet the emergencies as they should appear. So that for twenty years or 
more Knox has had a tire company, which was generally known as Knox 
Volunteer Fire Department with their chemical apparatus doing the 
best they could. But to successfully fight a fire you must have the equip- 
ment that will meet the demand and accomplish the purpose for which it 
is intended. 

Along about that time George W. Sarber was fire chief and then J. F. 
Tarletou became fire chief. By this time the department developed into 
a strong and efScient organization, since the introduction of our late 
fire protection, being well equipped with two hose carts, hook and ladder 
wagon, and chemical engine. Especially under the late organization it 
has done some very effective work and saved many pieces of property 
from destruction during the last four or five years. The last Knox Fire 
Department was organized in the year of 1911. 

The following is a list of the Knox Fire Department : Henry F. 
Schricker, chief; Elmer E. Horner, assistant chief; Charles H. Peele, 
first lieutenant ; Bert Horner, second lieutenant ; Frank Musselman, 
George Barnum, Clarence Scott, John W. Stevenson, 0. D. Hepner, John 
Eisenberg, Allie Grindle, Clarence Slidinger, Charles Rannells, Guy 
Loudermilk, J. C. Applegate and Charles Cutshall. 

Many were the disadvantages that our people worked under to fight 
fire before we put iu our water system. The town had to depend upon 
a small chemical engine and water from the near-by pumps and a bucket 
brigade, principally volunteers, to combat the flames, that often became 
so remarkably hot that they could not approach near enough to do 
much good with their pails. Since the establishing of our water system 
and a full and complete company of fire fighters under the leadership 
of Mr. Henry F. Schricker as chief, much effective work has been done. 
The old way of fighting fires became almost out of the question since 


our people have begun to build greater and higher buildings. With the 
fire equipment we now have, they can subdue almost any fire that they 
have to cope with. Fire hydrants are placed along our streets a reason- 
able distance apart so that they can reach the fire from some one of 
those hydrants with the 1,000 feet of hose provided for their use. With 
a stand-pipe the capacity is ample to furnish water for the whole town 
for house use as well as to supply the water in ease of a fire. This 
stand-pipe is located on North Shields Street and the fire station is at 
this time temporarily located in one of the Musselman buildings on Lake 
Street, the town board having sold the old town hall and grounds with a 
view of building a good and permanent town hall and fire station in the 
near future on their lot on Main Street opposite the Fitz Hotel. With 
a new and up-to-date town hall and fire station, this location, being on 
a brick street, will place the fire company in a position where they can 
do more effective work than they have been able to do. 

The members of this company are all young men, stout, robust, 
willing and ever ready to respond at the first tap of the fire bell, each 
to his respective place according to their rules, all performing their 
part until the last spark of fire is quenched and the fire equipment 
returned to its resting place. 

North Judson and Hamlet Ijoth have fire protection. A company at 
each of those towns furnishes to the citizens fairly good protection from 
the ravages of fire, which is a great menace to any town when it gets 
under headway. Should those towns be provided with a full and com- 
plete system of water, with a power house or stand-pipe sufficient for 
the towns, it will add materially to the interest of all the property 
owners in the towns. A system of water properly provided for the towTi 
is expensive, but all towns require something of that kind to put them 
on the safe side of any calamity that might occur in the shape of fire. 
True, North Judson and Hamlet have driven wells upon the streets 
where they can attach the hose and put out the fire in an ordinai-y 
building, but it does not meet all the requirements that an up-to-date 
system can furnish. Much credit is, however, due to the citizens of 
North Judson and Hamlet for the effort they have shown in providing 
the equipment they have at their 

County Asylum 

Many years ago the Legislature enacted laws for the protection and 
care of those not able to take care of themselves. 

Many became so from causes over which they had no control. Sick- 
ness and misfortune have sent many good hearted citizens to those 
benevolent institutions. Many times they have been found at their 
home suffering from the ravages of hunger and almost freezing with 
cold on account of not being able to procure clothing and other neces- 
saries of life. Starke County, not wishing to be behind in this par- 
ticular, lost no time in providing for its poor and knowing too that all 
being human the same heart that beats within one bosom is not so much 


unlike the heart of the unfortunate person, the victim of circumstances. 
Although you may be in good circumstances the same Ruler that rules 
over your destiny shall rule over his. 

The county asylum, known as the poor house, is located in Center 
Township in northeast 1/4 of section 27, township 33 north, range 2 west, 
and is conducted by Frank Hildenbrand and his estimable wife, who 
was appointed as superintendent of the poor in 1911. 

There are a number of inmates the whole time at the place who are 
well taken and provided for by our very courteous and gentlemanly 
superintendent. This farm lies just across the road dividing it from 
the south line of the town and lies at the south end of the Main Street 
pavement. No county farm in the state is conducted upon a safer and 
more business-like manner than the poor farm in Starke County. 

This farm was purchased of John Megill on the 20th of October, 
1875, for and in consideration of .$5,000. Since the farm was purchased 
by the county commissioners, they have made some fine improvements in 
the way of buildings as well as improving the land. 

A good and commodioiis two-story and basement building fronting 
towards the town is well built and so arranged to make it pleasant for 
the inmates that have the misfortune to have to be assigned to a chari- 
table institution. Good barns and sheds are built upon this farm for 
the protection of the stock and grain and farm implements. The super- 
intendent aims to carry out all the requirements imposed upon him by 
the county commissioners, to which they can look with pride and 
pleasure, in being fortunate in securing one so well qualified to manage 
this farm to the best interest of Starke County. 

It is unfortunate to be placed in those institutions, but our legis- 
latures saw fit to make laws by which all the poor and unfortunate 
beings might have a home where they can be provided for even though 
the expense has to be paid for out of the county revenues. 

So after all, while it is embarrassing to some to go to those places, it 
is a great credit after all to know that you can be provided for and have 
a home where you can be protected from winter's cold and frozen days 
of inclement weather, a place where you may reside as long as you live, 
a place where you may enjoy yourself as you could not enjoy without 
those privileges extended to you until you shall have served your time 
and be assigned to another place among those placed in the cemetery 
beyond the hills, a place of the silent dead. 


The Crown Hill Cemetery lies in the southeast 14 of the northeast 14 
of section 23, township 33 north, range 2 west, and is in the corporate 
limits of Knox. There seems to be no regular surveyed plat of the 
original pai't of this eemet«ry, but William Windish and wife on Feb- 
ruary 15, 1890, had an addition laid out on the west side of the old 
cemetery. This was regularly laid out with walks between the rows of 
lots and contains seventy-two lots. It appears that the old part of this 


cemetery was takeu out of the farm then owned by Job Short, aud 
those wishing to bury their dead chose any location that suited their 
fajicy the best. 

This cemetery is enclosed with a good ii-ou fence on the north and 
west sides aud a common fence on the south and east sides. Many have 
put cement curb around their respective lots, thus giving them a neat 
look. Flowers are planted upon the graves which shows the respect 
the living have for the dead. 

Several years ago it was found to be necessary to extend the size of 
this cemetery by adding another addition to it or procure ground else- 
where. A decision of the health officer of the town stated that it would 
be a violation of our laws to lay out any more cemetei-y in or so near 
to the town. Then a company was organized and land bought for a 
new cemetery. This company consisting of the following named pereons, 
to- wit : Mark R. Wright, president ; John G. Kratli, vice president ; 
John C. Jones, secretary; Wilber A. Pierson, trea.surer; George W. 
Beeman, and Fred A. Chapel, as trustees, with William E. Pinney, 
Jacob Bozarth, Adam F. Seider and James C. Fletcher, with Joseph 
N. McCormick, engineer, did lay out the following laud into a cemetery 
known as Oak Park Cemetery, the north half of the northwest quarter of 
southwest quarter of section 27, township 33 north, range 2 west, mak- 
ing 703 lots with walks and driveways through it. This cemetery was 
laid out on the 26th of January, 1900. 

This cemetery lies south of town about oue and a half miles from the 
courthouse. It has a good gravel road on the west line and is also 
accessible by a track leading into it on the east side from the gravel 
road running north and south. It is a great consolation to the friends to 
have a neat and well kept cemetery where they cau bury their precious 

The Fletcher Cemetery is located in the northeast corner of the south- 
east quarter of the southeast quarter of section 30, towaiship 34 north, 
range 1 west, upon lands owned at that time by Jesse Fletcher and 
wife. The original plat contained sixty -four lots. This was laid August 
12, 1878. Then on the 18th of October, 1907, with Marvin Schrock, as 
engineer, an addition was laid out, containing 128 lots, making in all 
192 lots in this cemetery, which lies on an elevated tract of land, a very 
desirable location for a cemetery, with a good gravel road on the east 
side make it accessible to the whole neighborhood. 

The people in and around the Town of Hamlet buy lots here and 
many of their friends are buried in this cemetery. There being no 
cemetery at Hamlet is perhaps why they choose to bury their friends at 
this place. Of course, the Catholics have a cemetery, where they bury 
their dead, which is located in the northwest corner of the southwest 
quarter of the southwest quarter of section 6 in township 33 noi-th, range 
1 west, being about three miles south of Hamlet. This cemetery was 
laid out a few years ago, but the plat is not recorded, but is owned and 
managed by the Catholic denomination of the neighborhood. 


The Lakk Cemetery 

located in the southwest corner of the northwest quarter of the south- 
west quarter of section 17, township 33 north, range 1 west, was laid 
out by Stephen Lark in about 1880 and is kept neat and clean with the 
choicest flowers and shrubbery, which adds greatly to the looks of any 

This cemetery, like the others spoken of, is on a cross road, which 
has been graveled in the last few years and inasmuch as it is within a few 
rods of the Eagle Creek Church makes it convenient for the neighbor- 

Grovertown Cemetery 

The Grovertown Cemetery was laid out on November 1, 1889, by 
Andrew J. Uncapher, who owned the land, and is located in the north- 
east corner of the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 
22 in township 34 north, range 1 west (Oregon Township). This ceme- 
tery was surveyed by Joseph N. McCormick, engineer, and contains 
270 lots. Being about one-fourth mile north of Grovertown, and a good 
gravel road on the east line of it and near the Grovertown United 
Brethren Church makes the distance very short in going from the church 
to the cemetery. 

Mr. Uncapher has taken much pride in keeping this cemetery in a 
neat manner, which shows that there are those who obey the living and 
respect the dead. i\Iany dear friends have been laid to rest in this 
cemetery, with tombstones and monuments placed at the head of the 
graves there to remind their friends of this world that tliey are sleeping 
beneath the sod, that they have gone on before, gone to tliat sleep from 
which there is no return. 

The Bass Lake Cemetery 

This cemetery lies in the southwest corner of the southeast quarter of 
the southeast quarter of section 6 and contains forty-nine lots. This 
had been used as a cemeteiy for several years and it was not until the 
"Church of the Living God" took it in hand that a survey and a plat 
were made of it, which was done, the sur\'ey having been made on the 
3d day of May, 1902, and this plat is recorded in plat book No. 1 in 
the recorder's ofSce. The plat is signed by Elmer D. Elder and Absalom 
Price, as trustees. There is another cemetery located in the same sec- 
tion, but it too like a good many other cemeteries in the county is not 
placed upon the plat book in the recorder's office, hence no record of 
them all can be given here. 

North Judson Cemetery 

The land contained in the North Judson Cemeteiy (original plat) 
was conveyed by Ebenezer Jones and Elizabeth Jones, his wife, to John 


Sharp, Ebenezer Jones, A. L. Chenoweth, Levi Lightcap and Isaac 
Aldrieh, as trustees of the North Judson Cemetery. The said described 
land, to- wit : Commencing twenty-five rods west of the southeast corner 
of section seventeen (17), township thirty-two (32) north, range three 
(3) west, thence running west thirteen (13) rods, thence noi-th thir- 
teen (13) rods, thence east thirteen (13) rods, thence south thirteen 
(13) rods to the place of beginning, being a part of the southeast 
quarter of said section seventeen. Said deed was signed by Ebenezer 
Jones and Elizabeth Jones, his wife, who acknowledged the same before 
A. B. Ellis, a justice of the peace, on the 15th day of November, 1862, 
and filed for record in the recorder's office January 3d, 1862, and 
recorded by Willoughby M. McCormiek, recorder of Starke County, 
Indiana, in Record " E " at page 726. 

Then deed record "T" at page 431 in the recorder's office we find 
that Lewis Keller and Nettie C. Keller, his wife, convey to the North 
Judson Cemetery the following lands, to-wit : Commencing at the north- 
west corner of the old cemetery, thence running north 175 feet, thence 
in a northeasterly course 291 feet to the northwest corner of the school 
lot. Thence in a southwesterly course 332 feet, thence in a southwesterly 
direction 80 feet, thence south 16 feet, thence west 375 feet to the place 
of beginning, being a part of the southeast quarter of section 17, town- 
ship 32 north, range 3 west. Signed, Lewis Keller, Nettie C. Keller, and 
acknowledged before L. E. Bernethy, a justice of the peace, April 1, 
1880, and recorded April 12, 1880. 

San Pieere Cemetery 

James Brazzill and Ann Brazzill of San Pierre, Starke County, con- 
vey to the Cemetery Board of San Pierre, as follows : Commencing four 
chains and twenty-three links south of the northeast comer of the west 
half of the northwest quarter of section 28, township 32 north, range 4 
west in Starke County, Indiana; thence south 26 7^ rods; thence west 
along South Knox Road 18 rods; thence north 267^ rods; thence east 
18 rods to the place of beginning. Containing three acres and being a 
part of the northwest quarter of section 28, township, and range afore- 
said, and signed, James Brazzill and Ann Brazzill and acknowledged 
before B. Glazebrook, a justice of the peace, on the 19th day of January, 
1876, and recorded April 15, 1876, by Michael Kelley, recorder Starke 
County, Indiana. 

Then Abigail M. Adair conveys to Ajace H. Triplett. John R. Sea- 
brook, James H. Ekins, L. Dow Glazebrook and Elvin E. Mulvain, as a 
Cemetery Board and their successors for and in consideration of $100, 
the following real estate : Beginning at a .stake 8 chains and 32 links 
east of the corner of Webster and Elizabeth streets in the Tovm of San 
Pierre, north 614 degrees west, one chain and 58 links to stake ; thence 


north 8334 degrees east, 3 chains and 16 links to stake; thence south 614 
degrees east, one chain and 58 links to public road; thence south 83% 
degrees west 3 chains and 16 links to the place of beginning, being part 
of the northwest quarter of section 28, township 32 north, range 4 
west in Starke County, Indiana, and signed, Abigail M. Adair, and 
acknowledged before J. C. Faris, a justice of the peace, on the 26th 
day of January, 1877, and recorded February 21, 1877, by Michael 
Kelley, recorder of Starke County, Indiana. 

Many more cemeteries are in different parts of the county but not 
being placed of record we'll have to omit them. There are, however, 
several in each township. 


Certainly every taxpayer in the county, or whether he lives in the 
county or not, if he owns property and pays taxes in the county, is 
always anxious to know what his taxes are going to be for the coming 
year. As I have said before, nothing will so touch the heart strings of 
man, as that which requires him to pay out his money with no expecta- 
tion of ever getting it back, but just such is the case in paying taxes 
each year. I will herewith produce an official list of your taxes for 1914, 
to be paid in 1915. This schedule is signed by the county treasurer, 
Mr. Frank Joseph, and is official. It is given by township and corpora- 
tions, as the same rate of taxes does not appear the same in all the town- 
ships and corporations, giving the various items upon which the taxes 
are based and carried out showing the amount in first and second 
installments also the amount for the whole year. And as to school loans, 
the table is signed by Charles W. Weninger, county auditor. 

Rates of Taxes for 1911 in Starke County 

The taxpayers of Starke County, Indiana, are hereby notified that 
after January 1, 1915, I will be prepared to receive the several amounts 
of taxes for said county for the year 1914, at the treasurer 's office in the 
Town of Knox. 

The following table shows the rate on each $100 assessed valuation, 
and each poll in the several townships and corporations in Starke 
County, Indiana, for the year 1914. 

Names of Townships and Corpoeations, also Numbers Corresponding 
TO THE Numbers on Table 

1, North Bend Township; 2, Washington Township; 3, Oregon Town- 
ship ; 4, California To^vnship ; 5, Center Township ; 6, Wayne Township ; 
7, Railroad Township; 8, Davis Township; 9, Jackson Township; 10, 



Knox Corporation ; 11, North Judson Corporation ; 12, Hamlet Corpora- 
tion in Davis Township ; 13, Hamlet Corporation in Oregon Township. 

S 5|l£g Si 

16.9 30 40 

16.9 50 10 
16.9 65 30 

30 50 25 
15 25 10 
40 50 25 

3| §, 

IH I l¥ i P^ i ¥ I. P V i T^ I I IM 

1 .. 1 20 50 50 1.00 1.85 1.60 3-45 

2 50 50 1.00 1.91 1.57 3.48 

3 30 50 1.00 1.58 1.33 2.91 

4 .. .. 25 50 50 1.00 1.97 1.57 3.54 

5 .. .. 35 50 50 1.00 2.21 1.87 4.08 

6 50 50 1.00 1.66 1.46 3.12 

7 .. ..15 50 50 1.00 25 2.25 2.15 1.80 3.95 

8 50 50 1.00 1.49 1.39 2.8* 

9 50 50 .... 1.00 2.11 1.76 3.87 

io 30 3 3.5 5 13 10 35 ' ' 50 50 i.o'o 2.5 1.00 3.25 2.70 2.46 5.16 

11 35 3 .. 5 .. 1(1 .. 25 50 50 1.00 25 2.25 2.63 2.34 4.97 

12 25 4 35 5 .. 10 .. .. 50 50 1.00 25 .... 2.25 2.38 2.13 4.51 

13 25 4 3.'-) .- .. 10 .. .. 50 50 1.00 25 2.24 2.35 2.10 4.51 

Taxes are payable in person at the county treasurer's office, and this 
notice is a legal demand for all taxes due from each and every taxpayer 
assessed in the county. 

There is no law requiring treasurer to answer correspondence, but 
statement of tax will be sent cheerfully when stamp is enclosed for reply. 
In asking for statements give description of lauds or lots and in what 
town or township located. 

The owner of property on the 1st day of March in any year shall be 
liable to the taxes of that year. The purchaser of property on the 
1st day of March shall be considered as the owner on that day. See 
Acts 1903. 

Pay Your Taxes Promptlii and Save Costs 

The attention of taxpayers is called to the following section of law, 
approved March 15, 1875: "Be it enacted by the General Assembly 
of the State of Indiana, that each person or taxpayer charged with taxes 
on the duplicate in the hands of the County Treasurer, may pay the full 
amount of such taxes on or before the first Monday in ]\Iay, or may, at 
his option, pay one-half on or before said first Monday in May, and 
the remaining half on or before the first Monday in November, follow- 


iug. And provided further, that in all cases where as much as one-half 
of the amount charged against a taxpayer shall not be paid on or before 
the first Monday in May, the whole amount charged shall become due, 
and returned delinquent, and collected as provided by law. 

"It is the duty of taxpayers to call for the property on which they 
wish to pay, and see that they have separate receipts for each township 
or corporation, and see that they are correct before leaving the office. 

"Taxpayers will find it greatly to their advantage to call early and 
avoid mistakes incident to the rush of the last few days, and those who 
have their tax complicated, such as undivided estates, are especially 
requested to call when we are at leisure, as it requires considerable time 
to make the divisions and issue separate receipts. 

' ' The treasurer has no option in rebating the penalty on taxes allowed 
to go delinquent. Taxpayers are particularly notified that all road tax 
is due and payable with the first installment. No credit will be allowed 
on road tax unless the receipt is presented. Road receipts will not be 
received in payment of second installment taXes. 

"No county order will be paid to any person owing delinquent taxes 
and parties are warned not to purchase such orders, as they will be held 
for delinquent taxes of the original owner. 

"The annual sale of delinquent lots and lands will take place on the 
second Monday in February, 1915. 

"Prank Joseph, 
"Treasurer Starke Counttj, Indiana." 

Mortgage Deductions 

Mortgage deduction afiSdavits may be sworn to before any person 
who is authorized to administer oaths, and must be filed with the county 
auditor during the months of March or April of each year. Said affi- 
davits must be sworn to by the persons securing the deductions per- 

School Loans 

All persons owing interest on school fund mortgages are hereby 
notified to pay the interest promptly and thus save the expense of fore- 
closing same. 

Charles W. Weninger, 
Auditor for Starke County, Indiana. 
Knox, Indiana, November 20, 1914. 

County Expense 

We herewith present the tax payers of Starke County a list of the 
monies that it takes to run the expense of the county for one year. This 
allowance is made for the year of 1915 made by the county council as 
follows, which is passed by them in September, 1914, furnished by the 
auditor from his records. 


Ordinance for Appropriations and Recommendations and Suggestions 

Section 1. Be It Ordaiued by the Starke County Council of Starke 
County, Indiana, Tliat for the expenses of the county government and 
its institutions, for the year ending December 31, 1915, the following 
sums of money are hereby appropriated and ordered set apart out of the 
several funds herein named and for the purpose herein specified, subject 
to the laws governing the same. Such sums herein appropriated shall 
be held to iuclude all expenditures authorized to be made during the 
year, unless otherwise expressly stipulated and provided for by law. 

Section 2. That for the said fiscal year there is hereby appropriated 
out of the ' ' County Fund ' ' the following : 

For Expense of Office of Clerk of the Circuit Court 

Item 1. Salary of clerk $ 1,200.00 

Item 2. Clerk's per diem attending all courts 216.00 

Item 4. Office expenses and supplies, including books, 

blanks and stationery 555.00 

Total $ 1,971.00 

For Expense of County Auditor's Office 

Item 5. Salary of county auditor $ 1,100.00 

Item 6. Additional salary as clerk County Council and 

secretary of the County Board of Finance 650.00 

Item 7. Office expenses and supplies, including books, 
blanks and stationery, and all supplies for 

vaults 1,065.00 


Total $ 3,015.00 

For Expense of County Treasurer's Office 

Item 8. Salary of county treasurer $ 1,500.00 

Item 9. Office expenses and supplies, including books, 

blanks and stationery 490.00 

Total $ 1,990.00 

For Expense of County Recorder's Office 

Item 10. Salary of county recorder $ 1,000.00 

Item 11. Additional salary on account of fees collected ... . 500.00 
Item 12. Office expenses and supplies, including books, 

blanks and stationery 720.00 

Total $ 2,220.00 


For Expense of County Sheriff's Office 

Item 13. Salary of county sheriff $ 1,100.00 

Item 14. Sherift"s per diem attending all courts, Board of 

Review and County Council 380.00 

Item 15. Sheriff's fees, except per diem, payable out of 

county treasury under Act of 1909 including 

boarding and care of prisoners 130.00 

Item 16. Office expenses and supplies, including books, 

blanks and stationery 300.00 

Total $ 1,910.00 

For Expense of County Surveyor's Office 

Item 17. Fees for county surveyor or deputy, if any, pay- 
able out of county treasury 600.00 

Item 18. Office expenses and supplies, including books, 

blanks and stationery 535.00 

Total $ 1,135.00 

For Expense of County Superintendent's Office 

Item 19. Per diem of county superintendent $ 1,408.50 

Item 20. Expense of County Teachers' Institute 100.00 

Item 21. Office expenses and supplies, including books, 

blanks and stationery 1,115.00 

Total $ 2,623.50 

For Exj^ense of County Assessor's Office 

Item 22. Salary of county assessor $ 600.00 

Item 23. Per diem of deputy assessor, where allowed by law 40.00 
Item 24. Office expenses and supplies, including expense at- 
tending state meeting 35.00 

Total $ 675.00 

For Expense of County Coroner's Office 

Item 25. Salary or per diem of county coroner $ 400.00 

Item 26. Office expenses and supplies 25.00 

Item 27. All other expenses of coroner's inquests and post 

mortenis 25.00 

Total $ 450.00 

For Expense of Couuty Health Commissioner's Office 

Item 28. Salary of county health commissioner $ 250.00 

Item 29. Office expenses and supplies 35.00 

Item 30. All other expenses incident to the prevention or 

suppression of contagious diseases 1,000.00 

Total $ 1,305.00 

For Expense of Commissioners' Court 

Item 31. Salary of county commissioners $ 375.00 

Item 32. Office expenses and supplies 685.00 

Item 33. For salaiy of county council 70.00 

Item 3-1. For salary of county attorney 250.00 

Item 35. For salary of pauper attorney, defending crimi- 
nals, etc 100.00 

Item 35. H. R. Robbins, Acct. Law 25.00 

Item 35. W. C. Pentecost, Darrow vs. Auditor 50.00 

For Expense of County Board of Review 

Item 36. Per diem of members $ 360.00 

Item 37. All other expenses 200.00 

Totals $ 560.00 

For Expense of County Board of Truancy 

Item 38. Per diem of truant officer $ 360.00 

Item 39. Office expenses and supplies 70.00 

For Expense of Assessing 

Item 40. For assessing North Bend Township $ 300.00 

Item 41. For assessing Washington Township 300.00 

Item 42. For assessing Oregon Township 320.00 

Item 43. For assessing California Township 350.00 

Item 44. For assessing Center Township 450.00 

Item 45. For assessing Wayne Township 450.00 

Item 46. For assessing Railroad Township 350.00 

Item 47. For assessing Davis Township 300.00 

Item 48. For assessing Jackson Townsliip 150.00 

Item 60. Making plat books 250.00 

Item 61. For expense of poor (to be paid back into county 

treasury by trustee's levies the following year) 4,250.00 


For Expense of Courthouse 

Item 63. Repair of buildings and care of grounds, including 

insurance and improvement tax $ 2,500.00 

Item 64. Janitors and other employes 820.00 

Item 65. Supplies, including fuel, light, water, movable fur- 
niture, etc 1,650.00 

Total $ 4,970.00 

For Expense of County Jail 

Item 67. Repair of buildings and care of grounds, includ- 
ing insurance and improvement tax $ 250.00 

Item 69. Supplies, including fuel, light, water, movable 

furniture, etc 450.00 

Total $ 700.00 

For Expense of County Poor Farm 

Item 70. New buildings and grouncls $ 500.00 

Item 71. Repair of buildings and care of grounds, including 

insurance and improvement tax 250.00 

Item 72. Salary of superintendent and all other employes, 

including physician 1,300.00 

Item 73. Supplies and maintenance, including fuel, light, 

water, furniture, farm implements, etc 1,250.00 

For Expense of County Home for Orphans 

Item 78. For expense of orphan poor in other institutions, 

including transportation 400.00 

Item 79. For expense of inmates of State Penal and Benevo- 
lent institutions 400.00 

For expense of insanity inquests 665.00 

For expense of epileptic inquests 340.00 

For expense of burial of soldiers, sailors or 

marines, their wives and widows 500.00 

For expense of public printing and advertising. . . 1,000.00 
For expense of highways, viewers, damages, etc. . 525.00 

For expense of Farmers' Institute 100.00 

For expense of ditches, if any payable out of the 

coimty treasury 1,440.00 

For expense of bridge superintendent or engineer 400.00 
For expense of employes for special services under 
contract with the Board of County Commis- 
sioners 1,000.00 




















Item 92. For deficiency on school funds, principal and in- 
terest 2,000.00 

Item 93. For expense of game warden, destroying seines, 

etc 25.00 

Item 94. For expense of poor children under compulsory 

education law 200.00 

Item 95. For rent of county offices where not provided for 

in courthouse 36.00 

Item 96. For expense county agent out of county funds. . 1,500.00 

Item 97. For expense posting delinquent notices, county 

fund 20.00 

For Expense of New Bridges 
(Give Location) 

Item 112. For bridge $ 1,500.00 

Item 119. For expense of bridge repairs 3,000.00 


^ ^ :i^^fS 

Ukidge over Yellow River, Knox 
For Expense of Prosecuting Attorney's Office 

Item 125. For expense of changes of venue $ 500.00 

For Expense of the Circuit Court 

Item 127. Expense of petit and grand jurors and jury com 
missioners, including per diem, meals, etc ... , 

Item 129. Per diem and expenses of official reporter, includ 
ing fees, where allowed by law, and supplies. , 

Item 130. Per diem of bailiffs, allowed by law 

Item 134. Expense of supplies, repairs, etc., for courtroom, 

on order of the judge, including law library. . 175.00 

$ 950.00 



For Expense of Juvenile Court 

Item 18-i. Per diem and expenses of probation officers $ 75.00 

Item 1. Payment county bonds, principal and interest ... . 12,500.00 

Item 92. Deficiency in school fund 500.00 

Item 96. Special street paving 41.15 

Item 125. Changes of venue 500.00 

Item 15. Sheriff boarding prisoners 50.00 

No question concerning the affairs of the county appeals to the tax- 
payers more than the expenses that it takes to run the county and pay 
the expenses of all the different departments of the county and believ- 
ing that a statement made from the records in the county auditor 's office 
which is official would interest our people hence we have given it above 
which is signed by the county council with their recommendations and 
suggestions as follows: 

JMemoranda of suggestions and request as made by the Starke County 
Council in session assembled at the auditor's office in the courthouse at 
Knox, Indiana, on the 9th day of September, 1911. 

We, the undersigned members of the Starke County Council in view 
of the high rate of taxes prevailing in Starke County at this time, a 
considerable portion of which is caused by the extensive building of 
free gravel roads, do hereby respectfully suggest and request all tax- 
payers of Starke County, Indiana, to refrain from petitioning further 
the Board of County Commissioners to grant and establish any addi- 
tional gravel road until the present gravel road indebtedness is greatly 
reduced, we deem it the best policy to carefully consider the cost before 
signing any gravel road petition to be presented to the Board of Com- 
missioners of Starke County, and we further recommend that the county 
auditor cause a copy of this request to be published in the leading news- 
papers of the county for one insertion. 


Henry Peele, 
Wm. Marsh, 
Fred M. White, 
John Dolezall, 
Henry W. Engbreth, 
Fred E. Virgin. 
Memhers of the Board of Starke County Council. 

Election 1911 

Believing that an account of the recent election held m Starke County 
showing the official vote on the 3rd day of November, 1914, would 
interest our readers, especially in long years to come perhaps more 
than many other subjects we might write about, I will give the name 
of the candidate, the office for which he ran, and the number of votes 


be received, and showing his plurality or majority over his opponent 
beginning with the judge of the Forty-fourth Judicial District. 


W. C. Pentecost, received 1,548 votes 

Frank Vurpillat, received 1,111 votes 

Pentecost also carried Pulaski County by 39 votes, 

making his majority in both counties 476 votes 

Prosecuting Attorney 

John G. Capouch, democrat, received 1,263 votes 

James A. Dilts, republican, received 1,349 votes 

Dilts' majority in Starke County 86 votes and in 

Pulaski County 161 votes, making his majority 247 votes 


John G. Marks, democrat, received 1,279 votes 

Hugh Kreuter, republican, received 1,303 votes 

Kreuter's majority 24 votes 


Henry Lukeu, democrat, received 1,292 votes 

William Henry Emigh, republican, received. .. .1,229 votes 
Luken 's majority 63 votes 


Edwin W. Mathews, democrat, received 1,255 votes 

Charles H. Reasoner, republican, received 1,273 votes 

Reasoner 's majority 18 votes 


George E. Pettis, democi*at, received 1,377 votes 

Delbert Peterson, republican, received 1,192 votes 

Pettis ' majority 185 votes 


Charles A. Good, democrat, received 1,362 votes 

Fi-ank W. Spoor, republican, received 1,194 votes 

Good 's majority 168 votes 



Thomas C. Hite, democrat, received 1,269 votes 

Joseph B. Favorite, republican, received 1,214 votes 

Hite 's majority 45 votes 

County Assessor 

Henry C. Rogers, democrat, received 1,242 votes 

Abel Rea, republican, received 1,264 votes 

Rea 's majority 22 votes 

Commissioner, District No. 2 

Peter Mosher, democrat, received 1,275 votes 

Charles J. Swartz, republican, received 1,258 votes 

Moslier's majority ' 17 votes 

Commissioner, Third District 

Oliver Swanson, democrat, received 1,269 votes 

Fred J. Kingman, republican, received 1,272 votes 

Kingman 's majority 3 votes 

County Couneilmen at Large 

Maurice E. Parks, democrat, received 1,237 votes 

Wm. H. Clausen, democrat, received 1,247 votes 

Homer L. Piper, democrat, received 1,252 votes 

John Dolezal, republican, received 1,279 votes 

Henry Vieting, republican, received 1,244 votes 

Fred E. Virgin, republican, received 1,258 votes 

thus electing Piper, Virgin, and Dolezal. 

County Council for Districts 

First district, Clarence C. Johnson, elected by 84 votes 

Third district, Cecil R. Jackson, elected by 1 vote 

Third district, Henry Heuning, elected by 181 votes 

Joint Representative 

Peter Folmar, democrat, received 1,212 votes 

James R. Guild, republican, received 1,265 votes 

Guild's majority in Starke County 53 votes 

and in Pulaski County it was 275 votes 

But Folmar carried St. Joseph County by about 2,000 votes 

thus Folmar was elected. 


The proposed eonstitutiou was carried iu this county by 709 votes, 
but lost in the state. 

The appropriation resolution for a new state house was defeated by 
1,952 votes. 

Shively was elected to the United States Senate by about forty-four 
thousand votes over Hugh T. Miller. 

Beverage was third on the ticket. 

Henry A. Barnhart for representative in Congress was elected by 
3,7-11. The following being for plurality votes: 

For Barnhart For Hickey 

St. Joseph County 2,554 

Marshall County 1,265 

Fulton County 31 

Elkhart County 815 

Starke County 57 

LaPorte County 623 

Kosciusko County 296 

Total 4,691 950 

Barnhart 's majority 3,741 

This was a veiy interesting election and all parties working to get 
out their full vote, although the full vote was not in, yet aU parties 
went to their homes or to their headquarters and waited patiently for 
the full returns of that election. Some were disappointed, of course, and 
some very much surprised at the result. The township trustees elected 
in the county were three democrats and four republicans and two pro- 
gressives, as follows : 

North Bend Township 

Harry Leopold, democrat, was elected by sis votes over George 
Collins, republican. 

"Washington Township 

Walter Rausbottom, republican, was elected by six votes over H. 0. 
Hisey, democrat. 

Oregon Township 

William R. Richey, democrat, was elected by forty-four votes over 
Peter Holm, republican. 

California Township 

Lon C. Miller, republican, was elected by forty votes over Samuel 


Center Township 

Joseph Cox, republican, was elected by fifty votes above Daniel B. 
Hostetler, democrat. 

Wayne Township 

Henry Mathews, progressive, was elected by thirty-seven votes over 
Dr. Albert Fisher, democrat. 

Railroad Township 

William J. Solt, progressive, was elected by nineteen votes over 
Jesse Eberhart, democrat. 

Davis Township 

John Graham, republican, was elected by twenty-two votes over Gabe 
Doyle, democrat. 

Jackson Township 

William H. Dunkelbarger, democrat, was elected by one vote over 
Prank Clemens, republican. 

An Old Ditch Organization 

In looking over the records in the recorder's office I find where there 
was an organization formed, the purpose of which was to drain the 
wet lands in Davis Township and surrounding country and I will give 
it in full as appears of record : 

Article of Agreement of Starke County Ditching Company 

Know all men by these presents that we the undersigned have this 
day entered into an association and body corporate to be kno\\ai and 
"stiled" by the name and "stile" of the Starke Ditching Company and in 
such name to sue and be sued and do all business necessary to carry 
out the purposes of said company. 

Article 1st. This company shall be known by the name and stile of 
the Starke Ditching Company. 

Article 2nd. The object of this company shall be to contract drains 
and levees for the improvement of lands in Davis, Center, Washington 
BJid Oregon Townships, Starke County, Indiana, dated and signed this 
20th day of July, 1860. 

Peter Speelman, 
Ezekiel Cole, 
John Hamlet, 
Stephen Cole, 
Alex Hewett, 
James Jolly. 


Journal of the Starke Ditching Company on the 28th day of July, 
1860, written articles of election of directors of said company was posted 
up in five pubUe places as the law directs signed by P. Speelman, 
Stephen Cole and James Jolly. Then members of this association, elec- 
tion to be held on the 2-l:th day of August, 1860, at the house of Peter 

August 24th, 1860, a majority of said company having met accord- 
ing to the previous notice James Jolly and Stephen Cole were appointed 
Judges of election and Peter Speelman was appointed Clerk of said 
election after taking the following oath of ofSce administered by S. A. 
McCrackin a Justice of the Peace proceeded to elect said officers. 

We James Jolly and Stephen Cole swear that we will faithfully and 
impartially discharge the duties of Judges of election to the of 
our ability. 

James Jolly, 
Stephen Cole. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 24th day of August, 1860. 

S. A. McCrackin, 

Justice (Seal) 
I, Peter Speelman, swear that I will faithfully discharge the duties 
of clerk of election to the best of my ability. 

P. Speelman. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 24th day of August, 1860. 
S. A. McCrackin, Justice, (Seal) 
Names of Voters. Result of election. 

James Jolly 1 Stephen Cole 4 

Ezekiel Cole 1 Ezekiel Cole 4 

Stephen Cole 1 Alexander Hewitt 5 

Alexander Hewitt 1 P. Speelman 1 

Peter Speebnan 1 John Hamlet 1 

Stephen Cole received four votes and was declared duly elected 
Director. Ezekiel Cole received four votes and was declared duly elected 
Director. Alexander Hewitt received five votes and was declared duly 
elected Director. 

I, Stephen Cole swear that I will faithfully discharge my duty as 
Director of the Starke Ditching Company to the best of my ability. 

Stephen Cole. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 24th day of August, 1860. 
S. A. McCrackin, Justice, (Seal) 

I, Ezekiel Cole swear that I will faithfully discharge my duty as 
director of the Starke Ditching Company to the best of my ability. 

Ezekiel X Cole 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 24th day of August, 1860. 
S. A. McCrackin, Justice (Seal) 


I, Alexander Hewitt swear that I will discharge my duties as Director 
of the Starke Ditching Company to the best of my ability. 

Alex Hewitt. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 24th day of August, 1860. 

S. A. MeCrackin, Justice (Seal) 
Know all men by these presents we Stephen Cole, Ezekiel Cole and 
Alexander Hewitt, Directors of the Starke Ditching Company appoint 
Peter Speelman Clerk of the Starke Ditching Company for the present 
year, dated this 24th day of August, 1860. 

Stephen Cole, Ezekiel Cole and Alex Hewitt. 
Know all men by these presents that we the Directors of the Starke 
Ditching Company appoint James Jolly Treasurer of said Company for 
the present year, this 24th day of August, 1860. 

Stephen Cole, 
Ezekiel Cole, 
Alex Hewitt. 
I, Peter Speelman swear that I wiU faithfully discharge the duties 
of Clerk of the Starke Ditching Company to the best of my ability. 

Peter Speelman. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 24th day of August, 1860. 

S. A. MeCrackin, Justice (Seal) 
I, James JoUy swear that I will faithfully discharge the duties of 
Treasurer of the Starke Ditching Company to the best of my ability. 

James Jolly. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 24th day of Augiist, 1860. 

S. A. MeCrackin, Justice (Seal) 
Received for record August 25th, 1860 at 9 o'clock A. M. and 
recorded on the same day. 

Willoughby M. McCormick, 

Then on the 20th day of October, 1860, the appraisers file their 
assessment sheet showing the assessment made by them which reads 
as follows: 

Schedule of the Appraisers of the Starke County Ditching Company 

State of Indiana: 
Starke County: 
Be it remembered that according to previous notice the appraisers of 
the Starke Ditching Company, to-wit George Laramore, Jesse Jackson, 
and Philander Coffin appraisers for the ensuing year met at ten o'clock 
A. M. on the lands hereafter described and proceeded to assess the value 
to each piece as follows, to-wit NE14 of NE1/4 of Section 26, T 34 N 
Range 2 West, also the Ni/o of NWi/o of Sec. 25, T. 34 N. Range 2 West 
appraised to Peter Speelman 60 cents per acre : $72.00. The SE14 of 
NE14 of Sec. 26, T and range aforesaid, appraised to James Jolly 35 
cents per acre $14.00. 


The SW1/4 of NW1/4 and NW14 of SW14 of Section 25 T and R 
aforesaid appraised to Glidden and Reeves at 60 cents per acre $48.00. 

Tlie SE14 of NW14 of Section 25, also NE14 of SW14 of Section 25, 
T and R aforesaid, appraised to F H Nitterhouse at 85 cents per acre, 

The NEl^ of Section 25 to A. Roose and John Hamlet, appraised 
at 35 cents per acre, $56.00. 

The NI/2 SE14 of Section 25 T and R aforesaid to Peter Speelman 
at 85 cents per acre, $68.00. 

We the undersigned appraisers of the Starke Ditching Company do 
certify the above to be a true appraisement to each tract of land to the 
best of our judgments. 

George Laramore, 
Jesse Jackson, 
Philander Coffin. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, Peter Speelman, Clerk of the 
Starke Drainage Company, October 20th, 1860. 

Peter Speelman, Clerk. 

Received for record October 22nd, 1860 at 10 o'clock A. M. and 
recorded the same day. 

Willoughby M. ilcCormick, Recorder. 

Thus it is seen that there was a faint attempt to drain the Kankakee 
Valley, or east of it rather, before the Civil war, but that war coming 
on as it did the following year, the Starke Ditching Company went to 
naught and there was no real effort to drain this county along its north- 
western border until H. R. Robbins and afterwards the Place Ditch or 
the Kankakee Reclamation Company took up the work as I have already 

It was during one of those meetings that one of the members of this 
organization undertook to make his first speech when he said : ' ' Gentle- 
men and ladies (no ladies present) we have met here today for a grand 
purpose, a noble scheme, a great enterprise stands out before us, a 
matter long sought but not found, brother Pete, a matter we should all 
take an interest in, gentlemen and ladies (no ladies being present), but 
by the long-handled spoon, by the stars that look down upon us, by the 
course of the milky way and the comet's tail we have struck a good ide 
Zeke, that is to ditch our lands and rise our crops" — interrupted by 
Hewett "Y^ou should say" — "Don't make a racoon bit of dif- 
ference, we John, we are going to fetch her come and ditch this here 
land and make her blossom as the sun flower Philander, aint we James?" 
All agreed yes, yes, and after singing, "Nearer to the Kankakee," etc., 
they adjourned sine die. 

Accidents, Etc. 

Not many people in the county realize the number of inquests held 
by the coroner since Starke County was organized. The following is a 
list made up from the files in the county clerk's office and it does not 


contain all at that, for the writer can recollect several being drowned in 
Bass Lake and Jacob Zerba drowning in Yellow River several years ago, 
and a Miss Gould drowning at the same time, a ladj' that Mr. Zerba was 
trying to rescue, aud some others that some of the old settlers can tell 
about. This list is made from the files, as there is no regular record 
kept in the clerk 's office, hence I had to make it from the papers filed by 
the coroners in each case, thus you see the dates are all mixed up, but iu 
each case the coroner's report was signed officially by him. 

Julius Long, foimd dead about one mile east of English Lake, Decem- 
ber 5, 1900. Verdict : Ran over by train. 

John R. Snyder, found dead at Koontz Lake, January 9, 1901. Ver- 
dict : Accidental drowning. 

Ora Bennett, found dead near Ora, June 26, 1899. Verdict: Drink- 
ing carbolic acid and hanging. 

Charles Dodd, found dead at his home October 16, 1899. Verdict: 
Organic disease. 

Elizabeth Kenliue, found dead October 19, 1900. Verdict: Mis- 

Edward Ames, found dead at Knox, September 26, 1899. Verdict: 
Falling between care on I. I. & I. Railroad at Knox. 

J. B. Falaradeou, found dead in I. I. & I. Railroad yards iu North 
Judson, August 15, 1899. Verdict: Falling between cars. 

Unknown man found dead in Pan Handle track, September 16, 1886. 
Verdict: Struck by locomotive. 

Charles Henderson, found dead in Hamlet, February 9, 1888. Ver- 
dict : Came to his death attempting to board a train. 

UnknoHTi found dead at Aldine, July 31, 1904. Verdict: Falling 
from train. 

Anna Kouovsky, found dead on Erie Railroad, September 1, 1898. 
Verdict : Struck by train. 

Henry Engelke, found dead September 23, 1889. Verdict : Sup- 
posed to come to his death by violence or from drink. 

John Bru&naham, October 12, 1886, Washington Township. Verdict: 
Shot in road by man supposed to be Martin. 

Herman H. Redman, found dead in Hamlet, Indiana, February 28, 
1886. Verdict: Came to his death jumping from train. 

Michael Haley, Hamlet, Indiana, December 17, 1888. Verdict : Dis- 
locating neck from falling off freight caboose. 

Ella Dyer, found dead in Railroad Township, March 15, 1895. Ver- 
dict: Nervous prostration. 

Richard Mclntire, found dead June 24, 1887. Verdict : Fell between 

Anna Kado, found dead June 27, 1889. Verdict: Supposed care- 

Henry Dier, found dead February 11, 1891. Verdict: Found hang- 
ing in barn in San Pierre. 

Man unknown, found dead at Davis Station, July 23, 1895. Ver- 
dict : Run over by cars. 


John E. Becker, found dead in depot of Pan Handle Railroad, 
October 20, 1890, North Judson. Verdict: Hit by train. 

ilau unknown, found dead on track of Nickel Plate R. R. east of 
Jackson in Center Township, March 13, 1S90. Verdict: Struck by 

William E. Waterson, found dead at Nickel Plate Depot in Knox, 
April 25, 1892. Verdict : Falling from the cars about three miles west 
of Knox. 

Phillip Anthony, found in Cedar or Bas.s Lake, February 25, 1894. 
Verdict: Accidental drowning. 

Jacob Simmons, found dead in an old house on the Piper farm, 
April 22, 1891. Verdict : Over exertion from walking. 

Levi Crim, July 20, 1892, in Oregon Township, found dead. Ver- 
dict: Perhaps paralysis. 

Unknown remains found in Grovertown, June 10, 1894. Verdict: 
Killed by train in Grovertown near station. 

Hemy Mickesh, Wayne Township, June 25, 1891, found dead in 
calaboose in North Judson, June 24, 1891. Verdict: Hanging. 

Charles Adams, October 28, 1896, found dead. Verdict: Acci- 

Grovini Dorato, found dead at Aldine, July 27, 1891. Verdict: 
Struck by engine on C. & E. Railroad. 

An unknown found dead in Center Township, February 21, 1894. 
Verdict: Causes unknown. 

Frederick Smith was found dead on his father's farm, April 6, 1891. 
Verdict : By shot from gun. 

Infant unknown, March 30, 1891. Verdict: Cause not known. 

Lon Williams, found dead May 16, 1895, at Grovertown. Verdict : 
Shows killed by accident in getting off train. 

Mrs. Mary A. English, found dead in California Township, April 
1, 1895. Verdict: Organic disease. 

Ambrose Road, found 1 mile west of county line of LaPorte and 
Starke County, May 21, 1893. Verdict : Drowning in bayou. 

Oliver P. Campbell, foimd dead November 14, 1895, at his residence 
in North Judson. Verdict : Hemorrhage of the lungs. 

Martin Stalkman, found dead at residence of Clinton Cooper on 
January 7, 1895. Verdict: Apoplexy. 

Daniel Garbison, died in postoffice at Ora, Indiana, February 19, 
1894. Verdict: Heart failure result of intemperate use of ardent 

Benjamin E. Bush, foiuul dead at Grovertown, Indiana, March 2, 
1892. Verdict: Supposed killed by train. 

F. W. Vincent, found dead at North Judson, January 31, 1895. 
Verdict: Cmished between cars on I. I. & I. Railroad through care- 
Unknown man, found dead near C. I. & S. Railroad tracks lU miles 
southwest of Toto, Indiana. Verdict: Accidental. 


J. F. Cunningham, found dead at Knox, August 29, 1891. Verdict: 
Falling oil of freight train. 

Anton Miller, English Lake, September 28, 1880. Verdict : Cause 

Anton Bamivah, found dead July 15, 1884. Verdict: Supposed 
caused by violence, unknown. 

John W. Lowe, found dead July 15, 1882. Verdict : Natural causes. 

Edward W. Loring, November 26, 1885. Verdict: Cause paralysis. 

George W. Whitney, Davis Township, October 11, 1881. Verdict: 
Ran over by train at Hamlet. 

James Kelley, found dead September 27, 1883. Verdict: Caused 
by drinkiug liquor. 

James Austin, found dead iu Starke County, October 24, 1885. 
Verdict: Cause unknown. 

Andrew Stilson, Oregon Township, found dead September 17, 1884. 
Verdict accidental discharge of gun in hands of Thomas Welsh. 

Anna Horak, Wayne Township, July 8, 1885. Verdict: Cut her 
throat with razor. 

Linens C. Bullock, found dead September 18, 1884. Verdict: Cir- 
cumstances show he shot himself. 

Henry Bonekemper, found dead JiUy 20, 1896. Verdict: Fell off 
wagon west of Knox. 

Ralph A. Nadherny, found dead at club house at Bass Lake, July 
10, 1905, struck by lightning. 

Verne Cecil Adam, found dead at his home 1 mile east of Ober, 
July 29, 1905. Verdict: Natural causes. 

David Reed, found dead in Robbins Ditch near Hamlet, August 4, 
1905. Verdict: Suicide by drowning. 

Elizabeth Smith, found dead near Ora, July 30, 1905. Verdict: 
Cause unknown. 

Louisa Starke, found dead on Peim.sylvania Railroad, December 5, 
1905. Verdict: Killed by passenger train. 

Charles Schultz, Railroad Township, October 20, 1904. Verdict: 
Suicide by hanging. 

Eva Alice Mays, found dead in Bass Lake, June 6, 1905. Verdict : 
Accidental drowning. 

Charles Weidner, found dead at his home in California Township, 
April 2, 1905. Verdict : Natural causes. 

James Dolezall, found dead at home July 3, 1905. Verdict : Natural 

Wilhelmena Mittlestart. found dead in North Bend Township, Jan- 
uary 5, 1905. Verdict: Natural causes. 

Walter R. Baker, found dead on north spur of Erie Railroad, Jan- 
uary 13, 1905. Verdict : Accidental by reason of a defective engine. 

George Krow, found dead in Knox, February 28, 1905. Verdict: 
Natural causes. 

Carl B. Fry, found dead in bed, December 6, 1904. Verdict: Natural 


Louisa Tietz, found dead December 8, 1904. Verdict: Natural 

James Polka, found dead at English Lake on C. C. & St. L. R. R., 
November 9, 1903. Verdict : Killed by train, no one blamed. 

A. Gritz, found dead in Hamlet on Pennsylvania Railroad, September 
7, 1904. Verdict : Struck by train. 

Paul Budack, found dead on Nickel Plate Railroad, September 15, 
1904. Verdict : Killed by train. 

Commodore P. Rogers, Center Town.ship, found dead November 24, 
1904. Verdict: Accidental shooting himself. 

J. Michel Preet, Oregon Township, July 31, 1903, found dead. 
Verdict: Struck by passenger train. 

Ployd Brugh, found dead near Bass Lake on C. & E. Railroad, 
September 14, 1903. Verdict: Accidental. 

John Jandik, found dead on C. & E. R. R. in Railroad Township, 
November 5, 1903. Verdict : Ran over by train. 

Wilhelmena Ristoff, found dead in her bed, August 2, 1903. Ver- 
dict : Apoi^lexy. 

Infant of Julius Fechner, December 1, 1901. Verdict: Natural 

David Tumbull,- found dead 1 mile west of Knox on Nickel Plate 
Railroad, December 31, 1902. Verdict: Struck by passenger train. 

Charles Haines, December 7, 1904, Washington Township. Verdict : 
Shot supposed by a neighbor. 

Clifford Chapman, found in the Kankakee River, August 8, 1903. 
Verdict: Accidental drowning. 

Elizabeth H. Duncan, Davis Township, August 29, 1903. Verdict: 
Drinking carbolic acid. 

Herman Shuman, found dead in Davis Township, October 31, 1898. 
Verdict : Accidental discharge of gun in his own possession. 

Wm. H. Suit, found dead in Oregon Township, June 19, 1903. Ver- 
dict: Struck by engine. 

Arthur Akers, found dead June 4, 1903. Verdict : Drowned. 

Alex J. Bartkieveice, found dead in Railroad Township, May 5, 
1903. Verdict : Natural causes. 

Infant, died January 10, 1903, chikl of E. E. Rodgers. Verdict: 
Natural causes. 

Samuel Scott, found on tracks of C. & E. R. R., August 30, 1898. 
Verdict : Killed attempting to cross track in front of engine. 

Joseph Zebar, Wayne Township, July 21, 1896. Verdict: Struck 
by train. 

John G. Taylor, found dead in Oregon Township, December 29, 1897. 
Verdict: Heart failure. 

William E. B. Petters, December 15, 1896. Verdict: Pound buried 
under a mule near Eagle Lake, supposed to have been shot and then 

Unknown person, found dead near North Judson, March 2, 1903. 
Verdict: Frozen to death. 


Stella Wilson, found at home of George Osborn, North Bend Town- 
ship, May 11, 1897. Verdict: Accidental discharge of gun. 

William Splitstizer, found dead in Railroad Township, April 13, 
1897. Verdict : Palling out of his wagon. 

Charles Nelson, San Pierre, found dead August 12, 1897. Verdict: 
Bullet fired from gun in hands of Charles ]\lessenger. 

Delia Akers, two miles south of North Judson, October 29, 1900. 
Verdict : Hanging. 

Charles Kruper, found dead at San Pierre, November 16, 1900. 
Verdict: Cerebral hemorrhage. 

John L. Broadstreet, on the Gallup Farui, August 24, 1900. Verdict: 
Gun shot by his own hand. 

Unknown man, found dead two miles northwest of North Judson, 
October 10, 1899. Verdict: Unknown causes. 

Nicholas Theodore, Bass Lake, July 21, 1902. Verdict: Accidental 

Augustia Gertz, found in dying condition, died same day, Septem- 
ber 4, 1907. Verdict: Took poison presumably by herself. 

William H. Henderson, found dead on Peelle Farm one mile east 
of Knox, July 20, 1900. Verdict: Killed by lightning. 

Albert Penfield, found dead Bass Lake Station, September 26, 1900. 
Verdict : Struck by mail car. 

James G. Brunner, found dead on C. R. & M. R. R., April 29, 1902. 
Verdict : Knocked down and run over by train. 

Lillie M. Seider, September 7, 1899. Verdict : Shot herself in Knox. 

Edith M. Davis, found dead January 7, 1902, Center Township. 
Verdict: Shot supposedly by Henrj' Clements. 

S. Lebanz, found dead May 7, 1902. Verdict: Rheumatism of the 

WiUiam B. Chapel, found dead in bed, November 27, 1902. Verdict : 

John R. Snyder, found dead at Koontz Lake, January 9, 1901. Ver- 
dict: Accidental drowning. 

Jones Dipert, found dead April 20, 1901. Verdict : Killed by vicious 

John W. Aker, in Washington Township, found dead January 26, 
1900. Verdict : Struck by engine. 

Dale Darling, found dead at Grovertown, August 23, 1901. Verdict : 
Killed accidentally by train. 

Hudson Fuller, North Judson, April 11, 1902. Verdict: Struck by 
train and killed. 

Mary Reed, at home, found dead August 4, 1905. Verdict: By 
pistol sliots fired b.v her husband. 

Amos Payne, found dead about three-fourths mile east of Knox, 
August 10, 1905. Verdict : Accidentally struck by train. 

Isaac J. Davis, foimd on bridge where Nickel Plate crosses Yellow 
River in Center Township, June 4, 1906. Verdict : Being struck by a 


Joseph Butzen, fouud in Koontz Lake, July 16, 1906. Verdict: 
Accidental drowning. 

August Bery was found October 18, 1906, Davis Township. Verdict : 
Hanging himself. 

James Reese, found at Mr. Appelgate's barn in Knox, Januai-y 23, 
1907. Verdict: Came to his death by alcoholic drinking. 

Manervie Kline, found at her home in Knox, November 21, 1906. 
Verdict: Natural cause. 

Gilbert Payne, found on C. I. & S. R. R. at North Judson, July 21, 

1907. Verdict: Neck broken by locomotive. 

Carnile Rutgart was put off train at Knox, ilay 4, 1907. Verdict : 
Natural causes. 

Peter Oyinga, found at home, Wayne Township, December 9, 1907. 
Verdict: Natural causes. 

Infant child of J. Nodell, California Township, found July 16, 1907. 
Verdict: Natural causes. 

Ed Lintz, single, found at his father's house, North Judson, July 
10, 1907. Verdict: Suicide. 

Martha Anna Thompson, found at her home, North Judson, May 6, 
1906. Verdict: Natural cause. 

Philip Mondon, California Township, found on farm of Carl Forina, 
November 29, 1907. Verdict: Being shot by gun in hand of Carl 

Henry Z. Roberts, found on Mouou R. R., one-fourth mile south 
of Kankakee River, in Railroad Township, December 30, 1907. Ver- 
dict: Struck by train. 

John J. Budka, foimd at his home in Wayne Township, April 27, 

1908. Verdict: Suicide by shooting himself. 

Josephine Budka, found at her home three miles north of North 
Judson, March 28, 1908. Verdict : Taking Paris green. 

Alartin Surina, found about three miles north of North Judson, in 
Wayne Township, April 8, 1908. Verdict: Drowning. 

J. R. Wilson, found at the Steiger Farm, one-fourth mile west of 
Ora, in Starke County, February 20, 1908. Verdict: Natural caiises. 

Minnie Zable was found at her home in Railroad Township, June 2, 
1908. Verdict: Suicide by hanging. 

Theodore Kane, found on Nickel Plate R. R., at Bolen Crossing, in 
Washington Township, April 30, 1908. Verdict: Accidentally killed 
by locomotive. 

Wm. H. Robertson, Railroad Township, found about three miles 
north of English Lake, Starke County, May 30, 1908. Verdict : Acci- 
dental drowning. 

Joseph F. Mrazek, found on C. C. & L. R. B., at North Judson, 
July 19, 1908. Verdict: Accidentally struck by locomotive. 

Darelex WiUard Gardner, found in Yellow River, one mile east of 
river bridge at Knox, July 15, 1908. Verdict: Accidental drowning. 

Charles Nostrum, found in Center Township, December 2, 1904. 
Verdict: Suicide by shooting himself. 


Lewis Hulka, found on C. I. & S. R. R. track in Wayne Township, 
near Bogus Ditch, May 5, 190S. Verdict: Accidentally struck by 

Delitha Buck, found at her home in Knox, August 30, 1908. Verdict : 
Natural causes. 

Julius Fechner, North Bend Township, found hanging in his barn, 
September 22, 1908. Verdict: Suicide by hanging. 

Marion Edna Haskius, found at North Judson, November 13, 1908. 
Verdict: Cause unknown. 

James Marion, found at English Lake, Railroad Township, November 
11, 1908. Verdict: Natural causes. 

Francis Pruka, Wayne Township, found January 15, 1909. Verdict: 
By myocarditis. 

Frank Follick, found on P. C. C. & St. L. R. R., :\Iarch 17, 1909. 
Verdict: Struck by train breaking his neck. 

Samuel Worman, found at Hamlet, Davis Township, November 15, 
1908. Verdict : Struck by train. 

Emil F. Kvasnicka, at his home, Wayne Township, one-half mile 
north of North Judson, May 21, 1908. Verdict: Shot with a shot gun 
in hands of Albert Roubek. 

W^m. G. MiUs, found dead at house of his son Chas. T. Miller, June 
28, 1909. Verdict : Mitral slenosis. 

Samuel Cassaday, California Township, was found dead at Bass 
Lake, Indiana, July 20, 1909. Verdict: Accidental drowning. 

Maudes Myers, Center Township, was found in Yellow River, July 
25, 1909. 

Franciska Goudeca, found dead at Knox, September 7, 1909. Ver- 
dict: Brights disease and heart complications. 

John Bertkewitz, Railroad TowTiship, was found iu Railroad Town- 
ship dead, September 4, 1909. Verdict: Suicide by hanging. 

Samuel Foust, North Judson, Wayne TowTiship, found on Pan 
Handle R. R. west of C. & E. Crossing, Januarj- 21, 1907. Verdict : By 
being struck by a car on said railroad. 

George Henry Anders, found dead in Oregon Township, November 
14, 1909. Verdict: Apoplexy. 

Josephine Prickett, found at Ober, Indiana, December 6, 1909. Ver- 
dict: From effects of poison. 

Thelma Golding, found dead in Knox, January 28, 1910. Verdict: 
Accidental suffocation. 

Jacob Drunecky, found dead April 11, 1910. Verdict : Struck by 

Edwin Larnek, found dead near Hamlet, Indiana, May 31, 1910. 
Verdict: Accidental shooting. 

Robert M. Bailey, found dead August 8, 1910. Verdict: Fatty 
degeneration of the heart. 

William Alonzo Noland, found on the C. & E. R. R. track at North 
Judson, December 21, 1906. Verdict: Stnick by locomotive on Erie 


John G. Goppert, found dead September 30, 1910. Verdict: 

James G. Heibnan, found dead September 28, 1910. Verdict : Stiiick 
by train on C. I. & S. R. R. west of Knox. 

Charles Vendell, found dead October 20, 1910. Verdict: Acute 

Frank Hugh, found dead on Stinson Gravel Road west of English 
Lake, November 22, 1910. Verdict: Accidentally shooting himself. 

William Sawyer, found dead February 11, 1911. Verdict: Jlyo- 

Ethel Thompson, found dead February 22, 1911. Verdict : Pound 
dead when returned next day. 

Mary Kenaline, found dead June 12, 1911. Verdict : Valvular heart 

Mrs. Abigail Stauffer was found dead February 16, 1910. Vei-dict: 
By rupture of left ventricle of heart. 

Mary Wilson, found dead March 18, 1911. Verdict : Apoplexy. 

Marie Jane Parrault, found dead May 29, 1911. Verdict: Cerebral 

Nels Frederick Olson, found dead in Koontz Lake, May 27, 1911. 
Verdict: Accidental drowning in Koontz Lake. 

William Schuenke, found dead July 2, 1911. Verdict: Accidental 
drowning in Bass Lake near Cranberry Point. 

Jacob Clark, found dead September 20, 1911, Brems, Indiana. Ver- 
dict : Mitral stenosis. 

H. S. Robinson, found dead under train at Bass Lake Station, Sep- 
tember 16, 1911. Verdict : Struck by train on Ei-ie Railroad. 

Nathan M. Leeper, found dead October 11, 1911, Hamlet, Indiana. 

Frank Duzik, found dead on Nickel Plate R. R. right of way, Sep- 
tember 2, 1911. Verdict: Accidental death by being struck by train. 

John Rosson, found dead December 20, 1911. Verdict : Rupture. 

Margaret Burbank, found dead December 20, 1911. Verdict: Cer- 
ebral hemorrhage. 

John Elinger, Lena Park, January 2, 1912. Verdict: Falling of 
brick wall. 

William H. Stevenson, found dead on streets of Knox, Indiana, Jan- 
uary 8, 1912. Verdict : JMitral stenosis. 

Chester Herbert Young, found dead February 5, 1912. Verdict: 
Abscess of left lung. 

Elmer Montogue, found dead March 24, 1912. Verdict : Apoplexy. 

Geo. Hohamer, Center Township, found dead March 28, 1912. Ver- 
dict : Apoplexy. 

Lizzie Vojak, found dead April 17, 1912. Verdict: Spontaneous 
death due to exposure and cold. 

James Shanan, found killed April 4, 1912, struck by Erie train. 

Unknown infant, found dead in privy vault in Hamlet, Indiana, 
June 11, 1912. Verdict: Death due to exposure. 


Frank Truuoskj^ found dead July 1, 1912. Verdict: Cerebral 

Sigmond Klopot, found dead in Knox, September 3, 1912. Verdict: 
Suicide by hanging and shooting. 

Geo. C. Wood, found dead September 25, 1912, Oregon Township. 
Verdict: Accidentally thrown under wagon. 

Charles M. Kemp, found in Washington Township, November 23, 

1912. Verdict : Paralysis. 

Bert Gehr, English Lake, found dead October 31, 1912. Verdict: 
Burned to death. 

Wm. J. Green, found dead October 31, 1912. Verdict : Skull mashed. 

Daniel P. Haley, found dead Davis Township, December 18, 1912. 
Verdict: Cerebral apoplexy. 

Anson Phillips, found dead in bed at Brems, in Center Township, 
January 8, 1913. Verdict: Chronic interstitial nephritis. 

Leander L. Tompkins, found dead on street in Knox, Indiana, March 
8, 1913. Verdict: Chronic valvular heart disease and embolism. 

Raymond Merrel Baughman, found in Bass Lake, July 4, 1913. 
Verdict: Accidental drowning. 

Ethan T. Reasoner, found dead in his cottage at Bass Lake, July 
16, 1913. 

Martin V. Strasburger was found on front porch, Bass Lake, July 
20, 1913. Verdict : Suicide by shooting himself. 

Austin C. Holdeman, found on Pennsylvania R. R. at Grovertown, 
August 7, 1913. Verdict: Accidental death, being struck and run 
over by train. 

John R. Bunnell, died in Dr. P. 0. Englerth's office, North Judson. 
Verdict : Suicide by drinking carbolic acid. 

Geo. Miller, found on Erie R. R. track one-fourth mile east of North 
Judson, August 29, 1913. Verdict: Chronic myocarditis. 

Arthur Albertson, found on porch of his home in Hamlet, Indiana, 
September 14, 1913. Verdict : Suicide by drinking carbolic acid. 

Treva Bower, found in branch of Craigmile Ditch, September 17, 

1913. Verdict: Accidental drow^ling. 

Frank Hall, Washington Township, found in bed in tent, September 
25, 1913. Verdict : Pulmonary heraorrhage. 

Felix Lelka, found one-half mile east of English Lake on P. C. C. 
& St. L. R. R. right of way, December 1, 1913. 

Henry Otto Breunlin, picked up on Erie tracks, North Judson, 
November 8, 1913. Verdict : Struck by west bound train on Erie while 
crossing track. 

Xiirman Adam Bruenlin, picked up at Erie Crossing, November 8, 
1913, east of North Judson. Verdict : Struck by Erie train. 

Otto Henry Goltz, picked up on Erie R. R. right of way, east of 
North Judson, November 8, 1913. Verdict: Struck by Erie train. 

Carl August Kane, North Bend Township, found in bed at his home, 
February 13, 1914. Verdict: Apoplexy. 


Patrick Phillips, Center Township, found dead in bed, Febiniary 9, 
1914. Verdict: Aortic regurgitation. 

Peter A. Peterson, found in shed at Hamlet in Davis Township, 
February 17, 1914. Verdict: Paralysis of heart. 

Burnadetta Gains, found dead at home, March 27, 1914. Verdict: 
Acute colitis. 

June Frederick Shultz, Oregon Township, found dead in his bed in 
Oregon Township, April 30, 1914. Verdict: Endocarditis. 

Albert Svoboda, found in field across road in Center Township, June 
2, 1914. Verdict: Accidental manner gored by bull. 

Alvin Bamum, found in Yellow River just above Heaton Street 
Bridge, June 27, 1914. Verdict : Accidental drowning. 

John J. Stiuson, found in bed at Ora in North Bend Township, 
June 28, 1914. 

Mrs. Emma Isfort, found in Yellow River just above Heaton Street 
Bridge in Knox, June 27, 1914. Verdict: Accidental drowning while 
trying 'to rescue Alvin Bamum. 

James Hubeny, found in bed in home in North Judson, August 14, 
1914. Verdict: Acute endocarditis. 

Infant of John Banta, found in bed in California Township, October 
26, 1914. Verdict : Suffocation. 

Verna May Clark, found dead in bed at her home in AVashington 
Township, August 7, 1914. Verdict: Hydrocephalus. 

Lewis Ray, found about seventy-five yards east of house at Hamlet, 
Indiana, October 28, 1914. Verdict : Cerebral apoplexy. 

Wm. G. Hurst, found dead in Fitz Hotel basement stairway, Novem- 
ber 5, 1905. Verdict: Apoplexy. 

Geo. J. Girard, conductor Pennsylvania Railroad, i\Iarch 18, 1906. 
Verdict: Accidentally killed by train. 

Robert Meeks, found dead on Erie tracks east of North Judson near 
Bogus Ditch. Verdict: Took carbolic acid. 


In 1897 Mr. Amos W. Butler made up a list of the birds in Indiana, 
in which he says that nearly every .species of birds is found in this 

During the month of February the migrating birds begin their move- 
ments to the sunny shores and the broad expanse of those lakes. The 
duck, the robin of the South, make their flight for the Hoosier State and 
many other kinds of birds, as the bluebird, the blackbird, the orioles 
and swallows, arrive to take up their joyful songs of praise for this 
happy land they love so well, also the snipe, the plover, the thunder- 
pumper, so common during the summer months appear here. 

The goose too with the great sandhill crane can be heard in our land. 
The pheasant used to be a common sight. The peculiar sound that it 
would make with its wings would attract the attention of anyone for 
acres around. 


Prairie chickens would come in great droves and it would be a 
common thing to catch or kill a dozen a day. They are, however, getting 
very scarce of late years. The purple martin is a bird much admired 
and is a beautiful singer. 

A goodly number of birds winter here, nearly half a hundred dif- 
ferent kinds remaining here during the cold winter months. Hence, 
we see that Starke County can produce many kinds of birds and wild 
fowls that are found in other counties of the state. 

This would apply truly to the aquatic birds as from the reports 
we have with the exception of some two species of wild duck all the 
varieties found in the state are "citizens" of our county. 

Bird meat was eagerly sought after by the early settlers, wild game 
furnished about the only kinds of meat they had until later years, when 
the farmer began to raise cattle and hogs for meat. We still have the 
buzzard, the crow, the hawk, which stay with us, but some species of 
birds have become quite scai*ce. The wild turkeys are a thiug^ hardly 
ever seen in the county. The eagle is seldom seen. The pheasant is 
next to no more, and the whippoorwill is a scarce quantity, but for aU 
that we have birds galore, their sweet melodious songs to lull us to 
sleep at night, and their sweet strains of music to call us up in the 
morning. What would be a country life without the twitter of those 
birds and the melodious voices as they sing from the trees above us, 
ever reminding us that we should enjoy the grand scenes of nature and 
take pleasure in them! We have in our possession a list of the birds 
found here that gives the blue jay, the blackbird, the robin, the wood- 
pecker, the meadow-lark, the chirp bird, the pee-wee, the thrush, the 
catbird, the crow, the hawk, the owl, the kingfisher, the swallow, and 
the world renowned English sparrow, which is a great bird to increase 
in numbers and is a great fighter and can endure untold suifering in 
driving out the bluebird and the common barn swallow, a fact not 
noticed by a number of our people, as they occupy the same conspicuous 
abode in our hay lofts and bam garrets on the farms. 

Those swamps, that once contained inniunerable birds that built 
their nests low down, having become farm lands by the draining and 
clearing, bird life has greatly decreased in that section of the coimty, 
but we have birds with us, we shall have them for all time. When the 
birds all leave us and we can no longer hear the fine warble and the 
sweet songs of them it will be when things shall cease to be and time 
shall be no more. 

Arbor Day 

Arbor day was first established in Indiana in April, 1884, but not 
being very well observed it continued about the same until the year 
1896, when on the 30th day of October of that year the day was quite 
generally observed and has been since that time. There are some forty- 
four states that have passed laws for arbor day. 

The planting of trees was introduced by Hon. Xorthup of Connecticut 


in the year of 1864 or 1865. The first proclamation for a day of this 
kind in Nebraska was promulgated in 1872, and the day known as arbor 
day has existed in that state ever since that time. Minnesota adopted 
arbor day in 1876. Kansas adopted arbor day two years later. Michi- 
gan, Iowa and Illinois in 1882, and as I have said, Indiana in 1884. 
This day is being quite generally observed, and I predict it will only be 
a few years until all the states will adopt a similar day, encouraging 
the planting of trees as some of the states are now doing. 

This is certainly a thing in the right direction; it gives amusement 
as well as pastime for the young people to engage in, and beneficial 
in after years as the encouragement of raising timber is a matter that 
is going to command the attention of our people in the near future. If I 
am eoiTect, the 30th of October of each year is our regular arbor day in 


The meteors or falling stars were certainly a grand sight. Often the 
writer's father has sat aud told of the falling stai-s that occurred in 
the fall of 1833. He was living on a farm in Bedford Coimty in old 
Virginia at the time and many people became frightened and thought 
the world was coming to an end. The whole sky was lit up with those 
falling stars that would descend with a buzzing or sizzling sound. I 
have no recollection of the meteoric shower of 1866. Whether it touched 
this part of the country, I cannot say. 

There has occasionally a meteor or leonoid fallen from the skies, one 
or two that the writer witnessed, but no shower of those meteors have 
been seen by the oldest inhabitants of Starke County. Some of them fre- 
quently speak of their parents' witnessing the grand sight in 1833. It 
is said that those showers occur two or three times every 100 years but 
perhaps they would not be general over the country. 


The coldest weather experienced by oiu- people in this locality was 
January 1, 1864. The mercury registered 26° to 30° below zero. The 
wind was high, vhich added gi-eatly to the discomfort of all the people 
of Starke County. The day before was warm with a drizzling rain in 
the evening which turned to severe cold in the night. As long as they 
shall live some of our neighbor boys will recollect that eventful night 
or towards morning of January 1st, as they went to a dance up Eagle 
Creek some six miles on the evening before, and returning towards morn- 
ing they became prostrated with the cold, and being afoot they nearly 
froze to death. They did however reach home and fell against the door 
to signal their parents to take them in. Some of those boys are living 
in Knox today, never to forget that fearful night nearly fifty-one years 

The year before was cold and frost was common, not missing a month 


during the year. According to some diaries kept of the weather, the year 
of 1812 was said to have been the coldest. But the coldest weather during 
the summer months is charged to 1816. 

The greatest snow storm ever witnessed by the people of the United 
States was in 1817, 

The winter of 1875 was said to be the mildest, when on January 1st 
the thermometer registered about 70° above zero. This was a clear day 
and the fields were green, giving the appearance of summer weather. 
This was known as the wet month as it rained a greater part of the mouth. 
It was a hard winter for the ice men, very Little ice being put up that 
winter. March the last was closed with a deep snow but it did not last 
long as the sun came out warm and the snow soon melted and gave way 
soon after it fell. 

According to the weather bureau the hottest weather we have had 
during the whole summer for twoscore years was in 1901. The year of 
1911 being nearly as warm as the summer of 1901. 

The drouth of 1871 was the most severe and lasted the longest of any 
that we have any knowledge of. This was the year that Chicago was 
nearly swept from the map by fire. Well do our citizens recollect that 
awful catastrophe. Well do our citizens recollect that awful dry period 
when the corn apparently burned up. The stalks standing in the fields 
looked more like a brush thicket in the fall after they had shed their 

Another severe drouth might be mentioned, which was fifteen years 
before or in the year of 1856, when rain was almost unknown during the 
summer months. The wettest season according to history was 1855 and 
1857, when it rained almost constantly during June and July of those 
two years. 

The 4th of July, 1873, is claimed to be the coldest National holiday 
witnessed by the people of Starke, County. Many ijersons suffered from 
the cold, being thinly dressed as the morning of that day was very beauti- 
ful, but turned cold during the day. Many of us living in Starke County 
weU remember that disagreeable 4th of July, a day long to be remem- 
bered by those who dressed for a pleasant day but were so wonderfully 

According to history (as we were not boru at that time), the great 
storm of 1845 occurred five years before Starke Comity was organized. 
The storm did but little damage here, as there were no residences or big 
barns or telephone or telegraph lines to be destroyed. Some of the older 
counties east of here sustained a great loss by the hurricane. A pioneer 
poet describes this storm in a poem written by him after it occurred, 
which we found among some old papers. It reads as follows : 

' ' 'Twas on the fii-st day of July a storm rose, the wind blew high 
and in a furiouss plash did crash, and tore many things to smash. 

"The first we heerd twas on its way, witliin our midst there did stay, 
and there a wind storm by turns, it struck the hows of nabor burns. 


"And tore a part of the roof asunder, wliifli caused them to quake of 
As it passed aci-oss the river, and those who saw it how they did 

"To behold the water whirled in air, it made the people gasp & stair 
it made its course toward the ski and drank the river almost dri. 

' ' The next we heerd as it dashed and tore many roofs to smash, 
kind provideue hekl out his arm, protecting all those from harm. 

' ' The bildens stanin by it hit them as they were near by 
it cawt the rufs al in its flite, as if it was nuthin but a kite. 

' ' The places hit fel to the groun, tops of chimneys tumbled doun, 
this wind storm it cawsed much wunder, the bildens was nerly rent 

"Now i must speak of mr ross to his oflSs it then flew across, 
his buggy was whurld roun & roun, and then i-etui-ned safe to the 

"The next thing thet cum to view, the methadis church was damaged too, 
the next thet cum to view aroun, was a man in the upper end of town, 

"As he was out in the .strete, the storm it did him badly beet, 
this maid him somewhat flat, becaws it damaged his bran new hat. 

' "This cawsed him to wonder and look cause he seen he,d lost his pocket 
and now when a stonn begins to rise, you.l see him lookin fer a hole 
in the skies." 

A wind storm passed over this county in 1879 but did no great amount 
of damage. We had a severe snow storm in the winter of 1912, as many 
of us can tell. About twelve inches of snow fell and the wind kept up 
most of the day with the temperature almost down to the zero mark. 

It was the cold blizzard of April, 1910, that put the fruit crop out 
of business for that year. On November, about the 10th or 12th of the 
month, the mercury in the thermometer fell more than 50° in twelve 
hours. This day was accompanied by rain and snow and the telegraph 
and telephone lines and poles were carried down causing many dollars 
of expense in repairing them. 

June 30, 1912, was ushered in by a continuous roar of thunder and 
the sky was made red with the constant flashes of lightning. 

March 21, 1913, will be remembered by many as an unusually stormy 
day, although there was not much damage done in this vicinity. Tliis 
storm, however, covered many of the western states. The loss of life 
by those storms has been light here, as compared with some other locali- 


ties, but several houses and bai-us have beeu burned by the lightning 
setting them on fire. 

In the year of 1881 a severe tornado passed over a part of this 
country. Those tornadoes are very much different from a hurricane. 
They pass through the air in a funnel shape, point downward, and when 
the cyclone touches the ground it begins to mow a swath and as it 
descends the wider swath it mows and when it begins to rise the swath 
becomes smaller or narrower, when it will then rise so far above the 
ground that it will cease to do any more damage. 

The storm just spoken of, which occurred on the 21st of March, 
1913, as I have said before, did Ijut little damage here in Starke County, 
as compared to other localities. This storm took an easterly course 
and did considerable damage in the counties farther east. The heavy 
rains caused the rivers to rise above their banks and inundate a great 
area of country, which was the case especially in Cass, aiiami. Grant 
and Delaware counties, and at many more places in the state, but as the 
flood did not materially affect us in Starke County we can feel proud 
that we have been as fortunate as we have. True, we did have bridges 
and culverts washed away and all this required money to replace, but 
nothing like they had to meet in some parts of the counti-y. 

It is a foregone conclusion that our rivers rise quicker than they 
used to do, but this is all easily understood, for when you come to think 
of the ditching that has been done both with dredges and other meau.s, 
all emptying into our larger streams, and then consider the miles of 
under or tile drainage that is put in by the farmers, then is it any wonder 
why those rivers rise in so short a time? The more ditching there is 
into those rivers, just in that proportion will the rivers rise. This has 
been done by a system of ditching. This the fanners can see by the time 
it takes for the water to leave their lands as compared with what it 
required before being ditched. But those ditches carry the water off 
and soon the water begins to fall in the rivers, sometimes causing floods 
far below. 

The climatic conditions in the Kankakee VaUey are said to be slightly 
colder in winter and slightly warmer in siunmer than the surrounding 
country, for the reason that it is an open, prairie plain. The same rule 
will apply to the moon and stars. To magnify the brilliancy of the 
moon and make it appear closer would give some idea of the magnitude 
of this luminous body. It is said that the knowledge gained from the 
moon with reference to the south pole indicates that we know more 
concerning the south pole of the moon than we do about the south pole 
of the earth and its influence upon the weather. Somewhere I have read 
that if we were stationed upon the moon near the south pole we would 
find ourselves in the midst of steep mountains almost perpendicular which 
would measure 10,000 to 20,000 feet high and several miles across. 
This perhaps is not exactly correct but it is nearly so. 

It is remarkable how those people of so many years ago could under- 
stand the conditions and positions of the sun, moon, and stars, the 
changes and the motion of the earth, yet one thing peculiar about it too. 


they couteuded that the suu and moon and stars traveled around the 
earth instead of the earth traveling around the suu. Of course, the earth 
turns on its own axis every twenty-four hours and it takes 365 times 
24 hours to travel clear round the suu. Certainly this is not the 
only movement of the earth. They did discover that something peculiar 
caused the different seasons and discovered from the means at their 
hands that the movement of the earth and the sun is towards the northern 
part of the heavenly space, which takes place at the rate of ten to 
fourteen miles per second. In this case we are then continually moving 
in the direction of the northern sky at the astounding rate of 400,000,000 
miles every twelve months. The course traveled by the sun seems to us 
to be in a straight line, but some astronomers claim that it may be in a 
circular line of such dimensions that it cannot be observed by any means 
obtained by the human race. As the earth accompanies the suu this 
brings us into new positions of the universe. 

By the great journey the earth and sun pursue by separate orbits 
through space, many of those stars appear to be traveling in different 
courses so far as has become known. There are indications in recent 
years of the existence of more than one general movement of the stars 
but this theory is rather weak. Hence the early citizens were not clear 
on those subjects, though astronomers have, it seems, worked out those 
problems and fully imdei'stand their conditions and positions, and tlieir 
influence over the atmospheric conditions of the different parts and loca- 
tions of this continent and their influence over the weather. 

Andrew J. Uncapher. Many lives have entered into the founda- 
tion and development of Starke County, and none of them more worthy 
to be considered in a history of pioneer personalities than A. J. Un- 
capher. Mr. Uncapher was practically the founder and builder of the 
prosperous little Village of Grovertown in Oregon Township, and for 
upwards of fifty years has been the leading figure in that community. 
In a sketch of his activities will be found more of the liistory of 
Grovertown than could be written under any other head. 

Before the present Pennsylvania Railroad was built through Starke 
County, in this then comparatively wild section of Oregon Township 
Mark E. Reeves owned forty acres in the northeast corner of section 27. 
Mr. Reeves made a contract to deed the railroad company a hundred 
feet on each side of the right of way on condition that a station and 
certain other buildings should be built by the railway company. A 
civil engineer named Grover laid out and platted the site, and it was 
named Grovertown in his honor. Before the railway company had com- 
pleted its buildings it asked of Mr. Reeves a deed to the hundred foot 
frontage on either side, but he would only agree to the terms of his 
contract to turn over the deed when the railway company completed 
its part of the contract. The company refused this and took down a 
partly completed water tank, moved it to another location, and thus 
killed the townsite for the time being. The plat still remained, and a 
couple of parties had built small stores, but the proposition was not in 
a way to substantial success. Grovertown, as it chanced, was exactly 
the halfway mark between Fort Wayne and Chicago. 

The next chapter in the history^ of this little village begins with the 
entrance of Mr. Uncapher on the scene in 1867. He purchased from 
Mr. Reeves the entire forty acres, erected a general store, and began 
as a merchant and trader to contract for all the live stock, grain and 
other produce raised in the neighboring country, and keeping a store 
which sold the settlers everything they needed from a threshing machine 
to a goose yoke. His store was the real town, and year after year his 
prosperity increased. He gathered in the trade from a large scope of 
country, and his customers came even from the then struggling village 
of Knox. He had bought his first stock of goods in March, 1868, and 
some years ago he erected a fine store building on the main corner of 
the town and near the railway station. This building is 2-1 feet wide 

M^ --^J^. iM^ a.^^JlJ'-^ 



with 110 feet depth and 24 feet high. Here "he carried an immense 
stock of merchandise, fitted for the local trade, and though the subse- 
quent building of railroads and the rise in importance of Knox inter- 
fered somewhat with his original business, it has been one of substantial 
prosperity down to the present time. Mr. Uncapher also served as post- 
master of Grovertown twelve years, and later his sou had the office four 
years. He was station agent and express agent, and at one time the busi- 
ness of the express office on a 10 per cent basis yielded $5 a day. He also 
represented some fire insurance companies, did a large business in that 
line, but his chief prosperity has come from his real estate investments. 
His surplus from the business at Grovertown was invested in lauds, 
largely in Oregon Township, and as an investor he has shown almost 
infallible judgment. He had been brought up on a farm, knew farming 
as an experienced operator, and became an expert valuator of practically 
every piece of land in Oregon and adjacent townships. 

His real estate investments were not confined to Starke County. In 1888 
he went to Chicago, and in a subdivision of Englewood, then a separate 
suburb, bought seven acres, paying $1,600 an acre. He laid out this 
subdivision and improved it, and still owns a portion of the tract, which 
is now included in the City of Chicago and is one of the most closely 
built up sections of the city. It has, of course, had a wonderful increase 
in value in the past twenty-five years. Mr. Uncapher gave his attention 
to this city property until 1892, and then returned and resumed business 
at his old stand in Grovertovm. His store at Grovertown is now under 
the management of his son Sidney. 

For many years he has continued handling lands in Starke County, 
and has not only bought but has added extensive improvements, and has 
done as much perhaps as any other one man to contribute fertile and 
productive acres to Starke Comity. Upwards of three thousand acres in 
Oregon Township alone have at one time or other been luider his owner- 
ship, though at the present time his holdings amount to about two 
thousand acres. This includes much of the choicest land to be found in 
Oregon Township and he pays taxes of moi-e than two thousand dollars 

For a man whose success is so undisputed, Mr. Uncapher has had a 
really remarkable career, beginning as a poor boy. He had only a few 
months education all told, and has relied on hard work, sound judgment 
and an adaptability which has caused him, especially in his earlier years, 
never to refuse an opportunity for legitimate earnings. At one time he 
carried mail by horseback and by buggy over his father's star route 
from Plymouth, Indiana, to Logansport, a distance of fifty miles, and 
later he also looked after the mail can-ying between Grovertown and San 
Pierre. While he has been extremely successful in the acquisition of 
wealth and prosperity, it has been a fortune well deserved and no one 
can justly grudge him a single dollai*. He has been the central figure 
in all tile growth and activities of Grovertown, and while it is not a city, 
it is one of the important centers of population and business in Starke 
County, and has had a steady prosperity. 


Andrew J. Uneapher belongs to a pioneer family of Starke County. 
He was born July 30, 1842, a son of Israel and Margaret (Suit) 
Uneapher. His parents came from. Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, 
located in Marion County, Ohio, in 1837, and after a residence there of 
five years moved out to the western frontier in Missouri. Later they 
returned to Ohio, and in 1853 Israel Uneapher came to Starke County. 
He was a man of mechanical turn of mind, had been a miller in Ohio, and 
a farmer in Missouri. On moving to Starke County he located in Oregon 
Township near Grovertown, and acquired his first eighty acres in 
section 23. He entered this land at Winnemac, going on horseback to 
make the entiy. There he lived as a farmer and a man of industry and 
excellent qualities until his death in 1881. For twelve years he served 
as justice of the peace. 

A. J. Uneapher was eleven years old when his parents came to Starke 
County, and while his education was limited to the pioneer schools, he 
learned the best lessons of life in hard work. He lived on the homestead 
with his father until reaching his majority, and then started out with 
no capital except energy and ambition to succeed. He went west at the 
age of twenty-one, but returned not long after and made a living by 
canvassing for books, then sold sewing machines, and another fact of 
interest in his early career was contracting to build a schoolhouse. He 
got out the material from the native forest, cutting the trees with his 
own hands, and finished the contract, for which he received $501. For one 
term he was a teacher. At the same time he raised potatoes on five acres 
of ground, and sold the crop in the ground for $250. In the early days 
he was one of the chief buyers and shippers of potatoes from Starke 
County, sending them east in carload lots, and in this way largely got his 
start. From dealing in potatoes he engaged in the general merchandise 
business, and a general outline of his activities since that time has already 
been related. 

Early in his business career Mr. Uneapher met and married Mary 
E. McCormick. Their marriage relationship has been one of ideal 
happiness, characterized throughout with love and success. Mr. 
Uneapher is a man of exemplary morals, his favorite beverage is cold 
water, he has never used tobacco, and has devoted himself to business, 
to home and to church. In his career he felt called upon to do some- 
thing in the name of religion, and one of his first acts was donating land 
for a cemetery, and his little son, Charles, was the first to be buried 
therein. Soon afterwards he and his wife were converted and baptized 
at a general conference of the United Brethren Church, held at Indian 
Village by Elder Fletcher Thomas. Since then he has been very useful 
in church work, has served as Sunday school superintendent, as class 
leader, delegate to conferences and conventions. He paid more than 
half the cost of the United Brethren Church at Grovertown, and it is 
said that no deserving person has ever called upon him and gone away 
empty-handed. Though always a democrat in voting, Mr. Uneapher has 


never aspired to office and his chief contribution to the public welfare 
has been through his steady influence in the development of his section 
of Starke County. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Uneapher have been born the following children : 
Sidney A.; Dora A.; Ruea P., deceased; Cuba D., who died at the age 
of thirteen ; Charles W., who died when one year old ; Mary L., who died 
at the age of eleven months; Albert J.; and Mark E. 

Frank Slansky. One of the substantial citizens of Wayne Town- 
ship is Frank Slansky, who has a comfortable and well improved home 
in section 18. Frank Slansky first came to know Starke County when 
a young man, more than thirty years ago, in the capacity of a farm 
laborer. For a number of years he worked at his trade in Chicago, 
and about sixteen years ago returned to Starke County and has since 
enjoyed prosperity as an agriculturist. He is a representative of the 
sterling Bohemian people who are so numerously represented in this 
section of Starke County, and while establishing a home and rearing his 
family has also been a useful factor in community affairs. 

Frank Slansky was born at Pilsen, Bohemia, June 15, 1864. Many 
generations of the family had lived in the same locality, and his parents 
were Frank and Mary (Taylor) Slansk>', both of whom died in Bohemia 
in the prime of life and when their son Frank was four 3'ears of age. 
After their death he was reared by his grandmother Mary Taylor, was 
educated in the local schools, and at the age of six.teen left his native 
land in 1880 and came to the United States. He took passage on a 
steamer at Hamburg, Germany, and was fifteen days on the ocean until 
landing in New York City. He came west to Chicago and then to North 
Judson in Starke County, where he was employed on a farm two and 
a half years. He then returned to Chicago and found employment as a 
laborer and afterwards developed skill as a mechanic in cabinet-making. 
He was for many years a capable employe of a piano factory, where he 
was one of the most proficient in general wood-working, as a finisher, 
framer and joiner. This was his occupation for a number of years, 
but in February, 1908, he returned to Starke County and bought sixty 
acres of land in section 18 of Wayne Township. He has since added 
twenty acres and now has a well improved farm of eighty acres, part of 
it in meadow and pasture, and the rest cultivated through the staple 
crops of Starke County. He has a comfortable home, substantial barn 
and other buildings, and enjoys a well deserved prosperity as a member 
of the Starke County agricultural community. 

During his residence in Chicago Mr. Slansky married Josie Svoboda. 
She was born in the same locality of Bohemia as her husband in the 
year 1867, a daughter of Thomas and Josie (Hololova) Svoboda, both 
of whom spent all their lives in Bohemia, her father dying at the age 
of eighty-five and her mother aged seventy -five. They were both devout 
members of the Catholic faith. Mrs. Slansky had known her husband 
from childhood, and three years after his departure from Bohemia she 
followed him. taking the same route though landing at Baltimore, and 


immediately after her arrival in Chicago they were married. They have 
now lived together and shared their toil and prosperity and joys and 
sorrows for more than thirty years. Mr. and Mrs. Slansky are the 
parents of eight children. Bertha is the wife of Henry Kndrna of Chi- 
cago, and their children are Lillie, George and Irvin. Louis, who is a 
machinist in Chicago, married Polly Roder, and their children are Wil- 
liam and Elmer. Jerry, who was bom in Chicago, as were the other 
children, and received his education in the public schools there, while still 
a boy began an apprenticeship at the tailor's trade and followed that 
occupation until coming to Starke County with his parents in 1908, 
since which time he has assisted his father in the management of the 
farm, and is still unmarried. Emma is the wife of Joseph Burijanek, 
lives in North Judson, and is the mother of two sons, George and Ray- 
mond. Edward, who is single, recently completed his education in the 
public schools of "Wayne Township, and is at home. The three youngest 
children, Emil, Ella and "William, are all attending the district schools 
of "Wayne Township. Mr. Slansky and his older sons generally support 
the republican ticket in politics. 

"William Hankey. Starke County had cause to regret the removal 
of one of its most substantial and thrifty citizens in the death of William 
Hankey on July 21, 1911. ^Iv. Hankey had spent the greater part of 
forty years in Starke County, was a capable mechanic, assisted in the 
building and construction of many houses and other structures in this 
vicinity, but his chief business was as a farmer, and the homestead which 
he developed and cared for during his lifetime is now regarded as one 
of the best farms in Railroad Township, being situated on section 17, with 
San Pierre as postoffice. Mrs. Hankey and a number of her children 
are still at the old home and their influence as workers and citizens is one 
that may be well continued for many years to come in Starke County. 

The late William Hankey was born in Posen, Germany, December 
9, 1850, and was therefore in his sixty-first year at the time of his death. 
His parents were Christopher and Anna (Schmidt) Hankey. His father 
was a cabinetmaker in the old country, followed that trade a number of 
years and while living in Posen four sons and four daughters were born. 
These children were all yet unmarried when the family in 1871 set out 
from their native land, and embarked on a vessel at Bremen which 
landed them after many days of sailing in New York City. From the 
eastern seaport they came west to Wanatah in Laporte County, Indiana, 
and after coming to this country Christopher Hankey changed his occu- 
pation somewhat, combining farming with the business of carpenter. He 
was an expert and finished mechanic and his services were greatly in 
demand. A few years after locating at Wanatah the family removed to 
North Judson in Starke County, and somewhat later still transferred 
their home to Railroad Township, where the father bought eighty acres 
of land in section 27. He improved this land from a wilderness condi- 
tion, and made that the home of his declining years. He passed away 


February 2, 1902, while his wife died in May, 1893. They were mem- 
bers of the Lutheran Church, and in politics the elder Hankey was a 

The late William Hankey was the oldest son and the third child of a 
family of eight children. He had just reached his majority when he 
came to America, and in the meantime had secured a good education and 
also had served an api^renticeship in the trade of his father. He like- 
wise possessed skill as an artificer in wood and metal, and for a number 
of years actively followed the trade of house carpenter. Like his father, 
he combined that vocation with practical farming in Railroad Town- 
ship, and year after year contrived to prosper and add a little bit to the 
sum total of his material resources. When he died he was possessed 
of an estate of more than three hundred acres of fine land and had always 
stood as one of the most capable farmers and stock growers in that sec- 
tion of Starke County. His crops were mainly corn, rye and potatoes. 
He also raised considerable stock, and was an all around good farmer. 
In local matters he took much interest, and was a regular voter with the 
democratic party and a man whose prosperity had been so well earned 
that it gave him the thorough respect and esteem of his entire com- 

In Railroad Township in 1881 William Hankey married Miss Rose 
Dalka. Her birthplace was also Posen, Germany, and her birthday was 
Christmas Day of 1859. Her family for generations back were farming 
people and her parents were Michael and Anna (Tessloff) Dalka. They 
lived in Posen until most of their children were born. Two of the 
Dalka children died young, and in 1861 the parents with their children 
Michael, John, Charles and Rose emigrated to the United States settling 
in Pulaski County, Indiana, where her father bought and improved a 
good farm in Cass Township. His death occurred there September 7, 
1884, at the age of sixty-four, while his widow survived until June S, 
1910. Four days later she would have celebrated her eighty-second 
birthday. They were of the best type of German people, thrifty, of 
sound morals, and made any community better for living therein. They 
were of the faith of the Lutheran Church, while in politics Mr. Dalka 
was a democrat and held .several minor offices. 

Mrs. William Hankey became the mother of thirteen children. Two 
of these, Theodore and Herman, died in childhood. The eleven still liv- 
ing are: Lena, wife of William Kellerman of North Judson, and the 
parents of one daughter Lena ; John A., a farmer in Wayne Township 
who married Lydia Weinkauf, and has three children, Lloyd, Edna and 
Harry ; William, who lives at home and is an expert and vigorous young 
farmer, having the practical management of his father's fine estate; 
Edward, who lives at home, but who by profession is a moving picture 
operator; Henrj% a farmer, lives at the old homestead most of the 
time; Emil, who is a graduate from the South Bend Business Col- 
lege and is associated with his brother Edward in the moving picture 
business ; Elvey, at home and unmarried ; Leona L. and Anna M., twin 


daughters who are uow about sixteen years of age, and received good 
educational advantages in the local schools and are both promising and 
attractive young ladies. The family are all confirmed members of the 
Lutheran Church and attend worship at San Pierre, while the sons 
are democrats. 

Austin P. Dial. The Farmers State Bank of Knox, of which Austin 
P. Dial was one of the organizers and is now president, is an institution 
with a sueees.sful record, and has been in existence and efficiently serving 
the community for more than twenty years. It was established in 
January, 1893, as a private bank known under the title of Farmers Bank. 
In January, 1901, the bank took out a state charter and was reorganized 
as the Farmers State Bank. The capital of the original institution was 
$10,000, but since its incorporation under a state charter the capital has 
been $25,000, and it has a surplus of an equal amount. The total resources 
of the bank in March, 1914, at the regular statement, showed over three 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and at that time the bank had ap- 
proximately three hundred thousand dollars in deposits. Mr. Dial has 
been president of the bank since it was incorporated. The first vice 
president was H. H. Ellingson. In 1908 he was succeeded in the office 
of vice president by J. W. Long, a well-known lumberman of Knox. F. P. 
Whitson, now deceased, was the first cashier and was succeeded by Isaac 
Templeton, who resigned, and now lives in the State of Pennsylvania, and 
Mr. J. W. Kurtz has held the office of cashier since 1906. The Farmers 
State Bank has paid large dividends to its stockholder, and since 1913 
it has occupied an ideal banking house on Main Street in Knox. The 
bank has membership in both the State and National Association of 

Among the men who have started life at the bottom of the ladder 
and have steadily climbed the upward rungs the president of the Farmers 
State Bank is deserving of particular honor and of all the prosperity 
which he has acquired. He has lived in Starke County for sixty years, 
and has thus been a witness of changes and developments such as a 
j'ounger man would find difficult to visualize. His home has been in the 
State of Indiana for sixty-two years, and he was born in Holmes County, 
Ohio, March 27, 1840. He comes of German stock, and his parents were 
thrifty and hard working, but always people in modest circumstances, and 
were able to give their son Austin only a home, the usual brief training in 
the schools accorded to the boys of Ohio and Indiana prior to the Civil 
war, and thus the future banker began life entirely dependent upon his 
own energy and ambition. In 1852 he moved to Allen County, Indiana, 
with his parents, and in 1854 to Starke County. Reared in the country, 
he was a farmer by training, and had many struggles before he was well 
started on his career of success. Many years ago the people of Knox knew 
him as a professional ox team driver, and he frequently drove an ox team 
hauling wood into Knox, and in that way and by various other work 
earned enough to supplement his meager income as a farmer. 


Mr. Dial in 1867 was elected coimty recorder of Starke county, and 
filled that office for two successive terms, for four veal's each term. In 
1878 he was elected to the office of county treasurer, and in 1880 re- 
elected, serving two terms of two years each in that responsible place. 
During his long career he has held a number of other local offices, and has 
twice held office on the city board. Mr. Dial is a strong democrat, has 
been delegate to different conventions, and in 1908 was an alternate 
elector from Indiana. Though best known as a banker Mr. Dial has a 
fine farm in Starke County, and it was farming that constituted the basis 
of his successful business career. He has lived in one house on South 
Main Street for moi-e than forty years, and that is one of the substantial 
liomes of the county seat. 

On December 12, 1913, Ur. Dial and wife celebrated the fiftieth an- 
niversaiy of their marriage. They are one of the oldest couples in Starke 
County, and the fine co-operation and ideal relations which have always 
subsisted between Mr. Dial and wife have been in no small degree re- 
sponsible for their success. Mrs. Dial before her marriage was Edna 
Beatty. She was born in Grant County, Indiana, ^lay 8, 1846, and was 
about fourteen or fifteen years of age when her parents moved to Starke 
County. She was married in this county at the age of seventeen, and she 
and Mr. Dial started out with hardly a dollar, and for a number of 
years had a hard struggle to support themselves and to provide for the 
future. To their marriage were born two children. One of them died 
unnamed, and the other, Beatty, died when three years of age. 

James C. Fletcher. In every community are found, those whose 
character and ability well equip them for leadership in civic affairs 
of importance and in the control of business enterprises of broad scope 
and importance. In Starke County such a valued citizen is found 
in the person of Mr. Fletcher, who is president of the First National 
Bank of Knox, and who is likewise president and treasurer of the 
Starke County Abstract, Title & Guarantee Company, which, as may 
well be understood, exercises most important and beneficent functions 
bearing upon the general well-being of the community covered by its 
activities. Mr. Fletcher is serving also as state bank examiner for 
fourteen counties in Northwestern Indiana^, his work in this capacity 
involving the periodical examination of the affairs of all banking insti- 
tutions in his assigned territory with the exception of the national 

James C. Fletcher was bom in Washington Township, Starke 
County, Indiana, on the 20th of December, 1864, and is a son of John 
and Clara (Thompson) Fletcher, the former a scion of Irish stock 
and the latter a representative of a family of English origin that was 
early founded in the State of Virginia. John Fletcher and his wife 
were reared and educated in Clermont County, Ohio. There their mar- 
riage was solemnized, and there all of their children were born with 
the exception of James C, of this review, who is the youngest of the 
number. In 1860 John Fletcher came with his family to Starke County 


and settled in Washington Township, the land having been obtained 
from the Government by his brother, Jesse Fletcher, who still resides 
in this county and who is one of its venerable pioneer citizens. John 
Fletcher became one of the substantial agriculturists and stock growers 
of Starke County and continued to reside on his homestead farm until 
his death, which occurred on the 1st of May, 1874, the year of his 
nativity having been 1807. His widow survived him by a decade and 
was summoned to the life eternahon the 2d of June, 1885, her birth 
having occurred in 1828 or 1829. Mr. Fletcher was a man of strong 
individuality and inflexible integrity, and was prominent and influen- 
tial in public affairs of a local order, the while he ever commanded the 
high regard of his fellow men. He was a staunch supporter of the 
cause of the democratic party and both he and his wife held member- 
ship in the United Brethren Church. Of their children, James C. is 
the only one now living. 

Under the sturdy influences of the home farm James C. Fletcher 
waxed strong in mind and body, and while still employed at farm 
work and attending the public schools he felt the spur of ambition. 
Thus he was not satisfied with meager scholastic attainments but availed 
himself of the advantages of the Northern Indiana Normal School 
& Business College, now known as Valparaiso University. In that in- 
stitution and in a private way he devoted his attention to the study 
of law, and though he was admitted to the bar of his native state he 
has never been engaged in the active practice, his technical knowledge, 
however, having proved of inestimable value to him in connection with 
his signally active and successful business career. 

In 1890 Mr. Fletcher assumed the office of clerk of the Circuit Court 
for Starke County, and of this position he continued the efficient and 
valued incumbent until 1898, when he became the owner of the leading 
abstract business of the county. To this he gave close attention, the 
business being conducted under the title of the Starke County Abstract 
Company, and he made the records of his office most comprehensive 
and authoritative. In 1907 the company combined its interests and 
records with those of the firm of Koft'el & Taylor and under the reor- 
ganization the business was incorporated under the present title of 
the Starke County Abstract, Title & Guarantee Company, with an au- 
thorized capital of $25,000. Mr. Fletcher has been president of this 
company since 1911, from the time of its incorporation, and the per- 
sonnel of its executive corps includes also the following named officers: 
Mahlon J. Hartzler, vice president ; Edward H. Taylor, secretary ; 
Herbert R. Koffel and William S. Daniel, who are members of the board 
of directors; James C. Fletcher, attorney; and Misses Daisy A. Crabb 
and Marie Fletcher, notaries. The company holds membership in the 
Indiana Title Association and none in the state covers its fields more 
effectively in records and service. 

In 1901 Mr. Fletcher became associated with the late Horatio D. 
Fuller in the organization of the First National Bank of Knox, which 
was incorporated with a capital stock of $25,000, and the success of 


which is indicated by the fact that its surplus fund is now $22,000, 
and that it has returned regular semi-annual dividends to its stock- 
holders, the major number of whom are representative citizens of 
Starke County. Mr. Fuller was the first president of this substantial 
and admirably conducted institution and retained this office until his 
death on the 4th of February, 1914, whereupon, with all consistency, 
Mr. Fletcher was elected his successor in this important executive of- 
fice. Edgar W. Shilling is vice president; Mark D. Falvey, cashier; 
and Perry W. Uncapher, assistant cashier. In addition to the president, 
vice president and cashier the directorate of the bank includes Francis 
Yeager, Frank A. Green, Frank Joseph and Henry F. Shricker. With 
characteristic progressiveness and circumspection Mr. Fletcher is di- 
recting the policies of this institution, and that he has exceptional ability 
as a practical financier is shown by the fact that since 1911 he has held 
the appointment of and given effective service as state bank examiner 
for the northwestern district of Indiana. 

Mr. Fletcher is one of the recognized leaders of the democratic party 
activities in Starke County, and has been a delegate to the state conven- 
tions of the same, as well as to congressional and county conventions 
for which he was eligible. He served for some time as a member of the 
board of trustees of the Town of Knox. In the Knox lodge of the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows Mr. Fletcher has passed the various 
official chairs, besides having represented the organization in the gi-and 
lodge of the state. He is affiliated also with the local organizations 
of the Knights of Pythias and Knights of the Modern Maccabees. 

On November 4, 1891, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Fletcher 
to Miss Meda Z. Bender, who wa.s born at Knox, judicial center of this 
county, November 7, 1867, and who completed her education in Fort 
Wayne College. She is a daughter of Robert H. and Elvira (Morris) 
Bender, the former of whom continued his residence at Knox until his 
death, his widow being still a resident of this place. Mr. and Mrs. 
Fletcher have two children, Marie, who was graduated in the Knox 
High School, as a member of the class of 1910, and who is a popular 
factor in the social activities of her home city, as are all other members 
of this representative family; and Robert Bender Fletcher is a member 
of the class of 1916 in the local high school. 

Charles Laeamore. Two of the oldest families identified with Starke 
County are the Laramores and the Humphreys. They were people of more 
than ordinary consequence — farmers, merchants, loyal citizens and up- 
holders of the best in social life. Charles Laramore, who came as a 
child at the time of pioneer settlement, has prospered as a farmer, served 
a number of years as postma.ster of Knox and in other offices, and none 
better deserve the commendation of the written record in local history. 

His ancestry is Scotch-Irish. Little is known of the earlier genera- 
tions of the family in this country. George Laramore, father of Charles, 
is thought to have descended from one of three brothers who emigrated 
from England about the time of the Revolution, locating in three different 


sections of the colonies. The ancestor of this branch became a Virginian. 
The grandparents were Thomas and Jlary (Whittlebury) Laramore. 
They were probably married in Virginia, but early in life moved to 
Muskingum County, Ohio, and Thomas died there in early life. His 
widow married Matthew Humphreys, and some years later, in 1830, when 
her son George Laramore, who was born January 16, 1822, was eight years 
of age, Mr. and Mrs. Humphreys moved out to Tippecanoe County, In- 
diana, settling in the midst of the wilderness on the borders of Grand 
Prairie, about twelve miles from the City of Lafayette. There Matthew 
Humphreys laid the foundation for a home and improved his land, and 
continued to reside in that section until 1851, when they left their log 
cabin home and moved into Starke County, locating at Knox. Matthew 
Humphreys built the fourth home and the first frame house in that new 
village. At that time Starke County was merely an uninhabited wilder- 
ness, and Matthew Humphreys became one of the first merchants and also 
bought a large tract of land within the county. The stock for his general 
store was all hauled from Laporte, by ox teams and wagons, and he con- 
tinued for a number of years in business at the county seat. He died in 
1856, and his widow twelve years later. She was born in 1808, while 
Mr. Humphreys was bom in 1800. They were members of the United 
Brethren Church, which was about the only religious society in this part 
of Starke County in the early days. Both Matthew Humphreys and wife 
are buried in the Humphreys private burying ground within the Town 
of Knox. 

George Laramore, father of Charles, was the only child of his mother 
by her first marriage. He grew up in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, and 
there married Sarah Hatter. After the birth of their daughter Mary A. 
they moved to Carroll County, Indiana, where Charles and Andrew J. 
were born. Charles Laramore was born in Carroll County, Indiana, Jan- 
uary 5, 1847. He was four years of age when the family removed by 
wagons and teams to Starke County. It required four days of travel 
along the winding and difficult roads to reach their new home. The high 
ridges which they were compelled to foUow in order to avoid the marshes 
were usually sandy, and slow progress was a necessity. Matthew Hum- 
phreys had preceded George Laramore to Starke County, arriving there in 
February, 1851, while Mr. Laramore came in March of the same year. 
George Laramore acquired government land, the southwest quarter of 
Section 3 in Center Township, erected a log cabin, and thus began to im- 
prove a home as one of the pioneei-s. Although his place was only three 
miles northwest of the present City of Knox, he had for several years no 
near neighbors. In that vicinity he spent the rest of his life, had 
improved most of his land, erected a good frame house and died there in 
July, 1878. He was then past fifty-six years of age. In the early days he 
was a strong whig, had voted for Henry Clay, and after the formation of 
the republican party cast a ballot for John C. Fremont, its first candidate 
for the presidency, in 1856. He also voted for Abraham Lincoln, and was 
a strong abolitionist in belief and practice. He also had a great admira- 
tion for William H. Harrison, the whig President. George Laramore 


was a man of much public spirit in his community, possessed decision of 
character and was more than ordinarily influential. His wife died in 
June, 1887, at the old home, in the improvement of which she had assisted. 
She was a daughter of Andrew and Elizabeth (Charles) Hatter. The 
former was of Pennsylvania Dutch stock and the latter the daughter of a 
Revolutionary soldier, who came over from France with LaFayette to as- 
sist the American colonists in gaining their freedom from England. 
Andrew Hatter and wife were married in Penn.sylvania, moved to Ohio, 
and in 1851 accompanied George Laramore on his removal to Starke 
County, Indiana, where their last years were spent with their daughter, 
Mrs. Laramore. Mrs. Hatter died in the fall of 1851, and her husband 
some years later. They were members of the German Lutheran Church, 
and Andrew Hatter was a strong Jackson democrat. 

George Laramore and wife became the parents of nine children, three 
sons and six daughters, all of whom grew to maturity. Five of them are 
still living and all have their homes in Indiana. Representative Charles 
Laramore was reared to manhood in Starke County, and early in life 
qualified for educational work and followed teaching for several j'ears. 
He has since been an active farmer and stock raiser and dealer, and still 
owns a fine farm in Center Township. In 1900 ]Mr. Laramore left his 
farm and moved to Knox, his farm having since been operated by his 
son. In February, 1900, Mi*. Laramore was appointed postmaster at 
Knox, and .served through the IVIcKinley and Roosevelt administrations, 
altogether for three terms — twelve years and five months. Mr. Laramore 
is now a member of the town board, having been elected on the republican 
ticket, and has given much public spirited service to his community. 

Mr. Laramore was married in Starke County to Mary C. Emigh, who 
was born in Pennsylvania in 1850 and died at her home in Knox May 13, 
1906. She came to Starke County when fifteen years of age with her 
parents. Christian and ilary (Paid) Emigh, both of whom were natives 
of Pennsylvania, were married there, and after settling in Starke County 
lived on a farm in Wa.shington Township, where her father died when past 
seventy years of age, and her mother died at Knox when more than 
ninety-two years old. Her father was a whig in politics. Mr. and 
Mrs. Laramore are the parents of the following children : George Devir, 
who is now cashier of the Farmers and Merchants Bank at Hanna, In- 
diana, married Ella Davis, and has children, Charles Davis, Doris, Lueile 
and John. Dolpha Oswell died at the age of nineteen, after having fin- 
ished his education in the public schools. Lelia Agnes since 1905 has 
served as assistant postmaster at Knox. She was in that of&ce under her 
father and holds the same position under the present postmaster, Willis 
P. McCormiek. She graduated from the State Normal School at Terre 
Haute in 1901, also from the C. L. S. C. with the class of 1910, and has 
done some extension work in Chicago University. She has been a 
teacher, both in Starke and Henry counties and the Indianapolis public 
schools, and has taken a very prominent part in church and social affairs. 
She is guardian of "Kankakee Camp" of the Camp Fire Girls and for 
several years has been secretary of the Starke County Society for the 


Study aud Prevention of Tuberculosis. Charles Ernest, the fourth child 
of Charles Laramore, grew up on a farm and has been identified with 
that industry all his active career, being now manager of the old home- 
stead. He married Martha Chidester of Starke County, and their chil- 
dren are Esther, Frank, Chester and Monroe. Florian Eugene is a 
graduate of Purdue University in the mechanical engineering depart- 
ment, and is now employed in his professional capacity by a heating 
and ventilating concern at Montreal, Canada. He is unmarried. Her- 
bert Kenneth, the youngest child, still living at home, is a member of 
the senior class in Purdue University, and specializing in the department 
of entomology and horticulture, and is deputy field man under M. M. 
High, who is Government entomologist for Northern Indiana. Mr. 
and Mi-s. Laramore and family are members of the JMethodist Church. 
Mr. Laramore affiliates with Knox Lodge No. 639, P. & A. M., is past 
chancellor of Lodge No. 296, Knights of Pythias, and is past commander 
of William Landon Post of the Grand Army of the Republic, No. 290. His 
membership in the Grand Army is the result of service during the Civil 
war. Though a very young man at the beginning of the struggle, 
towards its close he enlisted in Company H of the One Hundred and 
Pifty-first Regiment of Indiana Infanti-y, and was out for eight months, 
being largely employed in guard duty during the last year of the war. 

Peter Mosher. The following sketch contains the important facts 
in the life and family record of a Starke County citizen whose name 
has always stood for all that is honest and of good report in this com- 
munity, for successful thrift and business integrity, for a position 
which all must respect. The Mosher family have been Starke County 
residents since pioneer days, the early generation having made homes 
out of the wilderness, and Peter Mosher is himself a product of a log 
cabin home and a log schoolhouse. 

His ancestry was that thrifty Dutch stock which settled New York 
colony, and his grandparents spent all their lives in Oswego County, of 
New York. John W. Mosher, father of Peter, was born in Oswego 
County, June 11, 1823, grew up on a farm, and married Elizabeth 
Shoemaker, who was born in the same vicinity, November 20, 1824, and 
likewise represented a family of Dutch antecedents. Her father, Asa 
Shoemaker, spent his life in Oswego County. After their marriage, 
John W. Mosher and wife began housekeeping in New York State, but 
soon moved to Ohio. In Ohio their first son, Albert, was born. Eight- 
een months later the family moved to Whitley County, Indiana, and 
became pioneers in the wilderness not far from Columbia City. They 
had a log home, and in those surroundings were bom the following 
children: Asa, Huldah and Nancy^ who died as infants; Marj^ E.; 
Peter, who was born December 28, 1853 ; and William. When Peter 
was three years of age the family moved to Starke County in 1856. 
They arrived in December, about the holiday season, and the father 
bought eighty acres of wild and unbroken land in section 19 of Cali- 
fornia Township. The first habitation in this new district was a log 


cabiu, which some years later was replaced by a more substantial 
structure. In Starke County were born Alice and Sarah, the latter de- 
ceased. Alice is married and lives at North Judson, in Starke County. 
The youngest child of the family was John, who was born in Iowa 
during the six months the family spent in that state. The daughter 
Mary, already mentioned, married John Flagg, of one of the prominent 
families of Wayne Township. After the family had returned from 
Iowa they located on a farm in Wayne Township, but subsequently 
the parents moved to North Judson, where the father died October 1, 
1893, when nearly seventy years of age. His wife passed away six 
years later, January 11, 1899, at the home of their daughter, Mrs. 
Flagg, in Wayne Township, when seventy-three years of age. They 
were members of the Christian Church, but later because of a more 
convenient location joined the United Brethren Church. The father 
was a democrat in polities. During the Civil war he enlisted in the 
One Hundred and Fifty-first Indiana Regiment of Infantry, in Com- 
pany H, but had been out less than a year when the war closed. His 
sons, Albert and Asa, were both veterans of the war. Albert was out 
nearly four years, until the close of the war, took part in many cam- 
paigns, and was with Sherman on his march to the sea. He had 
numerous narrow escapes, one shot passing through his cap, and an- 
other through his knapsack, yet he returned home uninjured, married 
and became a prosperous farmer, and died two years ago, leaving a 
widow and three grown children, all of whom are now married. The 
son, Asa, enlisted at the same time as his brother, and died from 
typhoid fever while with the army about Vicksburg. At that time he 
was still under age. Another of the children, John D., is now living 
on a farm in Pulaski County, Indiana, has married three times and has 
three sets of children. 

Peter Mosher, who was too young for service during the Civil war, 
grew up on a farm in Starke County, and the schoolhouse from which 
he received most of his instruction in books was built of logs. For 
nearly forty years his career has been one of steadily increasing pros- 
perity as a farmer. Since October, 1876, he has owned and occupied 
the old homestead, located in sections 18 and 19 of California Township. 
Forty acres lie in section 18, and 124 acres in section 19. However, 
he has increased the area of the old home, which was eighty acres, and 
now has one of the best improved and most valuable estates in the 
township. Much of his land is under cultivation, and one feature is a 
large grove of native timber. Some years ago he erected a large barn 
28 X 40 feet, and some years later constructed an addition 26 x 42 feet. 
Attached to the barn is a sixty ton silo. All the outbuildings are 
painted red, and together with the comfortable residence of seven 
rooms, with an inviting porch in front, the buildings comprise an at- 
tractive feature of the local landscape. As a crop grower Mr. Mosher 
raises all the staple cereals, including cowpeas, and knows all the ins 
and outs of Starke County farming and how to make it profitable. He 
feeds stock of all kinds, and for a number of years has operated a small 
dairy with a herd of eleven cows. 


On September 10, 1876, Mr. Mosher married in Pulaski County 
Miss Emma Blanche Campbell. She was born in Pulaski County in 
1858, was reared and educated thei-e, and for nearly forty years they 
have traveled life's highway together and shared all the happiness and 
service as homemakers and good citizens. Mrs. Mosher is a daughter 
of Perry and Nancy (Goble) Campbell, who were natives of Ohio and 
of Scotch stock, but came to Pulaski County, and her father improved 
two good farms from the wild land of that section. Subsequently they 
moved to North Judson, where her father died at the age of about 
seventy-five, and his widow passed away at the home of her daughter, 
Mrs. Maud Thompson, of Huntington, Indiana, when past seventy 
years of age. Mrs. Mosher has two sisters, Mrs. Maud Thompson and 
Elizabeth Wright, both married and heads of families, and a brother, 
Aleck, who is now employed by the Erie Railroad Company in Chicago. 

To the marriage of Mr. Mosher and wife were born thirteen chil- 
dren. One son, Olney D., died at the age of two years. Charles J., a 
Wayne Township farmer, married Katie Baum, and their children are 
Lydia and Ida, twins, Herman, Leo, George and Lynn. Ora Lee, whose 
home is in Crown Point, married Amanda Hiatt, and has three chil- 
dren, Cleo, Ruth and Nelson. Alice Maude, unmarried, received her 
education in the Knox High School, finished the normal course at Val- 
paraiso and also a course in the Business College at Indianapolis, and 
for the past ten years has been successfully engaged in teaching. Asa 
G., who lives on a farm in Wayne Township, married Minnie Sark, of 
this county. Bertha, wife of Charles 0. Brooke, of Hammond, Indiana, 
has a son Glenn and a daughter Alice. Addie Pearl is the wife of 
Andrew J. Casey, who is employed with one of the street railway com- 
panies of Chicago, and their children are Geneva and Lloyd, but the 
latter is deceased. Leonard is man-ied, and is connected with the 
Oregon Short Line Railway Company in Idaho, and has a daughter, 
Irene D. Nannie is the wife of Wayne Lane, and lives in Peru, Indiana, 
has one daughter, Florris. Ethel is the wife of Homer Collins, who is a 
railway man living in Hammond. Claude, still at home, was educated 
in the public schools. Clyde finished the grade school course and is at 
home. Geneva is still attending the public schools. 

This is one of the best known family groups in Starke County. 
Mr. Mosher has long been identified with local affairs and has been one 
of the leaders in the Starke County democracy. For five years he 
served as township trustee, and is now in his first term as county com- 
missioner, his term expiring January 1, 1916, and he is a candidate for 
reelection. His first office in the township was as supervisor, after 
which he was a member of the township advisoiy board, was elected 
to the county council, and then to his present office as county commis- 
sioner. Peter Mosher is one of the men who can be depended upon for 
cooperation and assistance in any movement designed to improve civic 
and material conditions in Starke County. The estate of Mr. and Mrs. 
Mosher is known as "The Willow Grove Farm." 


Charles W. Weninger. The present county auditor of Starke 
County has been a resident of this county from the time of his birth 
and has achieved prestige as one of its most progressive and influential 
business men and most public-spirited citizens, the while he has held 
official preferments that indicate fully the secure place that is his in 
the confidence and esteem of the people of his native county. Mr. 
Weninger has shown much initiative and constructive ability as an 
executive and business man and is one of the foremost citizens of the 
fine little Village of North Judson, where he is president of the First 
State Bank and also of the Perpetual Building & Loan Association, one 
of the most substantial and important corporations of the kind in this 
section of the state. 

Mr. AVeninger was born on a farm in Wayne Township, this county, 
on the 23d of May, 1873, and his initial experience in connection with 
the practical affairs of life was acquired as a youthful representative 
of the sturdy yeomanry of the fine old Hoosier State, the while he made 
good use of the advantages aiforded him in the public schools and as 
a youth proved himself eligible for pedagogic honors, though his service 
as a teacher covered but one term. For four years thereafter he held 
the position of deputy postmaster at North Judson, and after his retire- 
ment he conducted a meat market in that village for a few years. He 
then became associated with Jacob Keller, one of the best known and 
most influential citizens of the county, and engaged in the real estate 
and insurance business, this mutually grateful and profitable alliance 
continuing until the death of Mr. Keller, of whose valuable estate, 
including 3,300 acres of land, Mr. Weninger was made administrator. 
In 1909 Mr. Weninger became one of the stockholders of the Citizens 
Bank of North Judson, and in January, 1911, this was consolidated 
with the Farmers & Merchants Bank, which had been established in 
1906. He was vice president of the former bank at the time of the 
consolidation of the two under the title of the First State Bank, of 
which he has since been the president and the att'airs of which he has 
directed, as chief executive, along progressive and yet careful and con- 
servative lines, the institution now having larger deposits than any other 
bank in the county. Its operations are based on a capital stock of 
$25,000, its surplus fund is in excess of $10,000, and it pays to its 
stockliolders regular annual dividends, at the rate of 8 per cent. Jacob 
F. Manz is vice president of the bank. Perry H. McCormick is the 
cashier, and G. N. Peterson is assistant cashier, while the directorate of 
the institution includes the three executive officers and also Messrs. 
Dahlka and Mosher. 

Mr. Weninger was one of the principal organizers of the Perpetual 
Building & Loan Association, in 1906, and has been its president from 
the time of its incorporation. This substantial and ably ordered cor- 
poration, of which 6. N. Peterson is secretary, has an authorized capital 
of $200,000, and its loans are made exclusively to residents of Starke 
County. It controls a specially large and prosperous business, has 
exercised most benignant function, has paid regular dividends and has 


never had a dollar of loss on its loans or investments, its dividend in 
1914 having been rendered at the rate of 10 per cent. 

Mr. Weninger is one of the leaders in the Starke County councils 
and activities of the democratic pai-ty, and as candidate on its ticket 
he was elected county auditor in 1912 — an ofiSce in which he is giving 
a charactei-istieally careful and efficient administration. He has been 
a delegate to the local conventions of his party, served two terms as 
town clerk of North Judson and one term as trustee of Wayne Township, 
of which he was a trustee from 1900 to 1904. He is affiliated with the 
Masonic fraternity, the Modern Woodmen of America and the Knights 
of Pythias, in which last mentioned he is past chancellor of the lodge 
at North Judson. Both he and his wife are zealous members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in their home village and he is serving 
as a member of its board of trustees. 

On the 29th of September, 1897, was solemnized the marriage of 
Mr. Weninger to Miss Maude Collier, who was bom in the State of 
Ohio, in 1878, and who was educated at the Ohio Wesleyan University, 
in the City of Delaware. She is active in church work, especially as a 
member of the Ladies' Aid and Home Missionary societies, and is a 
popular figure in the representative social activities of North Judson. 
Jlr. and Mrs. Weninger have one son, Howard Leslie, who is attending 
the public schools. 

Adam G. W. Sherman, whose death occurred November 1, 1914, was 
a well-known retired merchant and honored citizen of Knox. He had been 
prominently concerned with the public and business interests of Starke 
County for many years, had exerted his influence along lines of be- 
nignant order and had so ordered his course as to retain the unqualified 
confidence and esteem of the community in which he maintained his home 
for many years, his commodious and attractive residence standing on the 
site of the one that became his place of abode fully forty-five years ago, 
a fact that shows that he was entitled to prestige as one of the sterling 
pioneer business men of the City of Knox, judicial center of the county. 

Mr. Sherman came from Laporte County, this state, and established 
his residence at Knox in the year 1867. Here he engaged in the retail 
grocery business on Washington Street, but in the following year he 
removed to more eligible quarters, on Main Street. There he built up a 
large and prosperous business and after his establishment was destroyed 
by fire, in 1886, he erected near its site a substantial frame building, 
now known as the Swartzel Block, and in 1894 built a brick building on 
Main Street, which is still known as the Sherman Block. In the Swart- 
zel Block he resumed business, and he continued to be one of the repre- 
sentative figures in local business circles until 1893, after which time he 
lived virtually retired, his enterprise and well ordered endeavors en- 
abling him to acquire a substantial competency. About the time of his 
retirement from business Mr. Sherman erected his residence, on the site 
of the house in which he took up his abode nearly half a century ago, as 
previously noted. At the time of the construction of the Nickel Plate 


and tlie Chicago, Indiana & Southern railroads through this section of 
the st<ite, Mr. Sherman became a successful contractor and supplied ties 
for the building of many miles of the two lines. His civic enterprise 
was further shown by his erection of a second business block in Knox, 
the Sherman Block referred to, and he was liberal and influential in the 
material upbuilding as weU. as the social progress of the county seat. 

Mr. Sherman claimed the historic Old Dominion as the place of his 
nativity. He was born in Shenandoah County, Virginia, on the 11th of 
September, 1834, and is a son of Adam S. and Elizabeth (Nicholas) 
Sherman, both natives of Virginia and representatives of old and honored 
families of that commonwealth, the father of the subject of this review 
having been a first cousin of Gen. William T. Sherman. Adam G. W. 
Sherman was only a few weeks old at the time when his parents removed 
from Virginia to Ohio and numbered themselves among the pioneer set- 
tlers of Marion County, where the father purchased a tract of land and 
instituted the development of a farm. This property he later sold and 
on a portion of the same was established the present Village of Card- 
iugton. Adam S. Sherman purchased another farm in the same county 
and on this homestead he continued to reside until the death of his wife, 
who had passed the psalmist's allotted span of three score years and 
ten, and he passed the closing years of his life in the home of one of his 
daughters, at Greencamp, Marion County, Ohio, where he died when 
nearly eighty years of age. He was originally a whig in politics but 
transferred his allegiance to the republican party at the time of its or- 
ganization and ever afterward continued a stalwart supporter of its 
cause. He was a man of strong character, mature judgment and well 
fortified convictions, both he and his wife having been honored for their 
sterling worth and both having early become members of the Christian 
Church. Of the children, Jacob, a brother of the subject of this review, 
is the only one now living, the daughters, Eliza, Sarah, Mary and Rebecca 
having married and reared children before they were summoned to the 
life eternal. Of the sons the eldest was John, who likewise married and 
left children. Jacob was youngest of the three sons that attained to 
maturity, and the ouly one now living. 

In Marion County, Ohio, Adam G. W. Sherman was reared to ma- 
turity under the conditions and influences of the pioneer days, and his 
initial experience of a practical order was that gained in connection 
with the work of the home farm. In the meanwhile he duly availed 
himself of the advantages of the common schools of the locality and 
period. In 1851, when about seventeen years of age, Mr. Sherman came 
to Indiana and after residing for a time in Starke County he indulged 
his propensity for adventure by going to the State of Texas, where he re- 
mained two years and had a varied experience in frontier life. He then 
returned to Indiana and established his residence in Laporte County, 
where, in 1857, was solemnized his marriage to Miss Mary A. Benson, 
who was born on the 31st of January, 1840, a daughter of Elijah and Ann 
(Sanders) Benson, natives of Ohio, and her parents, born in North Caro- 
lina, removed from that state to Ohio in an early day, Mrs. Sherman hav- 


iug beeu boru in Greene County, that state. In 1840 Mr. Benson re- 
moved with his family to Randolph County, Indiana, where he remained 
until 1851, when he established his residence in Laporte County, where 
he reclaimed a farm in the virgin forest and became a substantial and in- 
fluential citizen, the old homestead having been near the little village of 
Durham. He and his wife passed the declining years of their lives at 
Westville, Laporte County, where Mr. Benson died at the venerable age 
of eighty-four years, his wife having been somewhat more than eighty 
years old at the time of her demise and both having been zealous mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Benson was first a whig 
and later a republican in polities. Of the children Noah died when 
young ; Elias is a substantial farmer of Laporte County ; Mrs. Sherman 
was next in order of birth; John died young; Elzabank died in early 
childhood ; Lorenzo died also in early youth ; and Minerva died at the age 
of seven years, two of the children having been victims of a cholera epi- 
demic in Randolph County, and two had died from an epidemic of 
diphtheria in Laporte County. 

After his marriage JIi-. Sherman continued his residence in Laporte 
County and there two of his children were born prior to his earnest re- 
sponse to the call of patriotism, when the Civil war was precipitated on 
the nation. Upon President Lincoln 's first call for volunteers he enlisted 
in Company I, Ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, commanded by 
Colonel Milroy. The regiment went to Virginia, and there was soon 
called upon to participate in the engagements at Greenbrier and Cheat 
Mountain. From that time onward Mr. Sherman was found with his 
command in all of the battles in which it participated during his three 
years of service, save that for two months he was confined to the hospital, 
after having received an accidental wound by the explosion from his own 
gun of a cartridge shell, a fragment of which destroyed his right eye. 
This was at the time of the Atlanta campaign, incidental to which he 
was drying and caring for shells that had been soaked in a rainstorm, 
the explosion of one of these shells causing his injury. Among the 
specially desperate battles in which Mr. Sherman took part were those 
of Shiloh and Pittsburg Landing, in the former of which he narrowly 
escaped death, as a Confederate bullet plowed through his scalp but 
failed to break his skull. He proved a faithful and valiant soldier and 
his record in the war will reflect enduring honor upon his name. In 
later years Mr. Sherman perpetuated the more gracious memories and 
associations of his military career through active afBliation with the 
Grand Army of the Republic. 

After the close of the war Mr. Sherman continued his residence in 
Laporte County until 1867, when he came to Starke County and en- 
gaged in business at Knox, as noted in a preceding paragraph of this 
sketch. During his service in the Civil war Mr. Sherman's wife, with 
all of self-abnegation and patriotic spirit, assumed the burdens that were 
thrown upon her shoulders, and with utmost devotion cared for her two 
little children, Mr. Sherman's fine physical powers having made it impos- 
sible for him to gain even a furlough in which to visit his loved ones. 


ConcerniBg the children brief record is here given: Annie E. is the 
wife of Frank Hoffman, a skilled mechanic residing at Knox, and they 
have one son, Sherman F. ; at the time of her marriage to Mr. Hoffman 
Anne E. was the widow of Dr. Sturges S. Yeley, and the one child of 
the first marriage is Capitola G., who is the wife of Grover Pemberton 
and has one daughter, Imogene E. ; Clara D., the second child, is the wife 
of Ritz L. Callahan, a prosperous farmer of Center Township, Starke 
County, and they have one son, Guy Lavan, a young man of twenty-four 
years ; a son, Adam G. W., Jr., died age twelve, and Ida M. and Charles 
G. died in infancy. Mr. Sherman was a member of the Christian Cath- 
olic Church, of Zion City, Illinois, as is also his wife. In national politics 
he gave his allegiance and support to the republican party, being non- 
partisan in local affairs. 

Edgar W. Shilling. The loyalty that this well-known citizen has 
ever shown to his native country has been fully justified, for he is now 
numbered among its most extensive landholders, has prestige as one of 
its representative agriculturists and stockgrowers, is a citizen of promi- 
nence and influence, a substantial capitalist, and a man whose character 
and achievement have gained and retained to him a host of friends in the 
county that has been his home from the time of his nativity. Though 
giving a punctilious general supervision to his various farm opei-a- 
tions, Mr. Shilling now resides at Knox, the county seat, where he is the 
owner of an attractive and modern home, on Heaton Street, and is 
known as a worthy scion of one of the honored pioneer families of 
Starke County, more detailed data concerning the family history being 
given on other pages, in the sketch of the career of Hiram H. Shilling, 
elder brother of him whose name initiates this paragrapn. 

Ou the old homestead farm, near Round Lake, in California Town- 
ship, Starke County, Edgar W. Shilling was born on the 5tli of June, 
1857, and in his native township he was reared to maturity, in the mean- 
while availing himself of the advantages of the public schools of the 
locality and period. He continued to be actively identified with agri- 
cultural pursuits in his native township until he was thirty years of 
age, when he purchased 700 acres of unimproved land in Davis Township 
and instituted the herculean task of reclaiming the same to cultivation, 
— a work for which his energy, ambition and former experience amply 
qualified him. At a cost of $1,200 he constructed proper fencing on his 
farm, and made other excellent improvements, including the erection of 
a good house, a barn 54 by 90 feet in dimensions, and the clearing of 
much of the land, which he developed into a specially productive farm, 
besides becoming there a successful grower of high-grade live stock. His 
interposition brought about within the eight years of his ownership a 
great appreciation in the value of the property, and at the expiration of 
that period he sold the same at the rate of $45 an acre, the same land 
having since been sold for $110 an acre. After disposing of this farm Mr. 
Shilling established his residence in the thriving little City of Knox, and 
his enterprise and mature .iudgment soon led him to make investments 


in farm properties in Center and Washington townships. Along the 
north bank of Yellow River he now owns a well improved farm of 170 
acres, the property lying in section 15, Center Township, and its per- 
manent improvements including a substantial and commodious house 
and a fine barn, the latter being 40 by 65 feet in lateral dimensions. 
This land is excelled in fertility and productiveness by none in the 
township, and on the place Mr. Shilling maintains excellent grades of 
live stock in addition to obtaining from the land large yields of the 
various crops best suited to the soil and climate. In sections 14, 13 
and 24, of the same township, Mr. Shilling is the owner of 174 acres, 
and the improvements on this place also are of excellent type. In 
Washington Township he is the owner of a valuable landed estate of 475 
acres, mostly improved w'ith good buildings and under a high state of 
cultivation, this farm being leased to a tenant. The area of the entire 
lauded estate of Mr. Shilling in Starke County is more than nine 
hundred acres, and he gives special attention to the raising and feed- 
ing of horses, cattle and hogs, with an average herd of more than 
one hundred head of cattle, and on his various farms the average 
number of calves raised each year is about forty, these being 
principally of the PoUed Durham breed. Mr. Shilling takes great satis- 
faction in his close identification with the agricultural and stock-grow- 
ing industries in Starke County and in all departments of his farm 
enterprise he ably and insistently maintains the highest possible stand- 
ards. He devotes nearly one hundred acres annually to the growing of 
corn, which yields an average of from fifty to sixty bushels to the acre, 
and from an average of about eighty-five acres given to the cultiva- 
tion of wheat he has received more than forty bushels to the acre in 
yield. Such are the men whose ability and progressiveness give special 
dignity and value to the fundamental industries which are the real basis 
of general prcsperity, and Mr. Shilling merits credit for his splendid 
achievement as one of the essentially representative agriculturists and 
stock-growers of the Hoosier State. As a citizen he is loyal and public- 
spirited, appreciative of the duties and responsibilities •which personal 
success imposes, and he is always ready to lend his aid in support of 
measures and enterprises advanced for the general good of the com- 
munity. He was one of the organizers of the First National Bank of 
Knox, of which he has been a director and the ^-ice president from the 
time of its incorporation. He is associated with his brother Schuyler 
in the ownership of the Citizens Bank at Culver, Marshall County, and 
is financially interested in other substantial and important business en- 
terprises. For many years the Shilling family's political faith has been 
that of the republican party, and from the same Edgar W. Shilling has 
found no reason to deflect his course, though he has been signally free 
from ambition for public office of any order. He and his wife and their 
elder son, Elmer, are affiliated with the Modem Woodmen of America, 
the family being one of prominence in the representative social activities 
of Starke County. 


In this county, in the year 1887, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. 
Shilling to Miss Flora ]\I. Spiker, who was bom in the State of West 
Virginia, on the 25th of August, 1868, and who was a child at the time 
of her parents' removal to Ohio, whence, a short time later, 1887, re- 
moval was made to Starke County, Indiana, where Mrs. Shilling was 
reared and educated. She is a daughter of William and Nancy (Har- 
desty) Spiker, both of whom maintain their home at Knox, the former 
being seventy-six years of age and the latter seventy-four years at the 
time of this writing, in the spring of 1915. Mr. Spiker, though a 
Southerner by birth, was a valiant soldier of the Union during the Civil 
war, in which he participated in many important engagements, his chief 
incidental ill luck being the receiving of a severe wound in the leg. He 
took part in the second battle of Bull Run, the battle of Antietam and 
that of Lookout Mountain, besides many other engagements marking the 
progress of the great conflict, in connection with which he had many 
narrow escapes. Prior to his retirement Mr. Spiker had Ijeen a pros- 
perous farmer of Starke County, besides which he had done much service 
as a skillful carpenter and builder. He is a republican in politics, a 
member of the Grand Anny of the Republic, and both he and his wife 
have for many years been zealous members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in which their daughter, ]\Irs. Shilling, likewise holds member- 
ship. Elmer H., the eldest of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Shilling, 
was bom March 25, 1888, and after he had completed a course in the 
high school he spent four months in foreign travel, visiting England 
and France and finding his journey's both interesting and profitable, as 
he acquired much valuable information and greatly widened his mental 
ken. He now has charge of one of his father's fine farms and is 
known as one of the alert and enterprising young agriculturists and 
stock-raisers of his native county. He wedded Miss Oakie M. Clap- 
saddle, a native of Ohio, and they have no children. Maybel L., the 
second of the children of ilr. and Mrs. Shilling, was born May 18, 1890, 
and after a course in the high school she was a popular teacher in the 
schools of Starke County. She is now the wife of Janus B. Wittrup, 
who holds a responsible position with the Goodrich Rubber Company, 
in the City of Chicago, their one child being a son, Jack. Russell W. 
Shilling was born May 25, 1893, and is a graduate in the agricultural 
department of the Purdue University, with the class of 1915. Effie 
F., who was born September 15, 1895, is a student in the department of 
domestic science in the University of Indiana. 

Frank Joseph. The fiscal affairs of Starke County liave been in- 
trusted to the administration of ilr. Joseph since 1910 and he has 
shown much discrimination and executive ability in his service as 
county treasurer, the while the popular estimate placed upon him and 
his administration is indicated by his reelection at the close of his first 
term, his second term expiring in December. 1914. He is one of the 
influential representatives in this county of the democratic party and 
was elected to office on its ticket. Aside from his official preferment 


Mr. Joseph is to be designated as one of the most substantial and pro- 
gressive agriculturists and stock growers of the county and his finely 
improved landed estate is situated in North Bend Township. 

Mr. Joseph was bom in Jennings County, Indiana, on the 20th 
of October, 1860, and is a son of David and Julia (Green) Joseph, the 
former of whom was bom in Germany and the latter in Indiana, a repre- 
sentative of a sterling pioneer family of this state. David Joseph was 
born in the year 1839, a son of John Joseph, and in 1848 his parents, 
accompanied by their five children, immigrated to the United States, 
the voyage having been made on a sailing vessel of the time common 
to trans-Atlantic navigation at that time and several weeks being con- 
sumed before the ship reached its destination. The family home was 
established on a pioneer farm in Jennings County, Indiana, and there 
the parents continued to reside on their homestead until their death, 
when well advanced in years. Both were zealous members of the Bap- 
tist Church and the father was a democrat in his political proclivities, 
this faith having continued to be that of the major number of his de- 
scendants. Of the five children three are living, one sister, Margaret, 
being a resident of Louisville, Kentucky, while another sister is a resi- 
dent of Madison, Indiana, and David, the youngest of the number, now 
being a resident of Culver, Marshall County, where he is living virtually 
retired, after many years of earnest and fruitful industry. 

David Joseph was about nine years of age at the time of the family 
immigration to America and was reared to maturity under the condi- 
tions and influences of the homestead farm in Jennings County, where 
he acquired his early education in the pioneer schools. In that county 
he wedded Miss Julia Green, who was bom in the year 1838, and there 
he continued to be engaged in farming until 1862, when he removed with 
his family to Marshall County and purchased a farm in Union 
Township. He developed one of the valuable farms of that county 
and continued to reside on the homestead until 1900, when he and 
his wife removed to the Village of Culver, where they have since re- 
sided, well preserved in physical and mental powers and held in un- 
qualified esteem in the county that has represented their home for more 
than half a century. Both are earnest members of the Reformed Church 
and Mr. Joseph is a staunch supporter of the cause of the democratic 
party. Of their children, Frank, of this review, is the eldest ; William, 
who is one of the substantial farmers of Marshall County, has been 
twice married and has one son Clyde, born of the first marriage, the 
only child of his present marriage having died when young; Elizabeth 
is the wife of John E. Osbom, a prosperous agriculturist in the State 
of North Dakota, and they have several children ; John also is num- 
bered among the successful farmers of North Dakota ; he wedded Jliss 
Amanda Yoder, of Indiana, and they became the parents of thirteen 
children, most of whom are living; Charlotta is the wife of William 
Baker, engaged in the teaming business at Knox, Starke County; and 
Frederick, who is successfully identified with the agricultural indus- 


try in JIarshall County, married iliss ]\Iaude Burkett: they became 
the parents of four children, two of whom are living. 

Frank Joseph was a child of about two years at the time of the 
family removal from his native place to Marshall County, where he 
was reared to maturity on the home farm and where he duly availed 
himself of the advantages of the public schools. After his marriage, in 
1885, he continued to be engaged in farming in Marshall County until 
1891, when he removed with his family to Starke County and purchased 
120 acres of land in section 12, North Bend Township. This is one of 
the well improved and admirably productive farms of the county and 
much of the thrift and prosperity thus evidenced represents the results 
of the energy and enterprise of Mr. Joseph. The buildings include 
an attractive and modern residence of nine rooms and with concrete 
basement, slate roof and modern appointments and facilities, while the 
substantial bank barn, 40 by 60 feet in dimensions, is one of the best 
in North Bend Township. The farm has an excellent system of tile 
under-drainage and the land is of exceptionally fertile order, with a 
soil of remarkable integrity. ]\Ir. Joseph gives special attention to the 
raising of wheat, oats, corn and clover, and on the place are kept also 
excellent grades of live stock. Mr. Joseph is known as one of the most 
progressive farmers of the county and is always alert in adopting im- 
proved machinery and other accessories for facilitating the operations 
of his fine farmstead, his general supervision of which is not hindered 
liy his incumbency of the ofifice of county treasurer. He is loyal and 
public spirited in his civic attitude, is unwavering in his allegiance to 
the democratic party, and is affiliated with Knox Lodge, No. 639, An- 
cient Free & Accepted Masons, besides which he is past master of the 
lodge at Culver, Marshall County, having been affiliated with the same 
until the time of his removal to Starke County. 

In the year 1885 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Joseph to Miss 
Louisa Hawkins, who was born in North Bend Township, this county, 
on the 6th of May, 1863. In conclusion is entered brief record con- 
cerning the children of Mr. and "Sirs. Joseph: Charles died in early 
childhood. Pearl at the age of three years and Mertie at the age of six 
years; Edna is the wife of Oscar Fry, who has the active management 
of her father's homestead farm, and they have one child, Esther; Elva 
A. is the wife of Amos E. Hatten, who is employed as a railway engineer, 
their home being at Knox, and their children being Harry and Helen ; 
Chloe, who remains at the parental home, was graduated in a business 
college in the City of South Bend, as a member of the class of 1914; 
and Dennis and Robert are attending the public schools. 

Sidney J. Childs. Starke County is signally favored in the person- 
nel of its officials at the time of this writing, and in the administration 
of the multifarious details of the office of county recorder Mr. Childs 
is proving most conclusively that the public confidence in his eligibility 
for the position was amply justified. He is now serving his second 
term of four years, his first election having been in 1908 and his second 


in 1912. He was a resident of Davis Township at tlie time lie was 
called upon to assume this important and exacting county office and 
he is there the owner of one of the finely improved farms of this section 
of the state. 

Mr. Childs claims the old Buckeye State as the place of his nativity 
and in both the paternal and maternal lines is a scion of families that 
were founded in America in the colonial era, the genealogy of each trac- 
ing back to sterling English origin. Mr. Childs was born in Erie County, 
Ohio, on the 8th of February, 1860, and in that section of the state 
he was reared and educated, there continuing his residence, latterly in 
Huron County, until he had attained to the age of twenty-six years, 
when he came to Starke County, Indiana, and became one of the ener- 
getic farmers of Davis Township, where his industry and well ordered 
efforts gained to him success worthy the name. From 1895 to 1901 
he served as township assessor, and hLs ability and civic loyalty, as 
combined with his invincible integrity of pui-pose, marked him as spe- 
cially eligible for higher official preferment, the result being his election 
to the position of county recorder in the autumn of 1908. He was re- 
elected in 1912 and in November, 1914, again appeared as the republican 
candidate for the office, with a resultant victory at the polls, so that 
he will have three consecutive terms of service. Mr. Childs is well 
known to the citizens of Starke County and his circle of friends is 
virtually coincident with that of his acquaintances. He is a staunch 
suppoi'ter of the cause of the republican party and has been one of its 
zealous workers in Starke County. He is affiliated with the lodge of 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the Village of Hamlet, near 
which his farm is situated, and he is affiliated also with the Loyal Order 
of Moose, at Knox, and with the Knights of the Modern Maccabees, in 
which he is a members of the tent at Hamlet. His wife and daughters 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church and are popular fac- 
tors in the social activities of Knox, the county seat, where the family 
home has been maintained since Mr. Childs assumed his present office. 

In the year 1889 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Childs to Miss 
Mary R. Hall, who was born in Whitley County, this state, but the 
major part of whose life thus far has been passed in Starke County, 
the date of her nativity having been February 17, 1860. Mr. and Mrs. 
Childs have three children, all of whom remain at the parental home: 
Grace V., who was born August 14, 1890, made good use of the advan- 
tages of the public schools and later attained skill as a typewriter 
operator, with the result that she has proved her father 's efficient assist- 
ant in the office of county recorder, her devotion to her duties being 
such that she has taken but few holidays during her incumbency of 
her position in this county office ; Gladys A., who was born July 7, 1892, 
acquired her early education in the schools of Davis Township, and in 
1913 was graduated in the Brown Business College, at Valparaiso, her 
proficiency having gained to her her present position as a clerk in the 
Farmers' State Bank of Kuox; Blanche J., who was born August 24, 
1893, received the advantages of the high school at Knox and the busi- 


ness department of Valparaiso University, and she is now engaged as 
stenographer in the law offices of Oscar B. Smith, a prominent attorney 
of Knox. 

]Mr. Chikls is a son of Horace J. and Elizabeth (Johnson) Childs, 
both natives of the State of New York. Horace J. Childs is a sou of 
Horace J. Childs, who served as a valiant soldier in the War of 1812, 
in which he took part in the Canadian campaign and was wounded 
in action. Thereafter he was a farmer in the old Empire State until 
his removal to Ohio, where he followed the same basic vocation for a 
number of years, having been a pioneer settler of the Buckeye Com- 
monwealth, and his death occurred while he was visiting kinsfolk in 
Indiana. He passed away on the 4th of July, 1840, and his remains 
were interred at Crown Point, Lake County, as were also those of 
his widow, who survived him by several years. Horace J. Childs and 
his wife continued their residence in Ohio until after the birth of all 
of their children, — seven sous and three daughters, and he is now living 
retired in the Village of Hamlet, Stai*ke County, after having devoted 
his entire active career to agricultural pursuits, of which he was a 
successful exponent both in Ohio and Indiana. He celebrated his 
eighty-sixth birthday anniversary on the 19th of June, 1914, his cher- 
ished and devoted wife having been summoned to eternal rest in April, 
1910. He has ever been a stalwart supporter of the principles of the 
republican party and is a member of the Universalist Church, as was 
also his wife. Mrs. Elizabeth (Johnson) Childs was a daughter of 
Sidney and Mary (Hughes) Johnson, who removed from the State of 
New York to Ohio in an early day and who continued to reside in the 
latter state until their death, when venerable in years. Of the children 
of Horace J. and Elizabeth Childs five sons and three daughters are living, 
and all are married and well established in life. One of the two 
deceased children, both sons, w^as Simeon, who was a twin of Sidney J. 
of this sketch and who was fifteen years of age at the time of his death. 
The other twins of the family were Heman W. and Horace J., Jr., 
liotli of whom are living. 

John W. Long. In every community will be found a quota of men of 
distinctive initiative and constructive ability and their influence is ever 
potent in the furtherance of civic and material progress. Starke County 
lias such a citizen in the person of Mr. Long, who is known as one of the 
representative business men and influential citizens of the county, where 
his capitalistic interests are varied and important. At Knox, the thriving 
county seat, he is engaged in the lumber business; he is the owner of 
several hundred acres of valuable farming land in the county and has 
lieen successful in the purchase and sale of several hundred acres aside 
from his present holdings, and more recently he has been a potent 
force in the development of a large brick manufactory near North 
Judson, this county, this being destined to prove one of the leading 
industrial enterprises of its kind in this part of the state. 


The prosperous and representative lumber business now owned by 
Mr. Long was established many years ago, by William Bollman, who was 
the controlling principal of the enterprise for a long period. For two 
years the business was conducted under the firm name of R. Close & 
Company, but Mr. Bollman then resumed control, to continue as the 
owner of the business until 1902, when Mr. Long purchased the same. 
The present proprietor has admirably upheld the high reputation that 
has ever attached to the enterprise and he conducted the business in an 
individual way until March, 1912, when he sold a half interest to Albert 
H. Thompson, of Francesville, Pulaski County, with whom he has since 
been associated under the firm name of Long & Thompson. The firm has 
a large and well equipped plant and controls an extensive business in 
the handling of all kinds of building material, including paints, lime and 
cement, besides which they also make a specialty of handling coal. The 
trade extends into all parts of the county and the plant includes sub- 
stantial buildings and sheds adequate to meet all demands. 

Mr. Long takes a due measure of pride and satisfaction in reverting 
to Indiana as the place of his nativity. He was bom in Cass County, this 
state, on the 10th of April, 1855, and he is a scion of sterling pioneer 
families of that county, where both his paternal and maternal grand- 
parents settled in an early day. Mr. Long is a son of John H. and Helen 
(Palmer) Long, the former of whom was bom in Pennsylvania, of Ger- 
man lineage, and the latter of whom was bom in Virginia, a representative 
of Scotch-Irish ancestry. The parents were young at the time of the re- 
moval of the respective families to Cass County, Indiana, and there their 
marriage was solemnized. Christian Long, grandfather of him whose 
name initiates this article, was one of the first settlers in Cass County, 
which now opulent section of the state was little more than a forest wil- 
derness at the time he there established his. home and in.stituted the task 
of reclaiming a farm. He became one of the successful pioneer farmers of 
the county and his kindliness and consideration gained to him the lasting 
friendship of the Indians, many of whom still wandered through that 
section. He erected log cabins for a number of Indian families and 
when he settled in the county his nearest white neighbor resided five 
miles distant from his humble log house. Christian Long became one of 
the influential pioneer citizens of Cass County and both he and his wife 
continued to reside on their old homestead farm until their death, when 
well advanced in years. They were primarily instrumental in the organi- 
zation of the first Presbyterian Church in their township, and the modest 
little edifice of the pioneer congregation was erected on the farm of their 
son, John H., this continuing for many years as the family place of 
worship. Christian Long obtained his land from the Government, played 
well his part in the development and progress of Cass County, and his 
name merits enduring place on the roster of the honored pioneers of 

After his marriage John H. Long began his independent career on a 
farm adjoining his father's homestead, and he became also a skilled work- 
man as a carpenter and cabinetmaker. He personally supervised the 


building of the little church edifice previously mentioned, and he per- 
sonally sawed nearly all of the lumber utilized for the building, much of 
it being taken from fine black walnut trees that were then abundant in 
that locality. He also manufactured by hand many of the coffins used in 
that county in the pioneer days, measurements for these "narrow houses 
for the long home" having been taken after persons had paid the final 
debt of mortal nature. Mr. Long continued to give attention to the man- 
agement of his farm until he was about fifty-six years of age, when he 
opened a general country store at Big Indian, a little cross-roads settle- 
ment in Cass County, and there he conducted a successful business mitil 
his death, at the age of seventy-five years. He was born about 1812 
and his death oceuri-ed fuUy a quarter of a century ago, his wife having 
passed to the life eteraal in 1856, when about forty years of age, and 
both having been zealous and devout members ofthe Presbyterian Church, 
with a faith that made them true and faithful in all of the relations of 
life. John H. Long never wavered in his allegiance to the democratic 
party and was called upon to serve in various offices of local trust, in- 
cluding that of trustee of Harrison Township, a position of which he was 
the incumbent for twelve years. 

John W. Long, whose name introduces this review, was reared to 
manhood in Cass County, where he early gained fellowship with honest 
toil and endeavor and where his educational advantages were those af- 
forded in the common schools of the period. At the age of nineteen years 
he became identified with the lumber business, and during the long inter- 
vening years he has not severed his connection therewith, the while he has 
achieved marked success in this field of enterprise. He is familiar with 
all branches and details of the business and prior to coming to Starke 
County he was actively concerned with the business in Cass and Fulton 
counties, in the latter of which he operated a planing mill for seventeen 
years, at Kewanna, where also he owned and conducted a grain elevator 
for two years. He has maintained his beautiful and modern residence on 
Main Street, Knox, Starke County, since 1907, and is one of the progress- 
ive and representative business men and honored citizens of the county, 
where his character and achievement have given him inviolable place in 
popular confidence and esteem. He has recently become associated with 
others in the development of a noteworthy entei*prise in this county, that 
of manufacturing brick from the excellent sands found in the vicinity of 
North Judson, millions of tons being available for the purpose. The 
extensive plant will manufacture in large quantities a purely sand brick 
of superior quality, the same being of vitrified order and possible of pro- 
duction in many delicate gray tones, the brick being perfectly smooth and 
having met with the highest commendation on the part of architects and 
builders. As before stated, Jlr. Long is the owner of valuable farm prop- 
erty in Starke County and has shown marked discrimination and good 
judgment in his various investments, from all of which he has received 
excellent returns. 

In politics Mr. Long has designated himself an independent democrat, 
with firm belief in the basic principles of the party but with no partisan 


bias in matters of local order, where no general political issi;es are in- 
volved. He has been a member of the town board of Knox since 1908 ; 
both he and his wife hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal Church 
and he is affiliated with Knox Lodge, No. 639, Free and Accepted Masons, 
having previously been affiliated with the lodge at Kewanna, Fulton 
County, and having served as treasurer of the same. He is a member of 
but not now in active affiliation with the Knights of Pythias. In addition 
to his lumber business Mr. Long is vice president of the Farmei-s ' State 
Bank of Knox and president of the Long Vitrified Brick Company, of 
which mention has been made and which was organized in 1906. 

At Kewanna, Fulton County, November 24, 1889, was solemnized the 
marriage of Mr. Long to Miss Georgia M. Shaffer, who was born in that 
county in 1865 and who was there reared and educated. She is a daugh- 
ter of Uriah and Helen (Norris) Shaffer, who settled in Fulton County 
many years ago and who later removed to the City of Logansport, Cass 
County, where Mr. Shaffer was elected mayor and gave a most effective 
administration. He later returned to Kewanna, where his wife died in 
1912, when about sixty-five years of age, and he later came to live in the 
home of his daughter, Mrs. Long, where he died, Januai-y 12, 1915, aged 
seventy-eight years six months and five days. He had always been a 
stalwart republican, and was an earnest member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, as was also his wife. Mr. and ]Mrs. Long have one child, 
Helen Adaline, born February 12, 1892. She graduated from the Knox 
High School and also from Tudor Hall, Indianapolis, and is a young 
woman of many accomplishments. 

Charles H. Peters. The ambition and determined purpose that 
enabled Mr. Peters to overcome adverse conditions and by his own efforts 
prepare himsef for an exacting profession, gave definite augury for 
success in the active practice of that profession, and his high standing 
at the bar of Starke County shows that he has utilized his powers most 
effectively and that his character and achievements have given him 
secure place in popular confidence and esteem. At Knox, the county 
seat, he has been engaged in the active general practice of law since 
1896, with a record of identification with many important cases tried 
in the various courts of this part of the state, besides which he has 
presented a number of causes before the Supreme Court of Indiana, in 
which he has been eligible for practice since February 8, 1901. As a 
loyal and public-spirited citizen and representative lawj'er of Starke 
County he is entitled to definite recognition in this history. 

Charles Hamilton Peters takes due pride in reverting to the historic 
Old Dominion as the place of his nativity aud he is a scion of the pa- 
trician old families of that commonwealth. He was born in Rockingham 
County, Virginia, on the 8th of October, 1861, and thus appeared on 
the stage of life at the time when the nation had entered into the 
great civil conflict which brought so great a burden of disaster and 
sorrow to the fair Southland. At his native Town of Harrisonburg, 
judicial center of Rockingham County, the opposing military forces 


came into conflict in the spring after his birth, and there also engage- 
ments occurred in June, 1864, and March, 1865, so that in more senses 
than one this able Indiana lawyer was bom on historic ground. 

Mr. Peters is a son of Robert J. D. and Mary J. (Kettell) Peters, 
both of whom were born in Virginia in the early '30s, five brothers of 
ilrs. Peters having been gallant soldiers of the Confederacy in the 
Civil war, in which one or more became commissioned officers and in 
which certain of them sacrificed their lives. Dr. Robert J. D. Peters 
was a son of John Peters, and the maiden name of his mother was 
Drury, she having been a representative of the prominent Virginia fam- 
ily in whose honor Drury s Bluff w-as named, both she and her husband 
having passed their entire lives in the Old Dominion State. John Peters 
was a substantial planter and slaveholder in the ante-bellum days and 
served with distinction in the War of 1812, in the command of Gen. 
Winfield Scott. He participated in the historic battle of Lundy's Lane 
and carried to the end of his life the minie ball which wounded him at 
the time of that engagement. Representatives of the Peters family 
were also found enrolled as patriot soldiers of the Continental Line in 
the war of the Revolution. 

The ravages of the Civil war in its earlier period brought great 
financial and property loss to Dr. Robert J. D. Peters, and in 1863 he 
left his native state and came with his family to the North, his sym- 
pathies having been wdth the cause of the Union and this having re- 
sulted in his becoming to a large extent persona non grata in the ances- 
tral commonwealth. He established his residence in Pickaway County, 
Ohio, whence he later removed to Fairfield County. Finally he came 
with his family to Indiana and established his home in Pulaski County. 
In his home state he had thoroughly fortified himself for the work of 
his chosen profession, and virtually his entire active career was de- 
voted to the successful practice of medicine and surgery. He passed 
the closing period of his life in Miami County, Indiana, where he died 
in 1894, at the age of sixty-seven years — a man of fine intellectual and 
professional attainments and one whose gentle and noble personality, 
exponent of the best of the old Southern regime, gained to him the high 
regard of all with whom he came in contact. His devoted wife, a woman 
of gi-acious refinement, passed to the life eternal on the 13th of January, 
1883, having been a devout member of the United Brethren Church 
and her husband having been a staunch republican after removing to 
the North. They are survived by sons and daughters, some older and 
some younger than he to whom this sketch is dedicated. 

Charles H. Peters passed the days of his boyhood and youth partly 
in Ohio and Indiana but was reared to maturity in Indiana, within 
whose gracious borders he has since continued to maintain his home. 
He was afforded the advantages of the public schools of Pulaski County 
and prior to following along the line of his ambitious pmi^ose to be- 
come a lawyer, he had served seven years as deputy county clerk of 
that county. His financial resources were Irat nominal and he realized 
that upon his own efforts must he depend in acquiring his professional 


educatiou. He showed his mastery of expedients under these conditions 
by going to the City of Chicago, where he took a special course of 
study in one of the leading law schools, in which he attended the night 
classes, his days being devoted to such occupation as would provide 
for his maintenance and incidental expenses. Though he was not able 
to complete a regular law course in a college, his ambition and close 
application overcame this seeming handicap, and he has become known 
for his broad and accurate knowledge of the science of jurisprudence, 
as well as for his facility in applying the same in his active practice 
as an attorney and counselor. 

In 1896 Mr. Petei-s was admitted to practice in the lower courts of 
Indiana and he forthwith opened an office at Knox, which thriving 
little city has since been his professional headquarters and place of resi- 
dence, though his law business has extended beyond the limitations of 
Starke County and has included since 1901 his appearance as a practi- 
tioner before the Supreme Court of the state, besides being eligible also 
for practice in the various Federal courts in Indiana. He is a strong 
and versatile trial lawyer and has appeared in many important cases 
in the courts of Starke and adjoining counties. As attorney for the 
defense he won, in the Supreme Court of Indiana, a decisive victory in 
the case of the First National Bank of Peoria, Illinois, versus the First 
National Bank of Wabash, Indiana, this having to do with an attach- 
ment interest of $160,000 and involving property consisting of 3,500 
acres of land. Mr. Peters appeared for the plaintiff in the case of 
Hayes versus Martz, in Noble County, and after protracted litigation, 
carried through the various courts and finally to the Supreme Court, 
won a victory for his client, the case having attracted much attention 
in Northern Indiana. These are but two of the many important causes 
in which Mr. Peters has appeared, and he has achieved success that 
is consonant with his earnest application and well recognized pro- 
fessional ability. 

Mr. Peters is found aligned as a staunch supporter and effective ad- 
vocate of the cause of the democratic party, and he served one term 
as county attorney of Starke County, with an admirable record. He is 
a member of the Masonic fraternity and is affiliated with the chapter 
and council thereof at North Judson, Indiana, also a thirty-second degree 
Mason and a member of the Scottish Rite body of Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
and with the Blue Lodge of Masons, known as Lodge No. 629, at Knox, 
Indiana. He is a member of the commandery of Knights Templars 
at Plymouth, Marshall County, and in the City of Hammond he is 
affiliated with Orak Temple, Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the 
Mystic Shrine. At Knox he holds membership in Yellow River Lodge, 
No. 631, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and in this fraternity he 
is serving as deputy grand master of the grand lodge of the state. 

On the 9th day of April, in 1882, at Winamac, Pulaski County, was 
solemnized the marriage of Mr. Peters to Miss Addie Dukes, daughter 
of the late James R. Dukes, who was a prominent banker and influential 
citizen of that county, a native of the State of Pennsylvania, and a 


non-commissioned officer in the Civil war, his death having occurred 
at Winamac in 1910. Mr. and Mrs. Peters have one son, Glenn Dukes 
Peters, who was graduated in the University of Indiana and later in 
the law school of the great University of Chicago. He was for a time 
associated in practice with his father and he is now one of the prominent 
young attorneys in the City of Hammond, this state, where he is re- 
tained by a number of important corporations. He wedded Miss Grace 
Baerd, of New Albany, Indiana, January 25, 1913. 

Capt. Charles Windisch, who is one of the representative busi- 
ness men of Knox, has been a resident of Starke County from his 
boyhood days, his parents having here established their home fully 
thirty-five years ago. It was his honor to represent this county 
and state as a soldier and officer in the Spanish-American war, even 
as his father had served in the Civil war, and as a citizen and man of 
affairs he has manifested the same intrinsic loyalty that prompted 
his enlistment at the inception of the Spanish war. The captain owns 
and conducts an admirably equipped grocery and meat market at Knox, 
his establislunent being eligibly located on Main Street, and his sub- 
stantial and representative patronage indicating alike the efficiency of 
the service given and his personal popularity in the community. 

Capt. Charles Windisch claims the old Buckeye State as the place 
of his nativity, though he has been a resident of Indiana since his boy- 
hood. He was born at Nevada, Wyandot County, Ohio, on the 15th of 
April, 1872, was an infant at the time of the family removal to Crest- 
line, Crawford County, that state, and was six and one-half years old 
when his parents came to Starke County, Indiana, and established their 
home on a farm in Center Town.ship, in 1878. The Captain is a son of 
William and Rosa (Weibel) Windisch, both natives of Germany, whence 
the latter came with her parents to America when she was a girl of four- 
teen yeai"s, her father, Joseph Weibel, having established a home in 
the City of Philadelphia, where later was solemnized her marriage to 
William Windisch, who was reared and educated in his native land, 
where he learned the trade of cabinetmaker. William Windisch came 
to the United States as a youth of eighteen years, was self-reliant and 
ambitious and determined to achieve for himself success and inde- 
pendence in the land of his adoption. After his marriage he contin- 
ued his residence in Philadelphia until after the birth of three of his 
children and he then removed with his family to Ohio and established 
his residence at Nevada, Wyandot County. There he engaged in the 
work of his trade and eventually built up a prosperous business as a 
dealer in furniture, with which line of enterprise he was later iden- 
tified at Crestline, that state. In 1878 he came with his family to 
Starke County, Indiana, and purchased a farm in Center Township, 
w-here he continued to be identified with agricultural pursuits for 
several years and won distinctive success through his industry and good 
management. He finally removed to Knox, the county seat, and here 
he died in 1910, at the venerable age of eighty-two years, — a man of 


sterling character and a citizen who commanded unqualified esteem. 
His widow passed to the life eternal in 1913, at the age of eighty years, 
both having been zealous communicants of the German Lutheran 
Church and his political allegiance having been given to the republican 

While a resident of Nevada, Ohio, William Wiudisch signalized his 
loyalty to the land of his adoption by tendering his aid in defense of 
the Union, soon after the outbreak of the Civil war. He enlisted in the 
Thirty-fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, with which he served eighteen 
months and took part in a number of engagements. He was captured 
in one of the battles in which he took part and was held for some time 
in Andersonville Prison, his exchange finally being eft'ected. He 
received his honorable discharge at the close of his term of enlistment 
and in later years was affiliated with the Grand Army of the Republic. 
Of the three sons and four daughters Captain Wiudisch of this review 
is the youngest, and all of the other children are still living, all having 
married and reared children with one exception and five of the number 
being still residents of Starke County. 

Captain Wiudisch was reared to maturity in Starke County, where 
he acquired due discipline in connection with the work of the home 
farm and availed himself of the advantages of the public schools. He 
finally became a member of Company H, Third Regiment of the Indi- 
ana National Guard, and was made second lieutenant of his company 
at the time of its organization, art Knox. Two years later he was chosen 
its captain, and upon the inception of the Spanish-American war his 
company and regiment promptly tendered service in the country 's cause. 
In 1898 his command was mustered into the United States service, as 
Company A, One Hundred and Fifty-seventh Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, this having been the only company to enlist from Starke 
County, and Captain Wiudisch having been mustered in as captain of 
his company, in the spring of 1898. The regiment proceeded to a 
reserve camp in the State of Florida and was assigned to the command 
of General Shafter. As the war progressed the regiment was embarked 
on a transport for the purpose of going to the stage of active military 
conflict in Cuba, but the vessel became disabled in Tampa harbor and 
the troops were unable to find transportation to Cuba until after the 
close of the war. After a service of six months the members of Captain 
Windiseh's company received honorable discharge, afteV having shown 
excellent military spirit and discipline in the reserve camp and mani- 
festing regret that they could not have been at the front. Captain 
Windisch is in active affiliation with the Spanish-American War Vet- 
erans' Association but is not identified with the Indiana National Guard 
except as a reserve. 

After the close of his military service Captain Windisch returned 
to Starke County and in 1899 he formed a partnership with AV. J. 
Wilhelm and opened a grocery and meat-market at Knox. Later he 
purchased his partner's interest and thereafter he was associated 
in partnership with Hugh E. Kreuter, until 1902, when he became 


the sole owner of the business, which he has since conducted with 
mai'ked success, Mr. Kreuter being now engaged in the hardware busi- 
ness in the City of Knox. 

As a citizen and business man Captain Windisch is essentially 
progressive and loyal and he has a wide circle of friends in the county 
that has represented his home during virtually his entire life thus far. 
He is a staunch supporter of the cause of the i-epublican party and 
both he and his wife are communicants of the German Lutheran Church, 
in the faith of which they were reared. 

In 1902 was solemnized the marriage of Captain Windisch to Miss 
Tena Kiieh, who was born in Illinois, in March, 1880, and who was 
reared and educated at Blue Island, that state. The one child of this 
union is Frances E., who was born December 27, 1912. 

John W. Horner. One of the native sons of Starke County who 
has realized that within its borders are offered opportunities for suc- 
cessful enterprise along many lines of legitimate business is the well- 
known and popular citizen whose name initiates this paragraph and 
who is established in the hardware and implement business at Knox, 
the county seat. He is one of the progressive and representative busi- 
ness men of this thriving little city and that he has not been denied 
the fullest measure of popular confidence and esteem is indicated by 
the fact that he has served as trustee of Center Township and that 
his circle of friends is limited only by that of his acquaintances. 

Mr. Horner was born on the old family homestead farm, in Wash- 
ington Township, this county, and the date of his nativity was May 27, 
1870. He is a son of Amos and Eliza Horner, both natives of Pennsyl- 
vania and scions of fine old Pennsylvania German stock. The mar- 
riage of the parents was solemnized near Johnstown, Pennsylvania, 
and shortly after this important event in their lives they came to Starke 
County, Indiana, where Amos Horner purchased a tract of land in 
Washington Township. He reclaimed this wild land to cultivation and 
continued to be numbered among the substantial farmers of the county 
until his death, in 1876, at which time he was in the very prime of his 
sterling manhood. His widow later became the wife of Orrin Hum- 
phreys, who likewise is deceased, and Mrs. Humphreys, now sixty-one 
years of age, resides in Knox, where she has the supervision of the 
pleasant home provided by her bachelor son, John W., of this review, 
who finds the domestic relations most grateful and who accords to his 
mother the utmost filial solicitude. Both mother and son are members 
of the Christian Church. No children were born of the second mar- 
riage and John W. Horner is the youngest of the three children of the 
first marriage. Elmer, who likewise maintains his home at Knox, mar- 
ried Miss Ida Cooper and they have three children, Grace, Irvin and 
Ruth; Catherine is the wife of Daniel S. Nave, of Knox; they have 
no children. 

The public schools of Starke County afforded to John W. Horner 
his early educational advantages and he continued to be a successful 


exponent of the agricultural industry in Center Township until 1908, 
when he removed to Knox and became associated with Hugh Kreuter 
in the hardware and farming implement business. They purchased the 
stock and business of the firm of Bacon & Son, the enterprise having 
been founded in 1898 by J. A. Byers, who is now deceased. The estab- 
lishment of the firm is specially well equipped in all departments, the 
stock including heavy and shelf hardware, stoves, ranges, building sup- 
plies, farm implements and machinery, wagons, buggies, carriages, har- 
ness, etc. The general hardware department is now in charge of W. 
C. Borgman, who has more recently become associated with the pros- 
perous enterprise, which is one of the most extensive and important of 
its kind in the county. The firm has an extensive and representative 
trade throughout the fine section of country normally tributary to 
Knox, and the interested principals are alert and progressive business 
men who command unequivocal confidence and esteem. 

Mr. Horner is inflexible in his allegiance to the republican p;irty 
and as candidate on its ticket he was elected trustee of Center Town- 
ship, an ofSce of which he continued the incumbent for a term of four 
years and in which he made an admirable record for effective service 
in behalf of the township and county. In a fraternal way Mr. Horner 
is affiliated with Knox Lodge, No. 296, Knights of Pythias. 

HiR.\M G. Shilling. There is no small number of high-grade, pros- 
perous farms in Starke County, places which for many years have been 
paying generous revenues to their owners. But this is not saying that all 
such farms are keyed up to the highest degree of productiveness and 
profit. Even a poorly managed farm will often pay a profit, but only 
the best will show such annual returns as a well conducted store or factory. 
To see farming at its best — scientific and practical management, maxi- 
mum per acre yield, and annual profits without impoverishment of the 
soil — probably the best exhibit in the entire county is the Shilling Farm 
on section 20 of Center Township. Mr. Shilling is one of the most 
practical and scientific farmers in the state, and has on many occasions 
shown a progressiveness that has proved stimulating as an . example 
to the community. He has the distinction of being the first man in 
Starke County to ship out a carload of com. He also purchased for 
use on his farm the first manure spreader, and also the first tile ditching 
machine used in the county. He is not only a raiser of the staple crops 
and of much fine stock, but has a reputation as a horticulturist, and has 
a splendid orchard of apple, peach and cherry trees, there being about 
three or four hundred bearing fruit" trees in his orchard. There is no 
better land in the state for melon growing than is found on his place, 
and he has won many prizes on his exhibits of melons, fruit and other 
farm products. 

Mr. Shilling represents one of the pioneer families of Starke County, 
and he himself was born on a farm in California Township, Starke 
County, September 22, 1856. His parents were William F. and Lovina 
(Gesaman) Shilling. The parents were natives of Stark County, Ohio, 


where they grew up and were married, and soon after their wedding came 
west, by way of the Wabash and Erie Canal as far as Logansport, and 
thence by wagon and team to Starke County, locating in California 
Township. William F. Shilling was accompanied by his father, Samuel, 
who had lost his wife in Ohio. They entered adjoining tracts of land 
in California Township. That was in the early '50s, when development 
had hardly begun in the county. Nearly the entire country w^as un- 
settled ; it was marked by few homes and improvements of civilized men 
but the prairies and marshes supported abundance of wild game and fish 
in the streams, while many of the early settlei-s also depended upon the 
wild fruits as part of their table fare. The Shilling family went through 
all the experiences of pioneers, lived in log cabin lionics, and the school 
attended by their children was a log house, with piuicheon floors, split 
log benches, and other primitive paraphernalia of the early temples of 
learning. It was in a school not greatly advanced beyond that stage 
that Hiram G. Shilling acquired his early training. Grandfather 
Samuel Shilling died in Starke County when about eighty years of age. 
William F. Shilling and wife lived and labored and improved a farm, 
built a good home, and were people of thrift, industry and exercised 
a good moral influence in their community. William F. Shilling died 
in 1885, when about fifty-four years of age. About eight years before 
his death he had suffered a stroke of paralysis, but, being a man of 
great energy and pluck, refused to remain quiet and rode about his 
fai-m looking after details. He was one of the strong men to whom 
the later generations in Starke County owe a great deal. In polities 
he was a strong republican and with his wife was active in the United 
Brethren Church. His widow survived him twenty-six or twenty-seven 
years, and died at Knox at the home of a daughter when aged eighty- 
four years and five months. An excellent example of the pioneer 
noblewoman, she had for many years performed the various duties of 
home and household, and was almost constantly engaged in serving and 
working kindness to her family and neighbors. There were five children : 
Hiram G. ; Edgar, who is a prosperous farmer of Center Township and 
lives in Knox, and has four children, all of whom have finished their 
education ; Sarah, who is the wife of Reuben Coffin, a farmer of Knox, 
and they have four sons and three daughters; Schuyler A., president 
of the Culver State Bank in jMarshall County, is married and has one 
son and four daughters; Malinda is the wife of Dr. Dorr Collier, a 
physician at Brook, Indiana, and their family consists of two daughters 
and one son. 

Hiram G. Shilling grew up on the old homestead in California Town- 
ship, lived there until twenty-six years of age, and in the meantime had 
enjoyed the advantages not only of the home schools but had been well 
trained for his future career of usefulness as a farmer. He and William 
B. Sinclair were the first Starke County boys appointed to scholarships 
in Purdue University, but owing to his father's ill health he was unable 
to pursue the advantage. On leaving home he moved to Center Town- 
ship and in 18S4 bought forty acres of land. That was the nucleus 


around which his enterprise has steadily worked, and since then has 
accumulated the present splendid estate under his proprietorship. His 
farm now comprises 460 acres of land, most of it in section 21, and nearly 
the entire acreage is thoroughly improved, drained, tiled, fenced, and 
there is very little waste land on the Shilling Farm. Mr. Shilling 
grows all kinds of grain, corn, wheat, oats, has the hest exhibit of 
alfalfa in the county, and has found that a profitable crop, and also 
has fields of clover, timothy, potatoes, melons and other staples of 
Indiana farms. In looking over the county at large there would probably 
not be found a better barn anywhere than Mr. Shilling's. It stands on 
a foundation 50x100 feet, the foundation being concrete, and it is 
thoroughly equipped for stock and grain. Adjoining it are two large 
silos, each with a capacity of 130 tons, and there are a number of sheds 
and other buildings which serve the purposes of a large and well man- 
aged fai-m. 

Mr. Shilling was married near Knox to Miss Alice Prettyman on 
December 14, 1880. Mrs. Shilling was born July 24, 1861, in Wash- 
ington Township, . Starke Coiuity, a daughter of J. Burton and IMary 
(Boots) Prettyman, who now live in Knox. ilrs. Shilling received 
her education in the public schools of Indiana and Illinois, and prior 
to her marriage was a successful and popular teacher. Mrs. Shilling 
comes of an old English family, and it will be proper to record some 
of the incidents in the early settlement. The founder of the family 
on this side of the Atlantic was George Prettyman, who, with his wife, 
came over from England with Lord Delaware and located on the coast 
of Delaware, at that time a wild and unbroken wilderness. He received 
a graut from King George III for a tract sixteen miles square along the 
coast. This grant was written on parchment and signed by the right 
honorable secretary of the king. The old parchment deed went down 
through several generations of the family, and when last known was in 
the possession of Joseph Prett.yman, an uncle of I\Irs. Shilling. Several 
members of the family were named George in honor of the king, though 
that name lost its popularity after the revolution. The Joseph Prettjonan 
just mentioned had an uncle, Zachariah, who served in the Revolutionary 
war and was with the colonial forces for about seven years. He took 
part in the disastrous battle at Long Island early in the war and was 
with a detachment of the American forces that were sent up the island 
and consequently cut off from the main body when Washington withdrew 
his troops under the cover of night to the mainland. He and his com- 
rades fought their way back and suffered greatly from hunger and thirst. 
It is related that while he stopped to get a drink of water at a well the 
bucket from which he was drinking was pierced with nine musket balls. 
He and some of his comrades finally reached safety. Joseph Prettyman 's 
father was old enough to serve in the War of 1812, and leaving home 
joined the American troops at Lewistown, sixteen miles from the old 
home. That place was besieged by a large number of British battleships 
and a large force of troops, but the Yankees drove back the soldiers when 
they attempted a landing and also blew up one of the English ves.sels. 


The father of Joseph Prettyman died on a part of the old family grant 
in Delaware. 

4 Mr. Shilling and wife are the parents of a fine family of children: 
EfBe, died in infancy; William, lives at home; Maude, who is the 
wife of Hal Jones of Benton Harbor, Michigan, has a daughter, 
Virginia L. ; Edith, who died aged twenty-seven on August 20, 1914, 
was the wife of George F. Brand, a dentist at Knox, and she left a son, 
John, bom in December, 1910, Benjamin, who lives at home; Emery, 
who died January 1, 1896, aged three years; Columbus, who finished 
school with the class of 1913; Bert, who is in the class of 1915 in the 
township liigh school ; and Grace V., born August 19, 1901, and a student 
in the Center Township High School. The son, William, has long been 
one of the mainstays of his father and mother in the management of 
the farm and has been a helper in its development from the swamps 
and wilderness. On accoimt of his duties at home he was able to 
complete only two terms of the Knox High School, and each evening 
after school hours hurried home on horseback in order to accomplish a 
large amo\mt of chores. While attending school he fed and otherwise 
looked after fifty head of hogs which he marketed in Chicago. He finally 
gave up schooling with much regret, and is now one of the practical and 
progressive young farmers of his county. He owns and operates a 
traction ditching machine, which has excavated for many miles of tile 
drainage on the Shilling Farm and at other places in the county. He 
was the nominee for clerk of the court on the progressive ticket in 1914. 
The son, Benjamin, who is also at home, continued in school until near 
the close of his second year at high school, when, owing to a serious 
accident which befell his father he left school in order to assist his 
brother William on the farm. He took charge of the dairy, and for 
several years managed the herd of about thirty cows. On account of 
the accident and subsequent illness of the father the two daughters, 
]\Iaude and Edith, also abandoned their schooling. Maude was at that 
time a student of music in Chicago and Edith was studying voice culture 
in Joliet. The son Benjamin is the practical machinist of the family. 
The son Columbus while growing up on the farm also had his special 
duties, and for several years looked after his father's herd of sheep. 
He graduated from the Knox High School well up in his class and was 
class treasurer and secretary and did successful work as a debater. He 
has made considerable success as a salesman for the International Dic- 
tionary, and is the youngest man on the sales force of his firm and now 
has a territory comprising half the State of Indiana. The son Bert, 
who is a member of the senior class of the Center Township High School, 
is president of the Debating Society and of the baseball team, and also 
manifests strong traits as a machinist and as a book lover and student. 

Mr. Shilling and family are members of the Christian Church, and in 
politics he is an independent republican. 

C. Elmer Tubsburg. Tlie marvelous development which has trans- 
formed various sections of Illinois and Indiana from worthless, unpro- 


ductive property into veritable garden spots of productiveness, has been 
brought about by men whose foresight has led them to recognize possi- 
bilities and whose ability has enabled them to make these possibilities 
certainties. Nowhere in the great agricultural section of the Central West 
has the value of this improvement been better exemplified than in Starke 
County, Indiana, and probably no name in this line of endeavor is better 
known or more worthy of praise than that of Tuesburg. To the efforts 
of several men bearing this name is due the credit for the reclamation of 
vast areas of formerly useless land; theirs have been the labors mainly 
instrumental in advancing land values. Prominent among these develop- 
ment wonder workers is C. Elmer Tuesburg, of Knox, whose vast fanning 
interests and large realty holdings place him among the substantial citi- 
zens of the county, while his activities in the line already mentioned are 
continuing to be pushed with zeal and tireless energy. 

The Tuesburg family is of Danish origin, the grandfather of C. Elmer 
Tuesburg, Hanson Tuesburg, being a native of Denmark, a lieutenant in 
the navy of his country at the age of twenty-two years, and subsequently 
captain of a merchant vessel in the Soutli American trade for a period of 
thirty years. One of C. E. Tuesburg 's most highly-prized po-ssessions is 
an old flint-lock pistol with a steel bayonet which belonged to his grand- 
father. This weapon was generally used by the mariners of that day 
in their frequent conflicts with the pirates who swarmed the South 
American waters. It has a romantic story, and shows the effects of usage, 
but, while probably 150 years old, is still in a state of good repair. In 
1835, at the age of fifty-two years, Captain Hanson Tuesburg came to 
America and located at Tremont, Tazewell County, Illinois, where he was 
married to Mary Jones. She was bom near Boston, Massachusetts, in 
1808, and removed with her father's family to Tremont, Illinois, in 1834, 
becoming a member of the first colony that settled that place and de- 
veloped it. She was of Puritan stock, and was a Baptist in religious 
belief, while Captain Tuesburg adhered to the faith of the Lutheran 
Church. Politically he was a democrat. 

Charles H. Tuesburg, father of C. Elmer Tuesburg, was born at Tre- 
mont, fourteen miles south of Peoria, Illinois, in December, 1844, and was 
still a lad when his father died, in 1859, and was one of three sons and an 
adopted son left to be reared by the widowed mother. The two older sons 
enlisted for service in the Civil war, in 1861, and the foster son served 
efficiently as an array surgeon for a period of six years, while Capt. Han- 
son, the eldest son, met a soldier's death in the advance on Corinth, during 
Sherman's march to the sea, being shot from ambush wliile leading his 
company. He was unmarried. Charles H. Tuesburg served as a lieu- 
tenant of Company C, One Hundred Thirty-ninth Regiment, Illinois 
Volunteer Infantiy, during the latter part of the war, where he had an 
excellent record. 

At the age of twenty years Charles H. Tuesburg went to Livingston 
County, Illinois, and there entered upon his real career, in which he has 
since gained much success and reputation. Without influential aid or 
funds he purchased and undertook to pay for 160 acres of land, and dur- 


iiig the next fifteen years his struggles were of a nature which tested to 
the limit even his strength and capacity. However, when he had his 
land paid for and improved he found his lot easier, and began to add to 
his original until he owned an entire section in Odell Town- 
ship. There he resided until 1892, at which time he removed with his 
family to Pontiac, Hlinois, in order that he might find better educational 
advantages for his children. 

Having early shown his natural adaptation for business, and his 
fidelity to engagements even when he was yoiuig and without means, 
Mr. Tuesburg attracted the attention of the owners of the large Scott 
Estate, extensive landed interests in Central Illinois. Although still a 
young man, Mr. Tuesburg was selected to manage their interests, repre- 
senting several thousand acres of land in the control of which he was 
practically given carte hlanche. He early conceived the idea of the im- 
portance of underground drainage, and became one of the pioneers of 
this system in Illinois, spending "$60,000 of his employer's money in 
tiling in less than two years. The wisdom and foresight of this move is 
shown by the fact that these lands in Livingston, Champaign and other 
counties formerly practically worthless, for a cost of from $5 to $8 per 
acre for drainage, became worth from $200 to $300 an acre. Later Mr. 
Tuesburg became interested in the swampy and apparently unreclaimable 
lands of the Kankakee Valley, in Indiana, especially in Starke and La- 
porte counties, and in 1891 he transferred his operations to this locality, 
the center of his activities being the Town of Lacrosse, right in the heart 
of the swampy section. Here he not only invested his own money, but 
induced his friends to do likewise, and while making a fortune for him- 
self aided others to clear large sums of money. The leader in any new 
movement receives a certain amount of ridicule from those who have not 
the foresight to .see ])e.yond the conventional rut of time-worn methods, 
and in ;\Ir. Tuesburg 's ease it was no exception. Time and again real 
estate men, with high opinion of their own sagacity, "unloaded" upon 
the newcomer what they believed to be worthless proiH-i-tii^s and laughed 
to tlicinselves at his credulity. They lived, however, U> sim> him increase 
the value of the lands to many times their original wcirth, and to regret 
the shortsightedness that made them dispose of their holdings. To il- 
lustrate: Mr. Tuesburg by persistent effort induced five of his friends to 
.ioin with him in the purchase of 5,000 aci-i's of frog-pond land at $22 
an acre, the original owners feeling that they had driven a great bargain. 
With characteristic energy Mr. Tuesl)Ufg set his machinery to work, and 
under his efforts the frog ponds were .soon yielding marvelous crops of 
corn, oats and wheat. The result was that the land brought a rental 
equal to the most feiiile Illinois lands, and later sold as high as $200 
per acre, yielding the new owners about one hundred thousand dollars 
each in profit. This is but an instance. All along Mr. Tuesburg has been 
in the front rank of developers, improving the value of lands, and in this 
he has been ably seconded by his sons. 

A man of education himself, Mr. Tuesburg has been a great friend of 
the schools, was a member of the school board for a number of years at 


Pontiac, Illinois, and at Lacrosse has continued to promote and support 
movements of an educational nature. He has long been prominent in the 
ranks of the prohibition party, and at one time was candidate for lieuten- 
ant-governor and stumped the State of Illinois. He was married in 
Fulton County, Illinois, to Miss Sarah E. Dunn, who was born in that 
county in November, 1843, and has been of the greatest assistance to her 
husband in helping him to his present high position. They have four 
children : John, who has been since 1899 a resident of North Bend Town- 
ship, Starke County, where he is largely engaged as a farmer, stock- 
raiser and peppermint and onion grower, married in Illinois Bertha Cox 
of that state and has six children, — Arthur, Claude, Glad.ys, Ethel, ]\Iadge 
and Robert ; Lillian, who is the wife of John Adams of Laporte County, 
Indiana, and lives on the old Adams homestead, one of the first farms to 
be settled in the southern part of that county, and has one child, — Clar- 
ence ; C. Elmer, of this review ; and William, the owner of the finest de- 
veloped truck farm in Laporte County, a tract of 300 acres, near Hannah, 
married Nellie Harsen, of Laporte County. 

C. Elmer Tuesburg was born in Livingston County, Illinois, in March, 
1879, and was well educated, completing his training in the Pontiac High 
School. When he laid aside his school books he at once became associated 
with his father in his work of farming and development, assisting in the 
management of the Scott interests. By 1903 the Tuesburg interest had 
largely been transferred to Starke and Laporte counties, Indiana, and the 
largest part of the original Scott Estate had been sold and reinvested in 
Indiana land, making it necessary for Mr. Tuesburg to move to Indiana. 
From 1903 to 1908 he had his residence at Laporte City, Indiana, but 
since 1908 has been a resident of the Village of Knox, where three yeare 
ago he erected one of the finest homes of this section, at the corner of 
Delaware and Shields streets. He has large interests in North Bend 
Township, Starke County and also in Laporte and Marshall counties, 
where he is interested in growing grain, peppermint and onions, as well 
as in the breeding and shipping of all kinds of livestock. He is justly 
accounted one of the most practical as well as progressive agriculturists 
of the section, and is a worthy successor to his honored father. 

Mr. Tuesburg was married at Pontiac, Illinois, to Miss ]\Iyra Boynton, 
who was born in Tazewell County, Illinois, in 1889. Mr. and Mrs. Tues- 
burg became acquainted in childhood and were members of the same 
graduating class at the Pontiac High School, in 1909. Two children 
have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Tuesburg : Martha and Jack, who are both 
attending school. The family has long been identified with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, in which Mr. Tuesburg is serving as Sunday school 
superintendent, trustee and steward. Like his father and brothers, Mr. 
Tuesburg is a stalwart prohibitionist. 

Gus Reiss. No more noteworthy illustration of the rewards at- 
tainable through a life of honest industry and earnest perseverance could 
be found than that exemplified in the career of Gus Reiss, of Knox, 
now one of the most prominent and successful of Starke County's busi- 


ness citizens. Coming to this country a poor emigrant lad of sixteen 
years, without means and handicapped by a lack of knowledge of the 
English language and the business methods of his adopted land, he has 
so steadfastly and energetically persisted that today, in the full prime 
of manhood, he finds himself at the head of business and financial ven- 
tures of a most important character, and the possessor of a reputation 
for commercial ability and good citizenship that might well be envied 
by most men even after a life time of effort. 

Mr. Reiss was born at Rheinpfalz, near the River Rhine, Germany, 
July 5, 1868, and is a son of Alexander and Helen (Sampson) Reiss, 
who now reside at their old home at Alsheim, Rheinpfalz, the father 
being eighty years of age and the mother seventy-six. During his active 
years the father was engaged as a farmer and winegrower, and is now 
retired with a generous competence. Both he and his wife are members 
of the Hebrew Church. Mr. Reiss served his regular time in the Ger- 
man army, as have his two sons : Jacob A., a wholesale linen dealer at 
Stuttgart, Wurttemberg, Germany, who is married and has one daugh- 
ter; and Albert, a clothier at Mannheim, Baden, Germany, who is 
married and has a son and a daughter. 

Gus Reiss grew up at his native place and there received a good 
education in the public schools which he attended until reaching the 
age of sixteen years, at which time, to escape military duty, he decided 
to come to the United States. Accordingly, in 1884, he boarded the 
steamer Westerland, at Antwerp, and in August of that year landed 
at Castle Garden, New York. In spite of his handicaps, the youth 
eventually found employment in a clothing factory, where he was given 
a salary of fifty cents a week, but after three weeks so favorably im- 
pressed himself upon his employers by his fidelity, industry and general 
ability that his salary was raised, and from that time on his advance 
was steady, he finally being given the position of assistant foreman. 
While with this concern Mr. Reiss applied himself so assiduously to 
learning the clothing business that he became thoroughly familiar with 
every detail of every department, and to this he attributes the knowl- 
edge that has made him known as one of the best buyers in the country. 
The manufacturing, retail and wholesale prices are an open book to him, 
' ' from A to Z, " and there is not a department of the business in which 
he cannot take his place and accomplish satisfactory results. 

In 1S88 the youth who four years before had landed in this country 
without a dollar went to Winaraac, Pulaski County, Indiana, and there 
engaged in the selling of goods for four years. He came to Knox in 
February, 1892, but after he had established himself here returned in 
the same year to Winamac, where he married Miss Flora A. Haas, 
who was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1878, and removed as a girl 
to Winamac with her parents, Jacob and Sophia Haas. Her parents, 
natives of Rheinpfalz, Germany, became engaged in their native land, 
but were not married until Mrs. Haas came to the United States to join 
her husband who had preceded her to make a home. Mr. Haas has for 
years been a clothing merchant at Winamac, and has been very sue- 


cessful in his operations. His wife died in 1891 at the birth of their 
last child, who died also, and left three children : Mrs. Reiss, and two 
sons, the latter being Julius D., successor to his father in the Winamac 
business, who is married and has two sons and a daughter; and Leo 
A., who is manager of the finest store at Clinton, Oklahoma, is married 
and has a son and a daughter. 

When Mr. Reiss first came to Knox, in February, 1892. he estab- 
lished himself in a clothing business in the store adjoining the one 
he now occupies, but after two years, needing more commodious quar- 
ters, removed to the Castleman Building, in the next block. This was 
his location until 1902, when, his business having increased to large 
proportions, he erected his present structure, known as the Reiss Block, 
on Main Street, in the center of the business district. This building, 
43 by 100 feet, is 2i/2 stories in height, and the top part is occupied by 
the R^iss Opera House, which seats 800 people. 

In his store Mr. Reiss keeps a full line of the very best class of 
merchandise for men's and boys' wear. It has always been his policy 
to carry only the finest of goods, to price them reasonably and in every 
way to live up to his agreements with the people, so that his reputation 
has grown and extended until his name is synonymous with honorable 
dealing and absolute integrity. While this store has grown and ex- 
tended its scope, Mr. Reiss has found it necessary to establish branches 
in order to meet the heavy demands of his patrons in other sections, 
and he now maintains establishments at North Judson, Starke County; 
Walkerton, St. Joseph County, and Nappanee, Elkhart County. All 
of these stores carry the same line of goods handled by the main house, 
and in them the same honorable policy is maintained. In addition to 
his large mercantile interests, Mr. Reiss has found time to devote to 
other matters of importance. He has been a director of the Farmers 
State Bank since its organization under this name, was president of 
the water woi'ks and one of the organizers thereof, and was president 
of the Knox Metal Wheel Company. 'While he has not mixed in politics 
in any way, save as a democratic voter, he has not neglected the duties 
of citizenship, for he has been a member of the school board for twelve 
years, and during eight years of this time has served as its president. 
In every movement making for advancement, whether of a business, 
civic, educational or social nature, he has taken a most active and promi- 
nent part, and his associates therein have come to look to him for ad- 
vice and leadership. 

Mr. and Mrs. Reiss are the parents of one daughter, Sylvia Lucile, 
who is nineteen years of age. She gi-aduated from Knox High School 
in the class of 1913, taking the highest honors, and at present is a student 
at Bryn Mawr University, a young ladies' college near Philadelphia, 
Penns.ylvania, the only institution of its kind whose graduates are ad- 
mitted to the universities of Europe direct. She is a young lady of 
man.y attainments, and her many friends at Knox and elsewhere testify 
to her popularity. 

Mr. Reiss has taken an active and interested part in fraternal work, 


and at the present time is a member of Knox Blue Lodge, No. 639, A. P. 
& A. M., and is past chancellor of the Knights of Pythias here. He 
belongs also to the Chicago Chapter of the B'nai B'rith. The beautiful 
home of Mr. Reiss at Knox is located on the corner of Washington and 
Heaton streets, and is one of the most attractive and substantial resi- 
dences of the city. 

William S. Daniel. A progressive and influential business man 
and prominent citizen now residing at Knox, judicial center of Starke 
County, Mr. Daniel has been a potent force in the development and 
upbuilding of the splendid business controlled by the Winona Telephone 
Company, of which he is secretary-treasurer as well as superintendent. 
He has been identified with the company from the time of its organiza- 
tion and incorporation under its present title, in 1903. The enterprise 
dates its inception back to the year 1898 and its projectors were I. N. 
Cotter and A. M. Swartzel, who initiated operations under the title of the 
Knox Telephone Company. In 1901 Phillip and J. G. Steinman became 
the controlling factors, and by them the business was transferred to the 
present company on the 1st of January, 1903, William S. Daniel soon 
afterward becoming a director of the new company and assuming also 
the office of general superintendent, a position of which he has since 
continued the efficient and resourceful incumbent. The original prin- 
cipals associated in the organization and incorporation of the Winona 
Telephone Company were Samuel Tomlinson, of Plymouth, Marshall 
County, who became president of the corporation ; A. B. Diggs, who as- 
sumed the position of general manager; and besides these two officials 
the directorate included William S. Daniel, L. E. Daniel, and L. A. 
Tomlinson. The board of directors remains with the same pereonnel to 
the present time, Mr. Diggs being a resident of Winamae, Pulaski 
County, and L. E. Daniel maintaining his home in Kewanna, Pulton 
County, Indiana, while L. A. Tomlinson is a resident of Waynesville, 

At the time when the present company assumed control the system 
operated had in commission 178 telephones, and the splendid growth of 
the enterprise is indicated by the statement that the present number of 
subscribers is in excess of 800 in Starke County. The original system 
had no toll lines or service, and to-day the company has more than 400 
miles of toll lines, with direct operations in the counties of Starke, Mar- 
shall, Fulton and Pulaski and with extension facilities into other counties 
in this section of the state. The service is of the best modern kind, 
the business is constantly expanding in scope and importance and the 
fine system has proved one of the most valuable public utilities in the 
counties which it covers. Local exchanges are maintained by the com- 
pany at Knox, Hamlet, Winamae, Kewanna, Grass Creek, Plymouth 
and Monterey, and the list of rural subscribers is representative in each 
of the four counties. 

William S. Daniel was a resident of Randolph County, Indiana, for 
five years prior to his removal to Starke County, in 1903, and he claims 
the old Buckeye State as the place of his nativity. He was born in High- 


land County, Ohio, ou the 27th of December, I860, and was there reared 
to adult age under the benignant influences and discipline of the old 
homestead farm, the while he duly availed himself of the advantages of 
the public schools. Mr. Daniel came to Indiana and assumed a clerical 
position in the office of an extensive grain and lumber firm at Winchester, 
Randolph County, the proprietors of the business, the Tomlinsons, being 
kinsmen of his. With them he later became associated in the organiza- 
tion of the Winona Telephone Company, and after serving for a time as 
local manager of the company at Knox he was made superintendent, 
later becoming secretary-treasurer and having since been the directing 
executive of the practical affairs of the company. 

Mr. Daniel is a son of Joseph and Rachel (Tomlinsou) Daniel, 
the respective families ha\dng been founded in North Carolina and Old 
Virginia in an early day. The maternal grandfather of IMr. Daniel 
was Moses Tomlinson, who was born in North Carolina and who became a 
pioneer settler in Ohio, where he became a prominent and influential 
citizen of the community in w^hich he established his home. He was a 
staunch abolitionist and in the climacteric period leading up to and cul- 
minating in the Civil war he was a zealous conductor ou the historic 
' ' undergi-ound railroad, ' ' by the means of which many slaves were aided 
in obtaining their freedom, his home having been a "station" on this 
famous system. In Ohio was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Daniel's 
parents and they continued to reside on their homestead farm, in High- 
land County, that state, until the close of their lives, the mother having 
passed away at the age of forty-seven years and the father having 
been sixty-five years old when he was summoned to the life eternal. 

Mr. Daniel is essentially loyal and progressive as a citizen as well as 
a business man. His political allegiance is given to the republican party 
and he has given efireetive service in behalf of its cause, including that 
rendered in the capacity of chairman of its county committee in Starke 
County and as a representative in its state conventions in Indiana. 
Mr. Daniel is afifiliat«d with the lodge of Free & Accepted Masons at 
Knox, and also with the Modern Woodmen of America and the Knights 
of Pythias, in the last mentioned of which he has served as chancellor 

The year 1881 recorded the marriage of Mr. Daniel to Miss Anna 
M. Chapman, who was born and reared in Ohio, where she acquired her 
education and continued to reside until her marriage. Of the three 
children the following data are entered : Carrie is the wife of Edward 
W. Welch, who is representative of the Winona Telephone Company 
at Hamlet, Starke County, and they have one daughter, Margaret: 
Homer S., who is wire chief of the Winona Telephone Company, with 
residence and headquarters at Knox, wedded Miss Bessie Nave; and 
Harold is a student in the high school of Knox, a member of the class 
of 1915. 

Henry R. Robbins. Virtually half a century has passed since 
this honored citizen of Starke County initiated the practice of law in 


Indiana, and he is still active in the work of his profession, at Knox, 
the judicial center of Starke County, where he has maintained his home 
for nearly forty years and where he now stands as the dean of the bar 
of the county. He has not only gained marked precedence as one of 
the able lawyers of this section of the state and been identified with 
much important litigation in both the state and federal courts, but 
his dominant progressiveness and public spirit as a citizen has made 
him most influential in furthering the civic and industrial development 
and progress of Starke County, which must consistently pay to him 
lasting honor for the admirable work which he accomplished, and that, 
against bitter opposition, in perfecting a far-reaching and admirable 
drainage system through which hundreds of acres of land in this 
county were made eligible for cultivation, and which now constitutes 
one of the veritable garden spots of the Hoosier Commonwealth. Mr. 
Robbins has been essentially dependent upon his own resources from 
the time he was a lad of ten years and with strong mind and brave 
heart he early faced the opposing forces of life, acquired an excellent 
academic and professional education, and pressed forward to the mark 
of large and worthy achievement as one of the world's productive work- 
ers. This discipline has made him a man of strong individuality, dis- 
tinct self-reliance, firm convictions and dauntless courage and perti- 
nacity in supporting principles and enterprises which he has known 
to be right. None has ever had the temerity justly to doubt his integrity 
of purpose and there has been no equivocation or subtlety in any phase 
of his long and worthy career. He is direct and sincere in all things, 
and his firmness in maintaining his well fortified convictions has been 
so insistent that at times it has been taken for stubbornness ; but results 
have invariably justified his course under such conditions. As one of 
the thoroughly representative men of Starke County he merits special 
consideration in this history. 

In the agnatic line Mr. Robbins is a scion of sterling Scotch stock, 
the original American progenitors of the Robbins family having settled 
in New England in the colonial days, and on the distafl' side he is a 
representative of German lineage. Mr. Robbins was born in Sandusky 
County, Ohio, on the 8th of September, 1840, and though he has passed 
the span of three score years and ten he is essentially virile in mental 
and physical powers and indicates the value of right living and right 
thinking. He was the third in order of birth in a family of five children, 
most of whom were born in the old Buckeye State, and he was a child 
of two years at the time of the family removal from Ohio to Monroe 
County, Michigan. He is a son of Joseph B. and Sarah Ann (Klein) 
Robbins, the former of whom was born in Vermont, in 1805, and the 
latter of whom was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in 
1818, of German parentage. Joseph Robbins was reared to maturity 
on a farm in the old Green Mountain State, and for some time he was 
identified with navigation interests on beautiful Lake Champlain. As 
a young man he emigrated to Ohio and established his residence in 
Sandusky County, where his marriage was solemnized, and about 1842 


he removed with his family to Michigan and l)ecame one of the pioneer 
farmers and mechanics of JMonroe County. There he maintained his 
home for many years, but both he and his wife passed the closing period 
of their lives in St. Joseph County, Indiana, where he died at the age 
of seventy-one and his wife at the age of seventy-seven years. Both 
were originally members of the Methodist Episcopal Church but later 
they became earnest and devoted exponents of the Spiritualistic faith. 
Mr. Robbing was a stalwart abolitionist during the climacteric period lead- 
ing up to the Civil war and espoused the cause of the republican parly 
at the time of its organization. 

Henry R. Robbins was reared to maturity in Monroe County, Michi- 
gan, and as a mere boy he began to depend upon his own efforts in 
providing a livelihood for himself and in furthering his ambitious de- 
termination to acquire a liberal education. After duly availing himself 
of the advantages of 'the common schools he continued his studies in 
the Michigan State Normal School, at Ypsilanti, to attend which he 
walked a distance of twenty miles each week and never failed to respond 
at roll call. Pedestrian exercise of equal extent was his portion during 
the greater part of his experience of about six years as a teacher in 
the district schools of Monroe and Waslitenaw counties, Michigan, and 
Marshall County, Indiana. 

After formulating detinite plans for preparing himself for the legal 
profession, Mr. Robbins was signally fortunate in being able to avail 
himself of the advantages of the law department of the great University 
of Michigan, in which department, then, as now. one of the foremost 
of its kind in the West, he was graduated as a member of the class 
of 1863 and with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. He recalls with 
pleasure his association with the late Judge Thomas M. Cooley, Judge 
James V. Campbell, and Judge I. Walker, distinguished members of 
the faculty of the law school, and with the honored Henry P. Tappan, 
who was then serving his last term as president of the university, his 
successor having been Dr. James B. Angell, who served many years 
as the head of this celebrated institution and who, venerable in years, 
is now its president emeritus. 

Upon his admission to the bar Mr. Robbins engaged in the practice 
of his profession in the Village of Berrien Springs, which was then the 
judicial center of Berrien County, Michigan, and in the same year 
he was drafted for service in the Civil war, but he was soon called into 
the Government's civil service, in which connection, after his removal 
to Laporte. Indiana, in 1864, he was associated with others in exposing 
and defeating the plot against the life of Governor Morton of this state. 
He later tendered his services as a soldier in the ranks, but the Gov- 
ernment authorities requested him to continue in the civil service, with 
which he continued to be identified until the close of the war. 

Mr. Robbins continued in the practice of his profession at Laporte 
for eight years and then removed to Walkerton, St. Joseph County, 
where he remained until 1880, his practice having in the meanwhile 
-become one of important order, in the courts of St. Joseph, Laporte 


and Starke counties. In the year last mentioned he established his 
home at Knox, which has since continued his place of residence and 
his professional headquarters. At the time when he established his resi- 
dence in Starke County there was within its limits a large amount of 
land that was deemed virtually impossible of reclamation, owing to 
swampy conditions. Land that could then have been purchased at prices 
ranging from $1.50 to $40.00 an acre is now appraised at a valuation 
ranging from $100.00 to $150.00 an acre, and it may be said without 
fear of legitimate contradiction that this marvelous change in valuation 
has been largely due to the well orderfd ( f'forts and determined pro- 
gressiveness of Mr. Robbins. Reali/iiin tlir jxissibilities in this connec- 
tion, Mr. Robbins set to himself the task of gaining local and external 
cooperation in the furtherance of the great improvement that has re- 
sulted in the reclamation of this valuable land. In 1887 he and his 
associates obtained control of 320 acres of land in Oregon and Davis 
townships, and he initiated forthwith the construction and development 
of the admirable drainage canal now known as the Robbins Ditch, the 
same extending a distance of sixteen miles in the townships mentioned, 
and its original construction having given it a width of sixteen feet, 
with a depth of eight feet. The project met with bitter opposition 
on the part of numerous taxpayers in the county and the enmity against 
Mr. Robbins was such that he barely escaped physical injury. Those 
who were his most implacable adversaries at the time lived to realize 
the inestimable value of the work which he achieved and to thank him 
for his efforts and enterprise. He and his associates endured nothing 
less than persecution when they were carrying forward the under- 
taking, and this was especially directed against him and Ins iinist inti- 
mate and valued friend. Judge William Spangler, of WiiiinMii.ic — a 
man whose ability and personal integrity are of the highe><t order. This 
great drainage ditch, with its numerous branches or tributaries, now 
covers a distance of 200 miles, the main canal now having a width of from 
50 to 100 feet and a depth of fifteen feet. This represents one of the 
largest and most important drainage systems of the state and its con- 
struction is of the most scientific type, the while it may consistently be 
said that the value of products from lands thus reclaimed has ex- 
ceeded many fold the entire land valuation of the entire county. This 
great improvement alone entitles Mr. Robbins to the lasting gi-atitude 
of the people of Starke County, both in the present and future genera- 
tions. As a lawyer and citizen his course has been dominated by im- 
pregnable honesty of purpose anc^ by a high sense of responsibility. 
In his professional capacity he has accordingly never permitted himself 
to be retained in any action or enterprise that has impugned in the 
least upon the best interests of the county, either civic or material. 

To right a wrong is a matter of principle with this veteran member 
of the Indiana bar, and this was significantly shown in his earnest 
and humane action in bringing about an abatement of heinous abuses 
in the state reformatory at Jeffersonville, where inmates were virtually 
being made naught more than human slaves. He investigated conditions 


and his righteous indignation found its vent when he appeared as at- 
torney for the complainant in the ease of Terry versus Byers, the de- 
fendant having been at the time superintendent of the institution men- 
tioned. The result was a decisive victory for the complainant and the 
entire elimination of the abuses that had been practiced in the reforma- 
tory. Mr. Robbins has long been known as a strong, tenacious and im- 
placable adversary when appearing as a trial lawyer, and he has won 
innumerable forensic victories of important order, including nu- 
merous cases which he has carried to the Appellate and Supreme courts 
of the state, besides practicing also before the Federal courts of Indiana. 

Mr. Robbins is a stalwart in the camp of the republican party and 
has been a zealous advocate of its principles and policies, even as he 
was of abolition principles in the period of the turbulent conditions that 
culminated in the Civil war. He has had no ambition for public office 
but has subordinated all extraneous interests to the demands of his 
profession, in connection with which it may incidentally be noted that 
within his long years of successful practice he has illed briefs in more 
than three hundred cases in the Appellate and Supreme courts of In- 
diana. He is a strong Spiritualist in his religious faith, as was also 
his second wife, and he has been most zealous in showing a ' ' reason for 
the faith that is in him," with firm convictions and deep sentimental 
appreciation of the benign tenets of this faith. 

The maiden name of the first wife of Mr. Robbins was Mary Meixel, 
and of the children of this union Ida died in 1912 ; Jennie is the wife of 
Edward Cogan, of Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, and they have one 
son and three daughters; John C. died at the age of five years, and 
Harry at the age of three months. For his second wife Mr. Robbins 
wedded Mre. Ruth M. (Rogers) McKnitt, widow of William McKnitt, 
the only child of her first marriage having been Mary, who died at the 
age of one year. Mrs. Robbins was born in Cass County, this state, 
and the great loss and bereavement of her husband's life came when 
she was summoned to the life eternal, on the 25th of October, 1912. Con- 
cerning the children of their union the following brief record is given 
in conclusion of this article : Harriet is the wife of Clarence M. Fuller, 
of Knox, and they have one son, Wayde ; Martha is the widow of Francis 
S. Gold, and now resides in the City of Washington, D. C, where she 
holds a responsible executive position ; Nellie R. is the wife of William 
C. Pentecost, city attorney of Knox and former attorney of Starke 
County, and they have twin daughters, Lenora and Lucille ; John M., 
who was graduated in the law school of Valparaiso University, is a 
resident of Chicago, where he is an actuary for the Lozier Motor Com- 
pany : he married Miss Harriet Silliman ; George Bursou was a student 
of law in the office of his father at the time of his death, when twenty- 
one years of age. 

Aris Wilson Swartzell. One of the residents of Knox who has 
demonstrated beyond the reach of controversy the truth of the adage 
that perseverance and pluck, when united to unswerving integrity, are 


bound to succeed, is the well-known department store owner, Aris Wilson 
Swartzell. He is a self-made man in the truest and best sense of the 
phrase, and yet is devoid of the egotism which is so often apparent in 
those who have been the architects of their own fortunes. Perhaps no 
inconsiderable part of Mr. Swartzell 's success is due to his possession 
of sterling traits of thrift and industry, inherited from his forefathers. 
His great-grandfather, whose name was John Swartzell, was one of 
four brothers who emigrated to America from Germany, locating in 
Pennsylvania about the time of the close of the Revolutionary war, and 
there continued to be engaged in agricultural pursuits until his death. 
He was married and had a large family of sons and daughters, among 
whom the names of but four are recorded : William, John, Levi and 

John Swartzell, the grandfather of Aris Wilson Swartzell, was born 
near Little York, York County, Pennsylvania, about the year 1790. He 
grew up as a farmer, receiving an ordinary education, and during the 
War of 1812 displayed his patriotism by gallant service as a soldier. 
At the close of that struggle he returned to his home, resumed his farm- 
ing operations, and was married to Margaret Spangle, the daughter of a 
neighboring fai-raer. Subsequently the young couple removed to Ohio, 
locating at an early day as a pioneer of Marion County. With them 
they brought their family of small children, among whom was William 
Swartzell, the father of Aris Wilson Swartzell, who was born in 1820 
near Little York, York County, Pennsylvania. He was in his early 
teens when the family moved to Ohio, and there he resided in Marion 
Countv for some fifteen or twenty years, coming to Starke County, 
Indiana, in 1850. William Swartzell entered 200 acres of land in 
Washington Township at a time when the hostile red man still roamed 
the county, when deer meat was the principal kind used and about 
the easiest obtainable, when other wild game was to be found in great 
numbers, when wolves howled at the doors of the settlers throughout 
the long nights, and when fur was to be obtained in abundance by the 
pioneer who was at all handy with the rifle or the trap. The first home of 
the Swartzells was a log cabin, with a clapboard covering bound down 
by poles, a side chimney of sticks, daubed with mud, puncheon floors 
and tanned coon skins for windows. Mr. Swartzell, like the other 
pioneers of his day, was a man of hardy enterprise and indomitable 
spirit. While it cannot be said that the pioneers of Starke County 
were moved by that high moral purpose which brought the Pilgrim 
Fathers to America, they were upheld in their efforts by the earnest 
desire to better their condition and the worldly prospects of their off- 
spring. Thus the strongest attribute of these early settlers was their 
spirit of enterprise, which led them to develop natural resources of 
their chosen county with remarkable rapidity. There was much in 
their lives that was picturesque, exciting and romantic, but there was 
also much that was dull, laborious and discouraging. Having learned 
the trade of cooper in Ohio, Mr. Swartzell, when not engaged in hunt- 
ing and trapping, in which he was an expert, made barrels, churns. 


tubs and firkius for the early settlers, securing the wood from the 
trees on his own farm, and many an "old oaken bucket that hung in 
the well" of the pioneers of Starke County was the product of his 
skill and dexterity. Like others of the builders of the county, Mr. 
Swartzell kept a large drove of hogs, of the "razor back" variety, the 
register of which were ear marks distinguishing one from the other, 
and many were taken from the droves that then ran wild and fierce 
in the foi'est depths. 

"While Mr. Swartzell devoted much of his time to hunting and trap- 
ping and to the trade of cooper, his energetic nature and tireless ac- 
tivity enabled him to find time to clear his farm from the timber 
and put it under improvement. He engaged in raising crops for some 
seasons, but eventually traded his farm for a store and hotel at Knox, 
to which town he came in 1864 and erected the first" cane molasses mill. 
He changed the name of the hotel to the Swartzell House, conducted 
the store and hostelry together, and also had a large barn in which 
were accommodated the houses of the travelers who stopped at his 
house on their journeys overland. A man of industry, with ability 
to make a success of any enterprise in which he was engaged, Mr. 
Swartzell prospered well, and at the time of his death, in May, 1887, 
was considered one of the substantial men of his community. He 
was a leading democrat, but not an office seeker, although he could 
have probably had almost any office within the gift of the people of his 
community, and at one time served as county commissioner. His father, 
John Swartzell, had also come to Indiana with him, and entered land 
adjoining, and there passed away in 1855. Three other sons, Samuel, 
Levi and John, had settled in White County, Indiana, where the last- 
named 's widow located and later married her second husband, Mr. 
Ha.skins, both dying there but leaving no children. 

While a resident of Marion County, Ohio, William Swartzell was 
married to Miss Sarah Sherman, who was born in Virginia, in 1827, 
and came as a girl to the then far West. She died at the hotel con- 
ducted by her husband, January 10, 1879. Mrs. Swartzell was a sister 
of A. G. W. Sherman, a sketch of whose career will be found on another 
page of this work. Nine children were born to William and Sarah 
Swartzell: A. George W., who is now seventy years old, was formerly 
a merchant of Knox, and at this time a clerk for his brother, Aris W., 
married Louisa Morris, of Starke County, Indiana, and has two sons, 
John, deputy sheriff of Starke County, who is married and lives at 
Knox, and Roy, who married for his first wife Daisy Cram and had 
no children, and was married the second time to Martha Fechtner and 
has a daughter, Margaret; Sarah Jane, who was married the first time 
to Wallace Gould, who died leaving two daughters, Clara and Alice, 
both single, and was married the second time to Conrad Groshans, of 
Walkerton, Indiana, and has four children, Esther, Blanche. Laura and 
Wilson; J. Wesley, a mechanic living on Stony Island Avenue, Chi- 
cago, is married and has three children, Clyde, Bessie and Nora ; Mary, 
who married Theodore Hcrr, a plasterer and mason of Deshler, Ohio, 


and has had Charles, George, Grover, Fred and Kate, the last-named 
now deceased ; Amanda, who is the wife of Samuel Kline, son of Zaeha- 
riah Kline, a former attorney of Knox, where Mr. and Mrs. Kline now 
live and have an adopted daughter, Mattie, who is now married; Wil- 
liam, a bachelor, who resides at Knox; Jacob, who died at the age of 
five years; Aris Wilson, of this review; and Alice, who married the 
first time Frank Paul, by whom she had one son, Harry, and was 
married the second time to Parker M. Lewis, of Chicago, in which city 
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis now reside. 

Aris Wilson Swartzell was born April 23, I860, in Washington Town- 
ship, Starke County, Indiana. He was given just a common school 
education, was trained to work hard and industriously, and taught that 
the best way to secure a dollar was to buckle down and work for it. 
IMr. Swartzell was raised behind the counter of his father's store, and 
there are few angles of the business with which he has not a close 
acquaintance. He succeeded the elder man in the business June 9, 
18S7, and since that time has been at its head, successfully directing 
its affairs, enlarging its scope and adding to its holdings. This is the 
oldest general store in the county, and for forty-four years has been 
located on IMain Street, Knox. Mr. Swartzell 's grocery and market 
are located at the corner of Main and Lake streets, where he occupies 
a well-arranged, finely-stocked establishment 22 by 132 feet, in the 
management of which he is displaying the best of business ability. 
Like his father, Mr. Swartzell enjoys an excellent reputation for hon- 
orable dealing and fidelity to engagements. He has won success through 
the medium of his own efforts, his keen observation and his ability 
to gi-asp opportunities and make the most of them, but he has never 
taken an unfair advantage of a competitor and for this reason is known 
in commercial circles as a man of high business ideals. It may also 
be added that he was the first merchant in the Town of Knox to use 
modern systems in his store, such as Dayton computing scales, gaso- 
line lighting system and National cash registers. He also erected the 
first modern residence in Knox, equipped with running water, bath, toi- 
let and electric lights. 

Mr. Swartzell was married in Pulaski County, Indiana, to Miss 
Rosa Becker, who was born and reared on a farm in that county, and 
a daughter of John and Elizabeth Becker, natives of Germany and 
early settlers near Monterey, Indiana, where they died in middle life, 
Mrs. Swartzell still being a child. Mr. and Mrs. Swartzell are the 
parents of the following children: Bertha M., educated in the Knox 
graded and high schools, married Richard R. Zeller, who operates an 
automobile and taxicab line in Chicago, where Mrs?. Zeller is engaged 
in the millinery business, and they have two children, Richard and 
Camille, aged respectively eleven and nine years; Mamie G., who is 
the wife of Emery C. Seider, a tea and coffee merchant of Toledo, 
Ohio, and has two children, Raymond and Annette. 

Mr. and Mrs. Swartzell are members of the Roman Catholic Church. 
In politics a democrat, he has at various times served capably in town 


offices, and at all times has endeavored to contribute to the progress 
and advancement of his community. Fraternally he is connected with 
the Knights of the Maccabees and the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, both of Knox. Mr. Swartzell was the organizer of the first 
telephone company in Starke County, in 1898, and later took into 
partnership S. C. Close and the latter 's uncle, but after some years 
disposed of his interests to other parties. He is a practical musician, 
and in 1876 was the organizer of the first band and orchestra in Starke 
County, being its leader from that time until about ten years ago. 
Widely known, Mr. Swartzell is highly esteemed in every walk of life, 
and his career is one eminently worthy of mention in a work of this 

Andrew 0. Castleman. During his long residence within the lior- 
ders of Starke County, the late Andrew 0. Castleman worked out an 
admirable destiny, and from modest beginnings drew around him for 
the comfort and happiness of his later years such substantial com- 
pensations as wealth, the credit for having contributed largely to the 
general development of the community, and the confidence and good 
will of his business and social associates. The career of Mr. Castleman 
was characterized by activities in a number of enterprises, and in 
each he was rewarded by success which only comes to those who labol* 
faithfully and well. In agriculture he met with prosperity in the 
development of unproductive lands into fertile and paying properties; 
as a business man his operations in mercantile pursuits and the field of 
real estate gave him name and standing among Knox's foremost business 
citizens, while as a public official his record is one worthy of emulation 
by any servant of the people. 

Mr. Castleman 's long ajid useful life began at Wabash, Indiana, where 
he was born April 30, 1852, a son of David and Phoebe Castleman. The 
place of birth of the parents and the date of their coming to Indiana are 
not now remembered, but it is known that they came from or near War- 
saw, Indiana, during the early '50s and located in the deep woods of 
North Bend Township, Starke County, where they settled on a wild 
property and developed it into a farm. There the father, an energetic 
and industrious agriculturist, died about the close of the Civil war, when 
still in the prime of life. He was a democrat in politics, although not 
an office holder, and a member of the Christian Church. Mrs. Castleman 
subsequently married Mr. Clinton Chapman, who died about thirty years 
ago, when past middle life, he having also passed his career as an agri- 
culturist. They had no children. Mrs. Chapman still survives and 
makes her home with her son, William Castleman, on a farm in North 
Bend To\^^]ship. While .she is very old, she is still active and in pos- 
session of her faculties. Like both of her husbands she is a devout church 
woman and has always been an active worker in behalf of religious and 
charitable movements. There were six or seven children in the family of 
David and Phoebe Castleman, and of these three are still living, all are 
residents of Indiana, are married and at the head of families. 


The boyhood and youth of Andrew 0. Castlenian was spent amid 
rural surroundings on his father 's homestead place in North Bend Town- 
ship, and his education was secured in the district schools. When he 
attained his manhood and entered upon a career of his own he chose 
agriculture for his life work, and at the time of his marriage commenced 
farming and stockraising on a property in the near vicinity of Argos, 
Marshall County, Indiana. After two years spent in that locality, he 
went to the State of Michigan, and there passed about one year, then 
returning to Marshall County and resuming his operations there. Soon, 
however, he returned to North Bend Township, securing a good farm 
of about one hundred acres, and continued to make improvements and 
to carry on general farming until 1880. Mr. Castleman had for some 
time been interested in political matters, and had shown the people of 
his community that he was a good, reliable and energetic citizen, so 
that when he became the candidate for the office of county treasurer he 
secured their support and was elected by a handsome majority. The 
able manner in which he discharged his duties and handled the business 
of the county during his first term brought him re-election at the ensuing 
election, and he continued to ably act in that capacity for two years more, 
thus strengthening himself in the confidence of the public. 

When his services as county treasurer were completed. Mr. Castle- 
man I'esumed the activities of private citizenship. At the time of his 
first election he had moved his residence to Knox, where, diiring his 
second term as county treasurer, he had erected a home. Casting about 
for a field in which to carry on business, he associated himself with Austin 
P. Dial in the banking business, but after several years therein severed 
his connection with financial proceedings and took his abilities into the 
field of real estate, with which he continued to be connected during the 
remaining j'ears of his life. As a dealer in realty he was instrumental 
in the upbuilding and development of Starke County, and particularly 
of Knox. Among his associates he was looked upon as a man who could 
be depended upon for leadership, and his integrity was never questioned. 
For a number of years Mr. Castleman also acted as an auctioneer, and 
sold chattels all over the county. His support was given unfalteringly 
to the democratic party and its candidates, and he did his full share in 
attending conventions, both local and state. While not a professed mem- 
ber of any religious body he was a devout Christian, and was much 
interested in Sunday school work. When he died, September 26, 1913, 
Knox lost one of its best, most energetic and most helpful citizens. 

On November 18, 1872, Mr. Castleman was married near Elkhart, 
Indiana, to Miss Sarah Swigart, who was born in Summit County, 
Ohio, October 11, 1851. She was reared in Marshall County, Indiana, 
whence .she came as a child of six years with her parents, Joseph and 
Mary (Rex) Swigart, natives of Ohio, who were married in Summit 
County, and came to Marshall County in 1857, here continuing in agri- 
cultural pursuits during the remainder of their lives. The father passed 
away in 1873, in Marshall County, at the age of seventy-five years, while 
the mother died some years later, aged seventy-six years, at the home of 


her daughter, Mrs. Castleman, in Starke County. They were members 
of the United Brethren Church, and were widely and favorably known. 
Mr. Swigart was a lifelong democrat. In their family there were eleven 
children, of whom six grew to maturity and were married, and Mrs. 
Castleman now has one living sister : ]Mary A., the widow of Edward 
Pipher, who was a farmer in Jlichigan and died some twenty years ago, 
and she still lives at the old home, aged seventy years, and has five sons 
and one daughter. 

Mrs. Castleman still resides in the handsome home at the corner of 
Lake and Pearl streets, Knox, which was erected bj- Mr. Castleman about 
1882, in addition to which she is the owner of a valuable farm in Wash- 
ington Township. She has no children, but has a faithful companion in 
the person of Mrs. Helen Wilhelm. Mrs. Wilhelm was born in Starke 
County, Indiana, February 4, 1855, and was reared, educated and mar- 
ried here and here has alway.s made her home. She has. four living 
children, all of whom are married and have families and live in Starke 
County. Both Mrs. Castleman and Mrs. Wilhelm are members of the 
Christian Church, and both have many friends in Knox. 

Robert H. Bender. No history of Starke County and its people 
would be complete that did not make mention of the life and labors of 
the late Robert H. Bender, who at the time of his death, July 2, 1909, 
had probably lived in the county longer than any other man. Four years 
prior to the time when Starke County was formed and organized, Mr. 
Bender settled on the old Koontz farm at the mill in Oregon Township, 
and from that time forward continued to be one of the leading citizens of 
his community, a progressive agriculturist, a successful business man 
and a citizen who was frequently called to public office, in which he 
served with sterling integrity and entire efficiency. 

Mr. Bender was born March 17, 1834, in Cumberland County, 
Pennsylvania, a son of Jacob and Jane (Dobbs) Bender. His father was 
born, in 1804, in Pennsylvania, of Holland Dutch stock, although the 
original ancestors of Mr. Bender came from Russia during the seven- 
teenth century and early settled at Jamestown, Virginia. The grand- 
father of Mr. Bender served as a soldier d^iring the War of 1812, and 
in more than one hard fought battle proved his bravery and courage. 
Subsequently he and his wife removed to Pennsylvania, and there both 
died. Jane (Dobbs) Bender came of a family of Irish origin which 
had been founded in Pennsylvania during colonial days, and her great- 
grandmother had been burned to death at the stake by the Indians. In 
1838, when Robert H. Bender was still a small child, his parents moved to 
Wayne County, Ohio, the father for a time operating a mill at Shreve, 
and at a later period moved to Richland County, of the same state. He 
brought his family to Starke County, Indiana, in 1846, and in 1855 
moved to Koontz Lake, near Walkerton, St. Joseph County, where he 
conducted what was known as the Koontz mill, but subsequently moved 
to a farm in the same vicinity and continued to follow agricultural pur- 
suits until the time of his retirement. Mr. Bender died August 18, 1889, 


and Mi-s. Bender, January 14, 1893, both in the faith of the Presbyterian 
church, of which they were life-long members. Mr. Bender was an un- 
compromising democrat, and although he devoted the greater part of 
his time to his private interests he was known as a man of influence in 
his community and his party. Mr. and Mrs. Bender were the parents 
of a large family of children, all of whom have passed aM'ay but two, 
Jacob G.. who was born in July, 1844, a thread merchant of Chicago, Illi- 
nois, and who survives a wife and two children, one of whom, Ben- 
jamin C, was well educated, was clerk of the City of Goshen and at the 
time of his death had been nominated for recorder of Elkhart County ; 
and Susanna, of ]\Iarion, Indiana, the widow of Edward Tibbetts, who 
has one son and three daughters, all of whom are married. John S., 
one of the brothers of Robert H. Bender, was a prominent lawyer and 
politician and died in October, 1912, while in practice at Plymouth, 

Robei-t H. Bender received his early education in the schools of Cum- 
berland County, Penn.sylvania. and was twelve years of age when the 
family came to what afterward liecame Starke County, Indiana. He was 
reared to manhood amid pioneer conditions and surroundings, and upon 
reaching his ma.jority adopted mercantile pursuits for a time, later enter- 
ing politics and business, in which he continued to be engaged the re- 
mainder of his life. He was thrifty and industrious, and his faithful 
wife was even more so, and at this time she is the owner of 160 acres of 
good land, every acre under a high state of cultivation and planted 
to oats, wheat and corn, there being eighty acres of the last named grain. 
The property is located in one of the best sections of Davis Township, 
has modem improvements of every character, and is known as one of the 
best quarter sections in the township. Jlrs. Bender has also various 
other interests, and is considered an energetic and shrewd business 

As early as 1856 Robert H. Bender, then twenty-two years of age, 
was elected surveyor of Starke County, a capacity in which he sei-ved 
four years, and his next office was that of county auditor, to which he 
was elected in 1868, and in which he served eight years. He was then 
deputy auditor under Doctor Perry, continuing as such seven years, and 
was then appointed to fill the unexpired term of Doctor Perry, who had 
been killed in a railroad accident at Kouts, Indiana. Mr. Bender was 
then, in 1888, again elected auditor and served four years, and altogether 
was in charge of the auditor's office twenty-four years continuously 
He also served in various other offices, being trustee of Center Township, 
treasurer for many years of the Town of Knox, and a member of the 
Starke County Council, of which body he was its chairman. In each of 
his official capacities he displayed an earnest and conscientious desire to 
aid his community in every possible way. He was noted for his strict 
integrity and honesty, and few men of his community were held in 
higher esteem. About a year previous to his death Mr. Bender suffered 
an attack of dropsy, and in February, 1909, was compelled to be con- 
fined in his bed. He passed away in the midst of his family, death having 


been expected for some time. The funeral was conducted from the home 
on South Main Street and was in charge of Rev. E. W. Sti'ecker. After 
the sermon the members of the Masonic Blue Lodge of Knox and North 
Judson, No. 639, of which Mr. Bender was a past master, took charge 
and conducted the services at the grave. Interment was given in Oak 
Park cemetery. The funeral was largely attended, practically every 
old resident of the county coming to show respect to one who, in the 
vigor of his early manhood, had helped shape the affairs of the county 
and bear the bui'dens always laid upon the pioneer. 

Mr. Bender was married December 1, 1863, at Knox, Indiana, to Miss 
Elvira J. Morris, who was born at Marion, Grant County, Indiana, 
February 11, 1845, educated there until fourteen years of age, and 
came to Knox in 1859, where she completed her education, once being 
a pupil of her husband, who spent a short time as a school teacher. She 
is a daughter of William J. and Margaret (Jones) Morris, the former 
born in Indiana, of Scotch-Welsh ancestry, and the latter a native of 
Kentucky, although reared principally in Grant County, Indiana, where 
her parents were early settlers. The latter were North Carolinians, 
Mr. Jones having been an overseer of slaves in that state and subse- 
quently in Kentucky. Both William and Nancy (Conner) Jones died 
in Grant County, Indiana, the latter being of Scotch parentage. William 
J. Morris was born in 1820, and died at Marion, Indiana, on his farm, 
in 1851. Four years later his widow married Samuel Beatty, who died 
at Knox in 1885, while Mrs. Beatty, now eighty-eight years of age, still 
survives, making her home with a maiden daughter, Bettie. 

Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Bender, namely : Atalanta 
E., born September 11, 1864, was educated at Knox and at the Methodist 
College of Fort Wayne. She was married to J. D. Oakes, proprietor of 
the LaPorte County Abstract Company, and has a grown daughter. Miss 
Elvira, who has been well educated. Marcus V. Bender, born March 
16, 1866, was a student at the Northern Indiana Normal School, also at 
Purdue University, and at the Methodist College of Fort Wayne. He 
was deputy auditor under his father for eight years, then held the same 
position for four years under John W. Kurtz, and was for six years an 
abstracter of titles for Starke County. He is now a resident of Warsaw. 
On October 22, 1895, he was united in marriage to Ada Idelle Swank, 
an accomplished young lady of Walkerton, to which union was born one 
son, Wade S., eisrhteen years of age, who was graduated from the Warsaw 
High School in 1914 as valedictorian of a class of fift.y-three, thereby 
winning an honor scholarship ($120 tuition fees) granted by the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, which institution he entered in the autumn of 1914, 
and will be graduated with the class of 1918. Andromeda Z., born No- 
vember 7, 1867, completed her education in the Methodist College at 
Port Wayne, and is now the wife of James C. Fletcher, a sketch of 
whose career appears on another page of this work. Margaret B., born 
June 18, 1869, died September 8th of the same year. I\Ir. Bender was 
an official in the Methodist church at Knox and superintendent of its 
Sunday school. He was also one of the organizers of the First National 


Bank at Knox and a memlier of its directorate from that time until his 
death, ever being proficient in his work for its interests. 

Mrs. Bender was reared in the faith of the Methodist Church, as was 
her mother, her father being a member of the United Brethren Church. 
During her long residence in Starke County she has formed a wide ac- 
quaintance among its people, and is known for her numerous benevo- 
lences and many excellencies of heart and mind. 

Franklin Pierce Whitson. The passing of three years since the 
death of Franklin Pierce Whitson, which occurred at Knox, September 
20, 1911, has not sufficed to lessen in the minds of those who survive 
him their appreciation of a man whose name was synonymous with 
integrity, justice, honor and business capacity, who during a long resi- 
dence has pei-manently identified himself with the best material, intel- 
lectual and moral advancement of the city. Farming, banking and 
the brokerage business, each received his attention and benefitted by his 
labors, while as a pubic official his services were distinctively helpful 
in character and as a citizen he merited the highest commendation be- 
cause of the stand he took upon all questions of public importance. 

Mr. "Whitson was a native son of Starke County, born near Bass Lake, 
in North Bend Township, December 1, 1853, his parents being Solon 
Oscar and Sarah (Curtner) Whitson, both of whom came from excellent 
families, the father a native of Indiana and the mother of Virginia. 
The records show little history pertaining to the early Whitsons, save 
that Mr. Whitson 's grandfather was a Methodist minister. Solon Whit- 
son was a young man when he came to Starke Comity, and at the age of 
twenty-nine years was married to Mrs. Sarah (Curtner) Turner, who was 
thirty-six years of age, and was already twice a widow. She had also 
lieen an early resident of Starke County, and by her first husband, Mr. 
Case, had eight children, while by her second marriage, to Mr. Turner, 
she had one daughter. Mr. and Mrs. Whitson commenced their married 
life on their farm in North Bend Township, and there their only child, 
Franldin Pierce, was born. Mr. Whitson became widely and favorably 
known in Starke County during the early days, and some time in the '60s 
was chosen to fill the office of county treasurer. Accordingly he moved 
to Knox, the county seat, and while performing the duties of that office 
boarded for a time with Mrs. Lambert, who had been the first white 
woman to settle in this town. He continued to act as county treasurer 
for many years, and when he left the office returned to his farm, on which 
he continued to carry on operations until his death, in 1870, when he had 
reached the age of forty-nine years. Mrs. Whitson survived him until 
1885, and was seventy-one years of age at the time of her death. 

Franklin Pierce Whitson was reared in North Bend Township 
and the City of Knox, and was seventeen years of age at the time of 
his father's death. His education was secured in the district and 
graded schools, where he proved himself an attentive and retentive 
scholar, so that he was able to secure niore knowledge from his training 
than some of his fellows. On the home farm he was brought up to agri- 


cultural pursuits, and upon attaining his majority devoted himself to 
agricultui-al work, carrying on operations until 1884. From the time 
he had cast his first vote, Mr. Whitson had been a strong and uncom- 
promising democrat, aud had done much to aid the success of his party 
in this section. He was also known as a man of absolute integrity aud 
probity of character, aud these qualities combined to make him the 
logical candidate for the office of county treasurer, to which he was 
subsequently elected. During his two terms in that high and important 
office, Mr. Whitson admirably upheld the high record which had been 
established by his father, and left the office with the good will, confi- 
dence and esteem of the people who had placed their trust in him. Al- 
though he did not serve in other offices following that of county treas- 
urer, Mr. Whitson always maintained his interest in the success of his 
party, and did much to insure its gains. 

When he accepted his public office, Mr. Whitson came to Knox to 
reside, and when his second term was completed he decided to remain in 
this thriving and ambitious little city. He accordingly became one of 
the founders of the Farmers State Bank of Knox, of which he was 
cashier and a director for a period of seventeen years. During this time 
the bank prospered greatly and much of its success was accredited to 
Mr. Whitson 's abilities and his devoted application to its interests. He 
was a man of vei-y attractive appearance, but of great physique, and feel- 
ing that his health would be improved in a business less sedentary and 
confining he disposed of his financial interests and entered the brokerage 
business, in which he met with an equal success. While residing at Knox 
he erected a home on South Pearl Street, and there he passed away. Fol- 
lowing his death this house was moved to an adjoining lot, and in 1913 
Mrs. Whitson and her son built their present seven-room house, one 
of the beautiful residences of Knox, with a broad veranda and terrace 
on each side, and with elegant interior appointments. 

Mr. Whitson was married January 19, 1879, in Washington Town- 
ship, Starke County, Indiana, to Miss Katharine M. Green, who was 
born in Union County, Ohio, and when but a child was taken to Wood 
County, in that state, but at the age of nineteen, after having received 
her education, returned to Union County. She came to Washington 
Township, Starke County, Indiana, and here engaged for a time in 
teaching school, in which she had also engaged in Ohio, her entire 
period as an educator covering some eight years. Her parents, Ira and 
Phebe (Heath) Green, were engaged in carrying on agricultural opera- 
tions, improving a good farm in Washington Township, where the father 
died at the age of eighty-six years, and the mother when fifty-seven 
years of age. He had formerly man-ied Betsey Shirk, who died when 
twenty-three years of age, leaving two sons and a daughter, the former 
of whom died young while the latter, Julia, is now the widow of George 
Wade, of Fostoria, Ohio, aud has five children. By his third marriage 
Mr. Green had no children, his third wife being Mrs. Elizabeth Leggett. 
Mrs. Whitson 's sister, Hannah, is now the wife of William Durflinger, a 
farmer near Bass Lake, and has one son, Clyde, and a daughter, Imogene ; 


another sister is Ruth, who was married first to lehabod Colbert, who met 
an accidental death by falling from a tree, leaving three children, — Ira, 
Elizabeth and Rachel, and Mrs. Colbert subsequently became the wife of 
Joseph Deaver, of West Mansfield, Ohio. 

Mr. and Mrs. Whitson became the parents of one son: Franklin 
Forest, born October 24, 1888, who was graduated from the graded 
schools at the age of fifteen years, from the high school at nine- 
teen years of age, and from the South Bend Business College at twenty- 
one years of age. He subsequently became associated in the brok- 
erage business with his father, since whose death he has taken complete 
charge of the brokerage and loan operations, as well as of his mother's 
business interests. He is a very capable and energetic, young business 
man, and is widely and favorably known in Knox and throughout Starke 
County. lie affiliates with Knox Blue Lodge of the Masonic Fraternity, 
No. 639. 

Mrs. \Yhitsou is a member of the Methodist Church. She is a lady 
of marked business ability, amiable character, strong common sense and 
refined tastes, still retains her vigor of mind and body, and is the object 
of sincere respect and cordial regard among a wide circle of friends. 

Jacob S. Short. A lifetime of residence in Starke County, during ■ 
which time he has been connected with the educational interests of the 
section as a teacher, its mercantile operations as the proprietor of a busi- 
ness house, its financial matters in connection with one of the leading 
state institutions, and its public affairs in positions of responsibility and 
trust within the gift of his fellow tov\^^smen, has established for Jacob S. 
Short a reputation for ability, resource and unflagging industry. He is 
one of the captains of success who have piloted their own craft to a safe 
harbor, and from comparative obscurity has risen to the position of 
cashier of the Hamlet State Bank, at Hamlet, in which he is accounted 
one of his community 's sub.stantial citizens. 

Mr. Short was born in California Township, Starke County, Indiana, 
January 3, 1870, and belongs to an old and honored Delawai^e family, 
although his parents, James and Christiana (Westhaver) Short, were 
natives, respectively, of Pennsylvania and Ohio. After their marriage 
they began housekeeping on an unimproved fai-m in California Township, 
Starke County, and LIr. Short was engaged in farming until the outbreak 
of the Civil war, at which time he enlisted in Company D, Twenty-ninth 
Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, an organization with which he 
served three years, participating in some of the hardest-fought and most 
sanguinary battles of the great struggle between the North and the South, 
including Shiloh and Chickamauga, and receiving one of the enemy's 
bullets in his left side and carrying it to his grave. His record was a 
particularly gallant one, stamping him as a brave and faithful soldier, 
and one who was admired by his comrades and esteemed by his officers. 
When the war was finished he returned to his farm, purchasing 120 acres 
in section 9, California Township, and there continued to reside and 
eai-ry on agricultural operations during the remainder of his life, his 


death occurring January 9, 1904, when he was sixty years of age. The 
farm is still undivided and is owned by members of the family, Mrs. 
Short making her home there. She is still hale and hearty, despite her 
seventy-six yeare, and recently demonstrated her fitness by making a 
trip to the State of Washington and back. She, like her late husband, 
is a member of the United Brethren Church, although formerly connected 
with the Methodist denomination. He was a republican in politics and 
was favorably known as a good and public-spirited citizen. Of the nine 
children born to James and Christiana Short, eight are living : Cornelia 
C, who is the wife of Jacob Regg, of Laporte, Indiana, has a family of 
nine children ; Phoebe R., who is the wife of Daniel Sharp, of Bellingham, 
Washington, and has five children ; Jacob S., of this review ; Foster D., a 
farmer of California Township, married and has a daughter; Linus C, 
in business at Bellingham, Washington, married and has a daughter; 
Mary L., who resides at home and is unmarried ; Homer L., formerly a 
teacher, and now a farmer and road building contractor, married and has 
no children ; and J. Lester, a farmer of Laporte County, Indiana, mar- 
ried and has one son. The mother of the above children had the line 
of her family, the Westhavers genealogj- prepared and published in 1912 
by Francis M. Westhaver, of Greenwood, Indiana, a valuable work. 

Jacob S. Short grew up on the home farm, and received his education 
in the county public schools. He was reared to agricultural pursuits, 
and even after he began teaching continued to work on the farm during 
the summer months. He seiwed as an educator for eight terms, seven in 
California Township and one term in North Bend Township, and in 1901 
established himself in business as a merchant at Knox. He continued to 
carry on his operations in mercantile lines until his election to the oiSce 
of county treasurer, in 1906, and so weU discharged the duties of that 
office during his first term that he was chosen to seiwe again and did so 
until January 1, 1911. Mr. Short then came to the Hamlet State Bank, 
of which he has been cashier since it started under this name and state 
charter, in October, 1911, with a capital of $25,000. This bank has always 
paid a dividend. The original bank was known as the Bank of Stai'ke 
County, a private institution, and was founded by the people who control 
the state bank interests, in 1904, with Mr. Stanton and Monroe C. Mc- 
Cormick as directors, and a capital of $10,000, this continuing until its 
organization as a state bank. This is now known as one of the most sub- 
stantial and successful institutions in the coimty, and is growing rapidly, 
its depositors being attracted by the well known ability and reliability of 
its officials, the present officers being: Daniel H. Stanton, president; 
James L. Denaut, vice president ; Jacob S. Short, cashier ; and John M. 
Wolfram, director. A successor to 0. D. Fuller, who died recently, has 
not been named. The excellent condition of this bank is shown in the 
statement made at the close of business, June 30, 1914 : Resources : Loans 
and Discounts, $131,809.65; Overdrafts, $57.27; Other Bonds and Secur- 
ities, $3,750:00; Banking House, $1,850.00; Furniture and Fixtures, 
$2,000.00; Due from Banks and Trust Companies, $18,339.39; Cash on 
Hand, $7,980.61; Cash Items, $594.00; Total Resources, $166,380.92. 


Liabilities: Capital Stock paid in, $25,000.00; Surplus, $4,000.00; 
Undivided Profits, $738.08 ; Exchange, Discounts and Interest, $683.91 ; 
Demand Deposits, $66,818.84; Demand Certificates, $59,140.09; Due to 
Banks and Trust Companies, $10,000.00. Total Labilities $166,380.92. 

Mr. Short was married to Miss Lillie M. Raschka, who was born in 
Starke County, Indiana, in 1872, and reared and educated here, daughter 
of John and Maiy (Kaxie) Raschka, of Germany, who came as young 
people to the United States and to Starke County and were here married 
in California Township. There they established themselves on a farm, 
the father continuing agricultural operations until his death in 1902, 
while Mrs. Raschka is still living with one of her daughters. Of the eight 
children in the family, all are living, and all are married except one. 
Mr. and Mrs. Short are the parents of five children: John E., who com- 
pleted his education at Hamlet, is eighteen years of age, and is associated 
with his father in the bank; James E. and R. Grace, who are attending 
high school ; Walter W., in the sixth grade, who has the remarkable and 
commendable record of having never been tardy or absent since starting 
to school; and Harold, the baby, aged five years. Mr. Short is past 
master of Ivnox Blue Lodge No. 639, A. F. & A. M., and a member of 
tlie Council and Chapter at North Judson. He is a republican in politics. 

Daniel H. Stanton. The career of Daniel H. Stanton is an expres- 
sion of practical and diversified activity, and in its range has invaded 
the fields of agriculture, finance, politics and society, all of which have 
profited by the breadth of his views and the conscientious manner in 
which he has performed his duties, which are distinctive features of his 
work and character. Mr. Stanton, who is now retired from agricultural 
pursuits and living at his home at Hamlet, where he is president of the 
Hamlet State Bank, has taken an important part in the upbuilding and 
development of Starke County. On the paternal side he comes of Irish 
ancestry, his grandfather being Thomas Stanton, who was born in Ireland 
and came to the United States after his mai-riage to Comfort Conway, 
locating in Kentucky and beginning his life in this country as a farmer. 
There his first child was born, Greenbury Stanton, and very soon after 
this event the little family came to Warren County, Indiana, where the 
grandfather established a home. There he continued to be engaged as a 
farmer and through energy and industry was making a success of his life. 
While engaged in some manner of military duty, down the Mississippi 
River, he contracted smallpox, and from the effects of this disease died in 
1820, while yet in service and in the prime of life. This occurred three 
months prior to the birth of his young son, Jesse Conway Stanton, the 
father of Daniel H. Stanton, September 24, 1820. He also had two other 
children : Nancy, who died in young womanhood; and Eliza, who became 
the wife of John Little.iohn, a showman, and resided in the South, where 
both passed away about the time of the Civil war. The widow of Thomas 
Stanton was married a second time, to Daniel Hullinger, who settled in 
Ohio and died in Shelby County, leaving three sons. It is supposed that 


the grandfather was a democrat in his political sympathies, but he is 
not on record as having held public office. 

Jesse Conway Stanton was born in Warren County, Indiana, but was 
reai-ed in Champaign County, Ohio. The family being in humble circum- 
stances, he had little chance to gain an education, and when a mere lad 
was bound out to a hatter, but did not take kindly to that trade and 
finally ran away to engage in farming. He was married in Champaign 
County, Ohio, to Raehael Purkeypile, who was born Januaiy 26, 1821, in 
Ohio, of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, and after their marriage Mr. and 
Mrs. Stanton lived on a farm in that county and there Mrs. Stanton died 
February 22, 1854. Mr. Stanton then married Mrs. Malinda Pike, who 
was born in Ohio some time after 1820, and she died in Hardin 
County, Ohio, in the prime of life, in 1848-9. She left four children by 
her second marriage and had also a small family by Mr. Pike. Jesse C. 
Stanton later came to live with his son, Daniel H., in Washington Town- 
ship, Starke County, and here continued to reside until his death, June 
21, 1887. He was a democrat in his political views, and he and Mrs. 
Stanton were lifelong members of the New Light Christian Church, of 
which he was a layman preacher. Mr. Stanton, although he had been 
given but few advantages in his youth, had developed into something of 
a student in later years, was a great reader and well versed in the Bible, 
and was also known as a good conversationalist and capable political 
orator. I\Ir. Stanton 's children were as follows : Sarah, deceased ; Daniel 
H., of this review ; William P., who is married and has children ; Green- 
bury, who is also married and has a family; John and Mary E., who are 
deceased ; and Blias and Ann Eliza, twins, who died in childhood. 

Daniel H. Stanton was born in Champaign County, Ohio, September 
13, 1842, and was reared and educated in his native community, being 
reared to agricultural pursuits and attending the district schools during 
the short winter terms. There he was married to Miss Sarah J. Hall, who 
was born in Champaign County, Ohio, May 9, 1847, and there reared to 
womanhood, a daughter of Thomas and Theresa (Dickinson) Hall, 
natives of Virginia. Mr. Hall was a son of John and Anna (Hall) Hall, 
who wei-e born in the Old Dominion State, but spent their later years in 
Champaign County, Ohio, where both passed away in advanced years. 
John Hall served as a soldier during the War of 1812, and for his services 
was given a land grant by the United States Government, the property 
being located on the Mississippi River, in the territory that was later 
settled by the :Mormou, Joseph Smith, at Nauvoo, Illinois. Thomas Hall 
was twice married in Champaign County, Ohio, and there passed his en- 
tire life in tilling the soil, becoming a well-to-do and highly esteemed citi- 
zen, and passing away March 4, 1886, when more than seventy-two years 
of age, having l)een born November 8, 1813. His first wife, Mariah Bows- 
man, born May 10, 1812, died in the prime of life, leaving two sons and 
two daughters. The mother of Mrs. Stanton was bom October 24, 1824, 
and died May 9, 1885, having four daughters, all of whom are living, are 
married and have sons and daughters. She was a consistent member of 
the United Brethren Church, while Mr. Hall was a Universalist. 


After his marriage, more than fifty-one years ago, May 17, 1863, Mr. 
Stanton located on a farm in Champaign Covinty, Ohio, to the operation of 
which he gave liis entire time and attention until Febniary, 1868, when 
he came to Starke County, Indiana, and settled on a farm in Washington 
Township. There he purchased and improved a valuable property, which 
he continued to operate as a general farm until 1902, in that year dis- 
posing of his land and retiring to the Village of Hamlet, where his home 
has since been located. He is the owner of valuable land in Davis Town- 
ship, but has not been active in its operation for some years, his attention 
having been diverted to other matters. In 1904, with others, Mr. Stanton 
became an organizer of the Starke County Bank, at Hamlet, a private 
institution, of which he was elected president and a director. This bank 
had a capital of $10,000, but in October, 1911, it was reorganized as a 
state bank, the First State Bank of Hamlet, with a capital of $25,000. 
Since the organization of the bank, Mr. Stanton has continued as its 
president, and as a director, and has missed only two meetings of the 
beard. His own personality and the confidence in which he is held by 
the people have done much to attract depositoi-s to this institution, in 
the management of which he has shown foresight, shrewdness and 
excellent ability in conserving the people's interests. He is a stanch 
democrat, and on occasions has been called upon to fill public offices, 
having served as county commissioner for six years, and for four years 
as trustee of Washington Township. 

The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Stanton have been as follows: 
Victoria E., the wife of Stephen D. Tucker, of Chicago, had two daugh- 
ters both of whom died early in life; Thomas Franklin, a farmer in 
Jackson Township, Starke County, married Bertha Kiser and has one 
son, Leo, who is twenty-tliree years of age and lives at home ; Florence R., 
who is the wife of Walter Gibbs, a mint grower of Starke County, and 
has two children— Fay, the wife of Albert Ross, and Lovey ; Delia ,T., 
who is the wife of Grant Macumber, of Oregon Township, Starke County, 
a fanner, and has one daughter, Leray F. ; Dora, who is the wife of 
Jasper Kiser, a farmer of Starke County, and has two children— Irene 
and Claud, both residing at home ; Clyde, a farmer of Starke County, who 
married Maggie IMasterson, and has four children— Alma, Edith, Ruth 
and Woodrow; Iva P., the wife of Charles Sider, lives in Washington 
Township, and has four children— Delight, Mary J., Beulah C. and Chas. 
Wayne ; and P. Seaman, a fanner of Washington Township, who man-ied 
Bertha Otto, and has two children— Charles D. and Beruice J. 

John M. Wolfram. At present a retired citizen of Hamlet, John 
M. Wolfram has been one of the industrious men of Starke County, 
linking his name with all that is admirable in agriculture and wise 
and progressive in individual life. In his long extended career he has 
discharged his duties as an individual with unvarying fidelity and this 
may be also said of his public life, for at present he is serving efficiently 
in the capacity of justice of the peace. He has been identified with all 
movements tending to promote the best interests of his locality, and has 


made an irreproachable record as a man of strict probity and pure 
motives. By his old neighbors, as well as by the townspeople of Hamlet, 
he is held in the highest esteem. 

John M. Wolfram was born August 4, 1840, in Austria, although 
his ancestry was of the purest German stock. His parents were Simon 
and Margaret (Egelkraut) Wolfram, who were also born in Austria, of 
German parentage, between the years 1815 and 1820. Until he was 
thirteen years of age Simon Wolfram attended the public schools, and 
at that time began to learn the trade of weaver, which he followed in 
his home town in Austria until 1853. Seeing nothing ahead of him in his 
native land but many years of hard labor, with little chance of obtaining 
a competency, Mr. Wolfram finally decided to bring his little family 
to the United States, it then consisting of his wife and three children, 
John M., Mary and Anna C. Mr. Wolfram was very poor, but had 
received assurance of assistance from his wife's brother. Christian Egel- 
kraut, and accordingly the little party set out for Bremen. The vessel 
they had contracted to come on was delayed for some weeks, and young 
Egelkraut, while investigating conditions, found a vessel ready to start 
and accordingly boarded it, this leaving him no time to leave his 
brother-in-law some money. After much delay and unpleasantness in the 
dirty immigrant station, the little party finally secured passage on the 
little sailing ship Norman, which had a very limited capacity, but after 
he had purchased the tickets Mr. Wolfram found himself with but 50 
cents and his kinsman many weeks on his way to America. After three 
days of favorable sailing weather, the wind changed and for two weeks 
the boat made no headway, but finally got a full sail to the west and 
the boat made port at New York City forty -nine days later. It was the 
pitiful, careworn face of Mr. Wolfram's tired and worried wife that 
attracted the attention and pity of a good-hearted German lady who 
was on the way with her future husband, Herman Casper, and they 
gladly came to this distracted little family's rescue, Mr. Casper loaning 
Mr. Wolfram $50 that enabled him to get from New York, via the river, 
lakes and canal, to Huron County, Ohio, where he had friends and kins- 
men and was soon found busy making jeans and other material to repay 
his good friend Casper. After five years, or in 1858, he came on to 
Starke County, Indiana, and located in North Bend Township on a little 
farm of forty acres of rather poor land, although the father continued to 
follow his trade as a weaver of blue jeans, in his later years he 
devoted the greater part of his time to weaving carpets, and was thus 
engaged at the time of his death, which occurred June 27, 1887. Mrs. 
Wolfram died November 7, 1883. They were faithful members of the 
Lutheran Church, and Mr. Wolfram was a democrat in politics. His 
was a life of industry, characterized by the highest integrit.y, and the 
various obstacles, disappointments and difficulties which arose in his path 
were overcome by his perseverance and indomitable spirit. 

John M. Wolfram received only ordinary educational advantages in 
his native land, and was thirteen years of age when the family emigrated 
to the United States. He was variously employed in young manhood, 


accepting such honorable work as presented itself until coming to Starke 
County at the age of eighteen years. He here worked on his father's 
farm until 1865, when he enlisted in Company H, Fifty-third Regiment 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, with which he served for about six months, 
being almost constantly on the move and having i-eached North Carolina 
when he received his honorable discharge by reason of the close of the 
war. Returning to the pursuits of peace, Mr. Wolfram again devoted 
himself to farming, and in the years that followed succeeded in the 
accumulation of 120 acres of well-improved land, not far from the Town 
of Hamlet, in Oregon Township, of which he still owns forty acres. 
That Mr. Wolfram has been progressive is shown by the fact that his 
is the first name to be found on the first petition for a drainage ditch, 
although there were three others that came later before the ditch was 
obtained. Mr. Wolfram carried the chain on the Robbins ditch, one of 
the largest in the county, and at all times has shown himself a useful 
and public-spirited citizen, ready to do his full share in promoting his 
community's interests. For eight years he served Oregon Township 
as deputy sheriff and justice of the peace, and in 1905, when he retired 
from active labors, came to Hamlet, where in 1910 he was elected justice 
of the peace, a position he has since continued to fill with the greatest 

During his younger years, while teaching school in Starke County, 
Mr. Wolfram was married to Miss Elizabeth Groshans, who was born 
at Wapakoneta, Auglaize County, Ohio, June 12, 1840, was reared and 
educated in that county, and when thirteen years of age came to Starke 
County, Indiana, where she was engaged for some time in teaching 
school. She is a daughter of Conrad and Catherine (Wirten) Groshans, 
natives of Wurttemberg, Germany. Mr. Groshans served as a member 
of the civil branch of the German army for thirteen years, in order to 
secure the money to marry the girl whom he loved, and after their 
marriage ]\Ir. Groshans worked as a tailor, at 12 cents per day, while 
Mrs. Groshans served as a seamstress for a stipend of 6 cents a day, 
out of which meagre wage they managed to save enough with which to 
come to the United States. With their first-born, Jacob, they made the 
journey to this country in a sailing vessel, in 1828, the trip taking 
sixty-seven days in the a:ccomplishment from Havre to Baltimore. The 
family first located in Pennsylvania, but subsequently went to Champaign 
County, Ohio, and a few yeai-s later moved on to Auglaize County, in 
that state. Up to this time he had followed the trade of tailor, but in 
Auglaize County purchased wild land and there developed a good farm. 
The wife of this sturdy emigrant was of the greatest help to him, and 
at one time, when he experienced a spell of sickness that kept him dis- 
abled for sixteen weeks, she walked to and from the farm, forty miles 
away, two or three times a week, in order to care for the crops. In 1853 
the family came to Starke County, Mr. Groshans taking up land here, 
and here he passed away April 12, 1858, at the age of sixty-three years, 
Mrs. Groshans dying September 21, 1867, when sixty-nine years of age. 


They were consistent members of the Lutheran Church, and in his 
political views Mr. Groshans was a democrat. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Wolfram there have been born the following 
children: Catherine, the widow of Hamlin Hardesty, living at Hamlet, 
and has three children, Raymond, a graduate of Purdue University, 
Edna B., who is married, and Catherine; Edward, a merchandise clerk 
of Hamlet, married Ida Patrick, and has three children, Mabel, Mildred 
and Earl, all attending school; William A., a merchandise clerk, single 
and residing with his pai-ents; Louisa, the wife of Joseph McCormick, 
for twenty-two years an employe of the Pennsylvania system at Plymouth, 
and has two well-educated children, Ralph C. and Leta E. ; Ann E., the 
wife of Porter Jack, a large farmer of Oregon Township, and has two 
children, Elizabeth and Richard ; Frank C, a cement worker of Hamlet, 
single and living at home ; and Philip J., living at West Lebanon, Warren 
County, Indiana, a large dealer in grain and head of the Wolfram Grain 
Company, of Marshfield, married Rae Shumaker, and has a son, Donald J. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wolfram were confirmed in the Lutheran Church, but 
for some years have been members of the Methodist Episcopal Church 

James S. McCormick. Centi-alized and conducted in the Village 
of Hamlet is a community enterprise of maximum importance in such 
a tine agriculture district as that which lies tributary to the town. 
This enterprise involves the facilities and extensive business controlled 
by the Farmers' United Grain Company, of which Mr. McCormick is 
the efficient and popular manager and which handles an average of 
300,000 bushels of grain annually, a fact that bears its own significance 
as touching the commercial facilities here afforded and the exceptional 
advantages afforded to the farmers of this part of the county. Mr. 
McCormick was one of the organizers of the company, in 1910, and the 
other officers of the corporation are as here designated: Henry C. 
Shultz, a substantial farmer of Davis Township, is president; William 
C. Hayes, vice president ; and Peter Sebeus, treasurer. Associated with 
the executive officers in the ownership of the stock company, which is 
capitalized for .$7,000, are Peter Sebens, of Davis Township; C. 0. 
Harness, Charles Westbrook, E. T. Morse, Charles Swartz and William 
Sebens, likewise substantial farmers of Davis Township. The company 
buys grain from local producers and ships to the leading markets of 
the East and Central West. 

Mr. McCormick was bom in the City of Fort Wayne, Indiana, on 
the 27th of October, 1877, and adequate data concerning the family 
genealogy appear on other pages of this work in the sketch of the 
career of his uncle, Joseph N. McCormick, editor of this history. Mr. 
McCormick was five years of age at the time of his parents' removal 
to Starke County, where he was reared to manhood on the homestead 
farm, in Davis Township, in the meanwhile duly availing himself of 
the advantages of the public schools. He eventually became the owner 
of one of the fine farms of this township and county and the same con- 
tinued to be his place of residence the greater part of the time for 


fifteen years, the property being still in his possession. This admirably 
improved farm comprises 240 acres, in section 9, Davis Township, and 
is on the Kankakee River. It is under a high state of cultivation, is 
devoted principally to the propagation of wheat, oats and corn. About 
one hundred acres are given annually to the growing of corn and the 
average yield is seventy bushels to the acre, the year 1913 having given 
a total yield of fully 7,000 bushels and the product for 1914 being up 
to the same standard. The farm gives equally fine returns in its large 
acreage of wheat and oats. This place has an excellent system of tile 
drainage, everything about the farm shows thrift and prosperity and 
the fine crops indicate the great value of such properly drained land in 
one of the garden spots of the Hoosier commonwealth. 

John T. and Catharine (Rose) McCormick, the honored parents of 
the subject of this sketch, now reside in the Village of Hamlet, each 
having attained virtually to the psalmist's span of three score years 
and ten and their residence in Starke County having covered a period 
of nearly forty years and the father having been a representative mer- 
chant of Hamlet for a long period, prior to which he was for nearly a 
quarter of a century identified with railroad operations, in the employ 
of the Wabash Railroad Company and later in that of the Pittsburgh, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad Company. Of the children the eldest 
is Joseph W., who is baggage master on the Pennsylvania Railroad 
system and who has one son and one daughter; Cora is the wife of 
Charles 0. Harness, a prosperous farmer of Oregon Township, this 
county, and they have two sons and three daughters; Ruey is the wife 
of Frederick Gresham, of the Village of Hamlet, and they have one son 
and two daughters; James S., of this review, was the next in order of 
birth; Charles F. is engaged in the mercantile business at Hamlet and 
he and his wife have two sons and one daughter; and Erwood G., who 
is associated with his brother Charles in the mercantile business, has 
one son. 

James S. McCormick is known as one of the upright, loyal and pro- 
gressive citizens of Starke County and as a reliable and enterprising 
business man. He is affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, the Modern Woodmen of America, in which he has held the 
ofiice of secretary of the camp at Hamlet for nearly a score of years, 
and he is identified also with the local tent of the Knights of the Modem 
Maccabees, in which he has passed various oifieial chairs. His political 
allegiance is given to the democratic party, but he has not been imbued 
with ambition for public ofSce. 

At Grovertown, this county, was solemnized the marriage of 
Mr. McCormick to Miss Mamie Cole, who was born at North Liberty, 
St. Joseph County, this state, on the 4th of September, 1877, and of the 
four children of this union two are living, Marie, bom in 1901, and 
Catherine, born in 1912. Glenn B. died in i?nfancy, and Helen at the 
age of three years. 

Frank Hay. The popular summer resort, Bass Lake, has benefitted 
materially by the labors of Frank Hay, proprietor of the Hay House, 


which was erected in 1894:, and is admirably suited to the various purposes 
of rest and recreation for which it is intended. The owner, who has a 
fine appreciation of the value of fine natural effects, adheres steadily to 
a policy of improvement, with the result that his hotel conforms to every 
demand for comfort and convenience, and throughout the summer months 
this is one of the most popular hostelries of the section. As a summer 
resort it would be hard to discover a place more admirably situated than 
is Bass Lake. The leafing of its beautiful trees in the spring and the 
songs of the early and courageous birds give promise of opportunities for 
communion with nature and healthful enjoyment which continues un- 
abated until the winds of fall whistle through the skeleton branches and 
the ground is covered with its protecting carpet of leaves. Mr. Hay has 
been one of the men to whom may be accredited the advancement and de- 
velopment of this charming locality, for he has labored steadfastly in its 
behalf and has allowed no progressive movement to pass unaided by 

Frank Hay was born near Johnstown, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, 
August 22, 1857, and is a son of Abner Hay, the family tracing its an- 
cestry directly back to Earl William Hay, Earl of Scotland. The early 
records of the family show that one branch migrated from Scotland to 
Alsace-Lorraine, France (now Germany), and it is believed that through 
these emigrants the family has come down to the present time, the pro- 
genitor in America coming here prior to the Revolutionary war. Wil- 
liam Hay and Henry John came to the United States together and set- 
tled at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, and it is from the former that John 
Hay, the grandfather of Frank Hay, was descended, being two or three 
generations removed. After his marriage, grandfather Michael Hay re- 
moved from Pennsylvania to Ohio, and John Hay came later to Fort 
Wayne, Indiana, when his son, Abner, the father of Frank Hay, who had 
been born in 1834, was a very small child. The present thriving and pros- 
perous Indiana city was then little more than a hamlet, and Abner Hay 
had for his playmates principally Indian children. The sparsely settled 
region was infested by roving bands of Redskins; the wild forests close 
at hand held deer, wild turkeys and other game in great abundance ; only 
the necessities of life were to be had, and comforts and conveniences were 
not even expected by the early settlers. Yet these sturdy and self-reliant 
pioneers did not complain; they were satisfied in the knowledge that 
they were making a place for themselves and their children in the new 
West and that they were able, through their industry and perseverance, 
to gain a livelihood among conditions that would have daunted any but 
courageous hearts. 

John Hay continued to reside in Indiana for a number of years and to 
carry on agricultural pursuits with some degree of success, later returned 
to Pennsylvania for a time, then located in Starke County, Indiana, for 
several years, and eventually went to Dunn County, Wisconsin, where he 
spent the evening of life and passed away when nearly ninety years of 
age. That he was able and active, quick of eye and alert in body even 
when advanced years put their stamp upon him, is shown by the fact 


that ou his eightieth birthday he took his squirrel rifle and with it shot 
two deer ou the ruu through the woods. He was a blacksmith by trade, 
a good workman, and at all times was considered a man of integrity aud 
honorable dealing by those who came into contact with him. 

Abner Hay grew up amid pioneer surroundings in Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, and after his marriage again became a pioneer when he came to 
Starke County and located in the wild section of Washington Township, 
about two and one-half miles from Bass Lake. He was a natural me- 
chanic, as well as a farmer, and built the first skiff that was launched on 
the now popular summer resort lake, although prior to that time there 
had been in use a walnut dugout. The wild game aud fish from the lake 
kept the family larder well supplied with meat, as Mr. Hay was both 
a skilled huntsman and fisherman, and it was well that this was so as 
money was a scarce commodity and although the wants of these pioneers 
were few, still they had to make numerous sacrifices. Abner Hay was a 
practical, industrious man, so that he got along well in life, and during 
his latter years passed a good deal of his time in hunting and fishing near 
Spooner, Wisconsin, where was located the Benoit Hunting and Fishing 
Club, consisting of Indiana gentlemen. He is well to do and in the best 
of circumstances, aud is now eu joying the comforts brought to him by his 
years of earnest effort. Mr. Hay is a republican, and was the fii'st of his 
party to be elected to office in North Bend Township, serving some years 
in the capacity of trustee. He enlisted in Company K, Thirteenth Indiana 
Cavalry, in the fall of '63, and was assigned to the Array of the Cumber- 
land under Gen. ' ' Pop ' ' Thomas. He was present at the battles of Nash- 
ville, Franklin and Mobile, aud was on detached duty, but was never 
wounded. He served until the end of the war, in 1865, and received his 
honorable discharge at Indianapolis. He is a member of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 

Abner Hay man-ied Miss Eleanor Emigh, of Cambria County, Penn- 
sylvania, a sister of William H. Emigh, in whose sketch elsewhere in this 
volume will be found the record of the Emigh family. She died in Wis- 
consin in the prime of life, in 1875, having been a devout member of the 
German Baptist Church. Three children were born to this union : Frank, 
of this review ; Mary, who is the wife of Benjamin Moorman, an early set- 
tler of Miami County, Indiana, and the owner of a large estate, and has 
a family of sons aud daughters; and Alice, who married Pliuy Nave, a 
real-estate agent of South Bend, Indiana, and has several married chil- 

Frank Hay grew up in Starke County, and from earliest youth dis- 
played a natural adaptiveness that enabled him to master the rudiments 
of blaeksmithing, boat-building, carpentry, plumbing, etc. In fact he 
may be termed a handy man or a jack of all trades, and there are few 
mechanical problems which he fails to solve. Mr. Hay is an acknowl- 
edged leader at the Lake. He is president of the Bass Lake Improvement 
Company of which he was one of the founders, and during the years 
that he worked in association with Prof. W. H. Blatehly, the state geol- 
ogist, whom he assisted in surveying nearly all the rivers of the state, 


became a great collector of specimens of various kinds, living and dead, 
effecting the geology of the state. 

The Hay House, which was erected by ilr. Hay in 189-1, is one of the 
best on Bass Lake, being very conveniently located, and having fifteen 
rooms, with a dining room capable of accomodating fifty people. Under 
Mr. Hay's able management this house has steadily grown in popularity, 
and is in the enjoyment of a large, liberal and representative patronage. 

Mr. Hay was mai-ried in Starke County, Indiana, to Miss Sarah Lara- 
more, a sister of Charles Laramore, in whose sketch in this volume the 
family history will be found. She was born, reared and educated in 
Starke County, and is the mother of one child : L. Orma, who was edu- 
cated in the township schools and Knox graded schools, and is now twenty 
years of age. Mr. Hay is independent in his political views, and has not 
sought public office. He is a charter member of Knox Lodge No. 296, 
Knights of Pythias, and was formerly a member of the Sons of Veterans, 
his father having fought as a soldier through the Civil war. 

Oscar B. Rockwell. Few citizens of Starke County have wider 
and more exact knowledge of its property valuations than Captain 
Rockwell, who is one of the venerable pioneer citizens of this section 
of the state, who has witnessed and aided in the civic and industrial 
development and upbuilding of Starke and Jasper counties, who repre- 
sented Indiana as a valiant soldier of the LTnion in the Civil war, who 
has held various offices of distinctive public trust, and who completed 
on the 1st of January, 1915, eight years of consecutive service as county 
assessor of Starke County. The captain resides at Knox, the county 
seat, and no citizen is better known or commands more secure place in 
popular confidence and esteem. He is a representative of a family name has been long and worthily identified with the annals 
of American history, as is denoted by the fact that his great-grand- 
father, Jabez Rockwell, was a gallant soldier of the Continental Line 
in the war of the Revolution, in which he served as a member of Com- 
pany Six of the Seventh Regiment, commanded by Colonel Pierson. 

Captain Rockwell was born in Butternut Township, Otsego County, 
New York, on the 8th of September, 1837, and is a son of Levi Clark 
Rockwell and Permelia R. (Knapp) Rockwell, whose marriage was 
solemnized in that township, the latter having been a native of the 
State of Massachusetts, and having been young at the time of her 
parents' immigration to the Empire State. Levi C. Rockwell was 
born in Butternut Township, Otsego County, New York, on the 1st 
of August, 1809, and he attained to the patriarchal age of eighty- 
eight years, his death having occurred in Jasper County, Indiana, 
on the 10th of July, 1897. His cherished and devoted wife, who was 
born at Springfield, Massachusetts, preceded him to the life eternal 
by many years, her death likewise having occurred in Jasper County, 
where they established their home in 1855 as sterling pioneers of this 
part of the state. Levi C. Rockwell emigrated with his family from 
New York State to Indiana in 1854, and on the 1st of ^Mav of tliat 


year he established his residence in ^Montgomery County. In the 
following spring he removed to an embryonic farm in section 36, Kan- 
kakee Township, Jasper County, the place lying on the line of Starke 
County. In a primitive log cabin of the type common to the pioneer 
days the family home was established, and the father, with the aid of 
his sturdy sons, then essayed the herculean task of reclaiming his 
farm to cultivation. The place was eventually made one of the fine 
farms of this section and on this homestead Levi C. Rockwell and his 
wife passed the remainder of their lives, both having been members 
of the Presbyterian Church prior to their removal to Indiana, where 
they became devout adherents of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Mr. Rockwell was originally aligned with the whig party but trans- 
ferred his allegiance to the republican party at the time of its organiza- 
tion and ever afterward continued a staunch supporter of its cause. 
The remains of this honored pioneer and those of his noble wife rest 
side by side in the cemetery at San Pierre, Starke County, not far 
distant from their old homestead. They became the parents of six 
sons and two daughters. Captain Rockwell, of this review, being the 
eldest of the number, four of the sons having served as loyal soldiers 
of the Union in the Civil war and two of the number having sacrificed 
their lives in the cause — ^Wallace H. and Edward S. Wallace H. 
Rockwell died in historic old Andersonville Prison, one of the most 
miserable of the prison pens of the Confederacy, on the 11th of August, 

1864, his capture having been effected at the battle of Chickamauga, 
Tennessee, and his death having resulted from hardships endured in 
the field and in the prison. He was a young man at the time of his 
demise, as was also his brother Edward S. The latter served as a mem- 
ber of the Twelfth Indiana Cavalry from 1864 until the spring of 

1865, when he died in a hospital at IMobile, Alabama, as the result of 
illness contracted while at the post of duty. Another brother, Alfonso 
P., served during virtually the entire period of the war, as a member 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
with which he participated in many of the important battles and minor 
engagements marking the progress of the great internecine conflict. 
He was accorded his honorable discharge at the close of the war and 
has ever since been a resident of Jasper County, Indiana, where he is 
now a retired farmer, residing in the Village of Wheatfleld. Of the 
other brothers it may be noted that George Sheldon Rockwell is a promi- 
nent brick and cement contractor in the City of Valparaiso, this state ; 
and that Malcom V., who has been one of the successful representatives 
of the agricultural industry in Starke County, now resides at Knox, 
the county seat. Of the two sisters the elder is Prances M., who is the 
wife of Thomas H. Robinson, a prominent farmer and stock-grower of 
Jasper County and a veteran of the Civil war, in which he served as 
a member of the Ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. The younger sis- 
ter, Ida Emma, is the wife of George Taylor and they reside on her 
father's old homestead farm, in Jasper County. All of the living 


representatives of this generation of tlie Rockwell family are married 
and have reared children. 

Capt. Oscar B. Rockwell acquired his early education in the 
common schools of the old Empire State and was a lad of seventeen 
years when he accompanied his parents on their migration to Indiana. 
He was reared to maturity on the old homestead farm of which mention 
has been made and availed himself of the advantages of the pioneer 
schools, thereafter continuing his active identification with agricultural 
pursuits until the dark cloud of Civil war cast its pall over the national 
horizon, when he sacrificed his personal interests and responded to 
President Lincoln's caU for volunteers. On the 11th of September, 
1861, he enlisted as a private in Company C, Twenty-ninth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, commanded by Col. John F. Miller, with Silas 
F. AUen as captain of Company C. Private Rockwell was soon after- 
ward made corporal of his company and he forthwith proceeded with 
his command to the front, the regiment being assigned to the Army of 
the Ohio. The first engagement in which he took part was at Green 
River, Kentucky, and later he was with his regiment in the memorable 
battle of Shiloh, the regiment having been a part of the central division 
of the Army of the Ohio, with Gen. Thomas Woods as brigade com- 
mander. Thereafter the history of his gallant regiment stands as 
the virtual record of the remainder of his military career, which was 
marked by ability, lofty patriotism and utmost fidelity, — a record that 
shall ever reflect honor upon his name. He participated in the battle 
of Chickamauga, where his brother Wallace H., who was a corporal in 
the same regiment, was captured. At the battle of Stone's River 
Captain Rockwell received a gun-shot wound in his right leg, below the 
knee, and his injury caused him to be confined to a hospital until he 
recovered sufficiently to rejoin his regiment on the stage of action. At 
the expiration of his three years' term of enlistment he re-enlisted, as 
a veteran, and his entire service covered more than four years. He 
received his honorable discharge December 2, 1865, as captain of Company 
F, Twenty-ninth Indiana Veteran Volunteer Infantry, his commission 
as captain having been received after his participation in the battle of 
Chattanooga. The captain has vitalized the more pleasing memories and 
associations of his military career by active affiliation first with the John 
W. iMcCune Post No. 587, San Pierre, disbanded, and later transferred 
to Daniel Lake Post No. 571, North Judson, disbanded, and transferred 
to Laugdon Post No. 290, Grand Army of the Republic, at Knox, 
Starke County. He was a charter member of McCune Post and is 
active in the affairs of his post, in which he has been prominent and 
influential, as evidenced by his service as its commander. 

After the close of his long and valiant service as a soldier of the 
Union Captain Rockwell returned to Indiana and again turned his at- 
tention to the gi-eat basic industry of agriculture, with which he has 
been identified in both Ja.sper and Starke counties, the while his ability 
and personal popularity liave conserved his preferment in positions of 
distinctive public trust and responsibility. His record as a public 


official is without blemish and his services have brought him into eon- 
tact with the citizens of both Starke and Jasper counties, with the 
result that he has a specially wide acquaintanceship in this part of the 
state, with a virtually equal number of friends. The captain served two 
terms as a trustee of Kankakee Township, Jasper County, and after 
establishing his home in Railroad Township, Starke County, wliere he 
maintained his home for many years, he served two years as a member 
of the township advisory board. In 1890 he was United States census 
enumerator for that township, and since 1907 he has served consecu- 
tively in the office of county assessor, having been re-elected for a 
second term in November, 1911, and having given an administration in 
this difficult and exacting pcsitiou that has met with the highest ap- 
proval on the part of the tax-payer.s of the county. The captain and 
his children hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal Church, as 
did also both his first and second wives, and the family has held a 
prominent place in this section of the state for fully sixty years, with an 
escutcheon that has no stain or other blemish. 

As a young man Captain Rockwell wedded ijiss Louisa Gannon, 
who was born near Crawfordsville, this state, on the 1st of January, 
1839, and whose death occurred on the 16th of June, 1866. She was 
survived by one son, Grant R., who holds a responsible position in one 
of the leading industrial establishments in the City of Wabash. He 
married Miss Delia M. Ridgeway, and they have one son, Thomas Sher- 
man, who was graduated in Harvard University as a member of the 
class of 1914 and with high honors: he holding a position in the editorial 
department of the well-known book-publishing house of the A. W. 
Shaw Publishing Company, at Chicago, Illinois. In Jasper County, 
on January 11, 1871, was recorded the second marriage of Captain Rock- 
well, who then wedded Miss Mary Aeelia Cantwell, who was bom in the 
State of Ohio, March 23, 1851, and who was a girl at the time of the 
family removal to Indiana. She was summoned to the life eternal 
on the 26th of February, 1911, and in conclusion of this sketch are 
entered brief data concerning the children of this marriage : Louisa 
B., born December 20, 1871, died February 4, 1886; Arthur E., bom 
July 8, 1873, is employed as a bookkeeper in the offices of the Stephens 
Manufacturing Company, at Toledo, married Miss Lois Plynn ; they 
have no children ; Elmer Hayes, born Jime 29, 1876, who is employed as 
an expert shoe-lasting mechanic in the City of Binghamton, New York, 
married Miss Marie Burco, no children having been born of their union. 
Both of these sons were afforded the advantages of the public schools 
of Starke County and also those of the Brown Business College of the 
Valparaiso University, at Valparaiso, both also having made excellent 
records as teachers in the public schools. Arthur E. likewise was a 
student at the Tri-State Normal School, Angola, Indiana, and while 
attending this institution, in 1898, he was one of twenty-six students 
who enlisted for service in the Spanish-American war. They became 
members of the volunteer regiment of which Colonel Studebaker was 
colonel, and the regiment was in one of the reserve camps in the South, 


though not called to the field of action, much to the regret of its 

John C. Larrew. Although fifteen years have passed since the death 
of John C. Larrew, he is still well remembered by the people of Starke 
and the adjoining coimties by reason of his long and honorable years of 
activity among them. Mr. Larrew was one of those who wielded the 
implements of destruction as well as those of construction, for he fought 
bravely as a soldier during the Civil war, and when he returned to the 
pursuits of peace so governed himself in a variety of activities that he 
won the esteem and respect of all with whom he came into contact. 

Mr. Larrew was born in Ohio, in 1840, and died July 21, 1899, at 
Knox, Indiana. He was a son of Stephen J. and Eliza J. (Hagle) Lar- 
rew, natives of one of the eastern states who came of a mixed ancestry of 
Scotch, Irish, French and German stock. They located early in Ohio 
and it is thought that they were married in that state, where they entered 
upon their married life as agriculturists. There all of their children 
were born, as follows: Sophina, John C, Martha, Cordelia, Carrilda, 
Charles and Mary A., all of whom were married and had children except 
the youngest, and all of whom are now deceased except Charles and 
Carrilda. During the early '40s the parents came to Indiana and for a 
time resided at Brook, Newton County, and Elwood, Madison County, but 
in the early '60s removed to Knox, at that time a hamlet with a few 
hundred people. Here Stephen J. Larrew pursued his trade, that of a 
custom boot and shoemaker, until his death, which occurred when he 
was about seventy years of age, he being at that time one of his com- 
munity's well-known citizens. Mrs. Larrew had preceded him to the 
grave some years. 

John C. Larrew was still a boy when his parents brought the family 
to Indiana, and he had just about attained his majority when they took 
up their residence at Knox. He was given an ordinary education in the 
public schools, and under the preceptorship of his father learned the trade 
of shoemaker. About this time the Civil war broke across the country in 
all its fury, calling all the patriotic sons of Indiana to the defense of the 
Union, and Mr. Larrew soon joined a body of youths from his locality 
and became a member of Company D, Twenty-second Regiment, Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, with which organization he served until the close of 
hostilities. Mr. Larrew took no part in any serious engagements, and at 
all times had the record of a good soldier, faithful in the performance of 
duty and winning the respect of his officers and the esteem and friendship 
of his comrades. 

When peace had been declared, Mr. Larrew returned to his Indiana 
home, and at Knox, taking up the broken threads of every-day life, he 
established himself in a small livery business. Soon he became a "star 
router" for the United States Government, carrying mail from Knox to 
North Judson, San Pierre, Monterey, and Hamlet. In addition to this he 
operated a hack line between various points, but the advent of tlie rail- 
road with its better and cheaper facilities soon drove him out of this 


industry and he again established his livery business, in addition to 
which he conducted a feed and stock exchange and dealt extensively in 
horses and cattle, both as a trader and dealer. In this line he traveled 
all over Starke and the adjoining counties, and there are many old citizens 
there who will testify not alone to his shrewdness and skill as a dealer, 
but to his honorable methods of carrying on his transactions. Later, Mr. 
Larrew established a smaU bakery, which was at first conducted by his 
wife, and to this subsequently added a grocery department, later selling 
buggies and wagons. As his interests and finances grew, he invested in 
farm lands, wliich he operated to some extent, and in each one of his 
activitii's displayed a versatile ability that made him one of his city's 
best liusiiicss iiK'ii. A democrat in politics, he never mixed in the con- 
troversies of his day, nor could he be induced to run for public office. 
His life, on the whole, was a useful and helpful one, and when he died 
there were many left to mourn his loss. 

Mr. Larrew was married in 1865, at Knox, to Mrs. Catherine (Lash) 
Jackson, the widow of Jesse Jackson, and daughter of Jacob and Sarah J. 
(Miller) Lash, natives of Pennsylvania. Mrs. Larrew 's parents were 
married in the Keystone State and subsequently removed to Sandusky 
County, Ohio, where jMr. Lash died on his fanu in 1834, when about 
thirty-five years of age. His widow was married a second time in Ohio 
to Wilbur Crandall and subsequently removed to Grant County, Indiana, 
and finally late in life came to Knox, where she made her home during her 
declining years with Mrs. Larrew and died at tlie age of seventy-four 
years. Mr. Crandall had died in the State of Mis.souri prior to this time. 

Mrs. Catherine Larrew was born in Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, 
July 14, 1833, and was a babe when she accompanied her parents to 
Sandusky County, Ohio, where her father died three months later. She 
was thirteen years old when she accompanied her mother and stepfather 
to Grant County, Indiana, in 1846, and there she was reared and received 
the greater part of her education in the public schools. There Sirs. Lar- 
rew was united in marriage with Jesse Jackson, of Ohio, but who became 
a pioneer farmer and miller in Grant County, Indiana, and in 1858 they 
came to Starke Cotinty, Indiana, and located on a farm of nearly a half 
a section in Center Township, which Mr. Jackson had secured in trade 
for a mill he had owned in Grant County, near Marion. On this farm 
they lived until 1862, when Mr. Jackson consummated another trade, giv- 
ing his farm in exchange for a property in Knox, including one of the 
best residences in the town at that time, several lots, a store and $1,000 
worth of merchandise and general store supplies. Becoming a merchant, 
he was suceessfidly engaged in business until his death, in 1865. He was 
a democrat in polities, and took an active interest in the affairs of his 
community, serving in the capacity of county commissioner for a number 
of years. He was a consistent member of the Christian Church. Three 
sons were born to Mr. and Mrs. Jackson, namely: Jesse, who is 
engaged in farming in Center Township, is married and ha.s two 
sons. Forest and Cecil, the former of whom is married and has a 
son, Glenn ; Andrew J., a general workman, who resides with his mother 


and is the father of two ehildren, — "Wilbur aud Lora ; and Henry Allen, 
who is now in business as a shipping clerk in Cliicago, is married and has 
four children, — William, Marceliue, Ross and Pauline. 

Mr. and Jlrs. Larrew were the parents of four children, as follows: 
WUliam C, who is successfully engaged in business at Knox as the 
proprietor of a leading department store, married Jessie Smith, and has 
two children, — Charles who is married and has a daughter, Katheriue; 
and Gertrude, who is single ; Addie L., who was first married to Charles 
Hart and had two children, — George B. and Malia J., the latter married 
and a well-known violinist, and Mrs. Hart was married to David Connell 
of Kokomo, Indiana, where they now reside ; Alonzo Everett, who died at 
the age of one year, and another who died unnamed. 

Mrs. Larrew still survives and is one of the best known and most 
highly esteemed ladies of Knox, where she still resides in the old home, 
one of the landmarks of this attractive city. She has done much for 
charity, in a private way, and for many years has been connected with 
the Free Methodist Church, of which she is now a member. 

William Henry Emigh. Of the men whose ability, industry and 
forethought have added to the character, wealth and progress of that 
well-known and beautiful summer resort, Bass Lake, Indiana, none stand 
higher than William H. Emigh. Mr. Emigh is a hotel man, not only by 
training and broad experience, but by temperament and preference, and 
the manner in which he has conducted the Best View Hotel has done 
much to add to the popularity of the community in which this hostelry is 
located. A man of sterling worth of character, he is a worthy repre- 
sentative of an honored family which originated in Germany and was 
founded in the United States by the great-grandfather of Mr. Emigh, 
who emigrated to this country a century and a quarter ago and settled in 
Pennsylvania, where during the remainder of a long and active career he 
was engaged in the peaceful pursuits of the husbandman. Both he and 
his wife were members of the Lutheran Church, and were well known 
and highly respected people of their day and community. 

The grandparents of William H. Emigh were Frederick and Kath- 
erine Emigh, both of whom were born in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 
where they passed their entire lives. They were reared in rural com- 
munities and throughout their careers were identified with agricultural 
matters, accumulating handsome competencies as a result of many 
years of hard and industrious labor. The mother reached the age 
of eighty-two years, Frederick Emigh having passed away several years 
before. They were known as honest, industrious and God-fearing people, 
were faithful members of the Lutheran Church, and Mr. Emigh was a 
democrat in his political views. Of their four sons and three daugh- 
ters, all grew to man and womanhood, all were married, and all are now 
deceased with the exception of Eva, who is the widow of Rynard Rhodes, 
lives at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, and is eighty-seven years of age, she 
having been the youngest of the children. Of these seven children. Chris- 
tian, the father of William H. Emigh, was the eldest. He was born in 


1820 and grew up in Pennsylvania, principally in Cambria County, 
where he became the owner of a farm and carried on agricultural pur- 
suits. In addition to his operations as a farmer, he was the owner of a 
sawmill and also followed the trade of blacksmith, being, all in all, a re- 
markably industrious and versatile man. His land was later discovered 
to cover a valuable coal field, and is now used for mining. 

In 1849, in company with a friend, one Daniel Murphy, Mr. Emigh 
crossed the plains to California in search of gold, and upon arriving at 
Salt Lake City secured a yoke of oxen and a pair of cows, which he drove 
on before him to the goal of the ' ' forty-niners. ' ' Arriving at his destina- 
tion, he discovered that his services were greatly in demand as a mill man, 
and accordingly he accepted a position as such and was given excellent 
wages. Returning by way of the Isthmus, Mr. Emigh again took up his 
residence at his former location in Cambria, where he continued to suc- 
cessfully operate his sawmill until 1867, and at that time came with his 
family to Indiana and settled in Washington Township, Starke County. 
This was at that time practically new country, almost wholly unculti- 
vated, with pioneer conditions existing all around. The first home of 
the Emighs was a hewed log cabin, but as the years passed and Mr. 
Emigh was able to put his 160-acre farm under cidtivation this was re- 
placed by a good frame house, and barns and outbuildings improved the 
appearance and value of the property. There Mr. Emigh passed the 
balance of his life, in earnest and steadfast endeavor, and died in 1907. 
One of his community's best known men, he served for eighteen years in 
the capacity of justice of the peace of his township, and was an influen- 
tial factor in republican politics at all times. Widely known, his friend- 
ships were numerous, and his death was sincerely mourned by many of 
the residents of this county. 

'Sir. Emigh was maiTied in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, to Miss 
Mary Paul, who was born in that county, and there grew to womanhood. 
She died several years ago, at Knox, having attained the remarkable age 
of ninety-two years. A woman of many excellencies of mind and heart, 
Mrs. Emigh, like her husband, was much beloved. Both were members of 
the Methodist Church. Of their six sons and seven daughters, one son 
died in young manhood, while all the rest grew to maturity and were 
married, and three sous and two daughters are still living, all havin;; 

William Henry Emigh was born in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, 
September 24, 1861, and was still a child when brought to Starke County, 
Indiana, by his parents. He grew to manhood in Washington Township, 
dividing his youth and boyhood between attendance at the district schools 
and work on the home farm. Mr. Emigh followed the vocation of agri- 
culturist until 1901, in which year he came to Bass Lake and purchased 
five acres of land on the north bank of this beautiful body of water, where 
in 1905 he erected the Best View Hotel. This he has conducted to the 
present time, with a gratifying measure of success, the house now having 
the reputation of being one of the largest and best hotels on the lake, with 
twenty-five rooms, a large dining room which seats 100 guests, and the 


latest and best improvements and conveniences of every character. In 
the management of this hostelry Mr. Emigh and his family endeavor in 
every way to satisfy the wishes of their guests, and it is the homelike 
character of the comforts and cuisine that attract so many to this house, 
which is constantly growing in popularity. 

Mr. Emigh has been prominent in public affairs, having served six 
years as county commissioner and being the present candidate of the re- 
publican party for the office of treasurer of Starke County. His public 
service has been characterized by conscientious devotion to duty, and at 
all times he has endeavored to cooperate with other stirring and public- 
spirited citizens in the attainment of a fuller measure of prosperity and 
progress. He is a member of the Ancient Order of Gleaners, in which 
society he has numerous friends. 

ilr. Emigh was married at Knox, Indiana, February 26, 1886, to Miss 
Mary Reish, who was born in Darke County, Ohio, June 26, 1S62, and 
was reared and educated there and in the City of Knox, to which she 
came as a child of twelve years. She has been a great help to her husband 
in his struggles for success, and has done much to increase the hotel's 
prosperity. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Emigh ; Edith 
C, a graduate of the Technical College, Indianapolis, where she took a 
special course for librarian, was for five years assistant in the library at 
Illinois University, Champaign. On January 12, 1915, she married Paul 
Gordon Burt, an architect, and their residence is Oak Park, in the City of 
Chicago. Hazel Lenore, who is a student at Oxford (Ohio) College, class 
of 1915, assists her mother at the hotel in the summer months. Both 
daughters are active workers and members of the Christian Science 
Church, and Edith C, having been second reader in the Church at Cham- 

D.S.NIEL FoLTz. It was the fortune of the late Daniel Foltz to begin 
his career in Starke County, in 1869, as the owner of five acres of land 
at Knox, which was then but a small hamlet, and to cease his activities 
four years before his death as one of the most substantial citizens of his 
community. It is doubtful if so wide a divergence appeared upon the 
speculative horizon of the young man, who, having been born December 
20, 1834, at Altensteig, Province of Wurttemberg, Germany, was thus 
humbly, but honestly, adjusting himself to a life of industry in a 
practically new community. He had, however, much to assist him in 
fundamental requisites of good citizenship, for he had received a good 
training, and was of excellent birth, a member of an old and honored 
German family and the son of George and Christina Foltz, who passed 
their lives in the Fatherland, where the father passed away some years 
before the mother, the latter being nearly eighty years old at the time 
of her demise. 

Daniel Foltz grew up at his native place and there received his 
education in the public schools, succeeding which he learned the trade 
of stone mason under the preceptorship of his father. He chose as his 
life partner Barbara Hoffman, who was born at Altensteig, February 14, 


1S34, a daughter of German people who belonged to an old family there, 
and who died when not much past middle life, the father being a shoe- 
maker. Mr. Foltz and his sweetheart went to France and were married 
in the City of Paris, May 6, 1857, immediately succeeding which they 
started for the United States. After a stormy voyage of forty-three 
days, during which the sailing vessel was nearly capsized and the food 
and water supplies were exhausted, port was finally made at New York, 
and in that city the young couple resided for one year. In 1858 they 
made their way to Logansport, Indiana, in which city Mr. Foltz worked 
a pax't of the time at his trade and in the stone quarries, while he also 
had some experience as a farmer on a tract of land in Cass County, 
and thus continued to be engaged for a period of twelve years. In 1869 
he came to Knox, having received glowing reports of the agricultural 
opportunities to be found in Starke County. During the year of his ar- 
rival Mr. Foltz purchased five acres in the little hamlet, on Main Street, 
now near the heart of the city and the present site of the Free Methodist 
Church. This is now one of the best developed residence sections of 
Knox, but at that time contained only one log cabin, and in this Mr. Foltz 
and his family resided for a year. Subsequently he bought a tract of 
land of 421/2 acres, 21/, miles southwest of Knox, in Center Township, 
and there settled down to carry on agricultural pursuits, and from time 
to time adding to his holdings until he had increased his first purchase 
by 100 acres. When he first located on this land his capital was small 
and he was forced to be content with a small log cabin as a residence, 
but this was later replaced by a comfortable white frame house of nine 
rooms, in which he continued to make his home until within four years 
of his death, when he retired to Knox and there lived quietly during the 
remainder of his life, his death occurring January 11, 1912. Mr. Foltz 
was an industrious and energetic agriculturist, and at all times kept 
himself fully abreast of the numerous changes which the years brought 
in the science of farming. He was always ready to adopt new methods, 
had the capacity for recognizing opportunities, and could always be de- 
pended upon to carry them through to a successful conclusion. His 
land was made attractive by the residence before mentioned, a large 
red bam and outbuildings of a substantial character, and his good 
management and industry were made evident by the handsome appear- 
ance and good repair of his machinery and equipment of every kind. 
While he was acknowledged to be a shrewd and far-seeing business man, 
always watchful of his own interests, the manner in which he conducted 
his transactions with his fellow-men left no doubt as to his strict in- 
tegrity. Having sncceeded himself, he was ever ready to assist others 
in their struggles for position and independence. A stalwart democrat, 
he supported his party's candidates vigorously, but did not care for 
personal preferment. Beneficial movements for his community could 
depend absolutely upon his cooperation and contributions. Both he 
and his wife became members of the Free Jlethodist Church, in which Mr. 
Foltz sem-ed for many years as trustee, steward and class leader, and 
as a teacher in the Sundav school. 


To Mr. and Mrs. Foltz there were born eleven children, as follows: 
one who died in infancy ; Joan, who became the wife of Joseph M. Kriss, 
of Winamac, Indiana, and has three children, — Hattie who married 
Willard R. Lowe and has two children, Clara who is single, and Otto 
Kriss who is married and lives at North Judson ; John, a successful 
farmer of Center Township, Starke County, who married Miss Jennie 
Lockridge and has two children, — Edward and Bessie, both residing at 
home; Daniel, also a successful farmer, who married at Hamlet, In- 
diana, Miss Ella Smith, and has five children, — Ollie, Fred, Mabel. 
Harrj' and Gertrude ; Louisa, who was well educated in the public schools, 
is single and living with her sister, Tena; Christena ("Tena") A.; Wil- 
liam M., her twin, living on the old homestead in Center Township, who 
married Clara Harmon, and has four children, — John, Vance, "Wilbert 
and Clarice, all at home; Eliza, who is the wife of Dwight Hepner, a 
railroad brakeman of Hammond, Indiana, and has one son, — Norton; 
Barbara, who is the wife of Alonzo Miller, a farmer in the vicinity of 
North Judson, Indiana; Mary, formerly a teacher and later the wife 
of William Giles, of Knox, died at tlie birth of her last child, when she 
was thirty-two years old, leaving three children, — Laredo, who lives 
with her Aunt Tena, and Barbara and James, who live with their other 
aunts; and Amanda, who is single. 

Miss Christena A. Foltz, aifectionately known as "Tena." is the 
oldest educator in Starke County in point of service. She began teach- 
ing after securing a good education in the schools of Knox, and was 
given her first school in 1885, since which time she has been continu- 
ously devoted to her chosen work. Perhaps no other teacher in the 
county has gained such widespread and sincere popularity. She has 
lived to teach three generations, and the work she has accomplished is 
of a character that is one of the gi-eatest forces in the upbuilding and 
advancement of a community. She has never ceased to be a student 
herself, and in 1910 took a post-graduate course at Valparaiso. Miss 
Foltz was reared in the faith of the Free Methodist Church and there has 
been an active worker and for a number of years a teacher in the 
Sunday school. She has also contributed to the upbuilding of the 
town by the purchase of a handsome eleven-room residence, bought by 
her in 1908, at the corner of Pearl and Johns streets, where she and her 
sister, Louisa, make their home. Her sisters, Joan, Mary and Amanda 
are also members of the Free IMethodist Church. 

Theophilus J. Meyers. For many years Mr. Meyers has been re- 
garded as one of the most successful agriculturists of Starke County, 
with a fine farm in section 2 of Center Township, his postoffiee being at 
Hamlet. Farming, however, is the occupation of his later years, and a 
source of enjoyment as well as profit. Mr. Meyers was for a number of 
years one of the most expert iron and steel workers in the country, and 
gave his services and laid the basis for his prosperity in the steel mills 
about Chicago and also in the East. 

Theophilus J. Meyers was born in Dantzic, Germany, April 25, 1861, 


His parents, Antone and Josephine (Meyers) Meyers, who bore the same 
name but were not relatives, were natives of the same country and lived 
and died near the City of Dantzic as substantial farming people. The 
father died at the age of fifty-four and the mother at sixty-three. 
They were Catholics in religion, and had a family of nine children, 
seven sons and two daughters, four sons and two daughters growing to 
maturity. There are four still living. The two sisters live in Germany. 
Theophilus Meyers has a brother Anton who is a farmer at Morton 
Grove northwest of Chicago, and has a family of three sons and three 

The fifth child, Theophilus J. Meyers, grew up and was educated in 
Germany, and received some technical training there. At the age of 
eighteen, in 1880, he embarked on a vessel at Bremen, the steamer Haps- 
burg, and went by way of Southampton, England, landing in Castle 
Garden, New York, in May, 1880. Coming west to Chicago in the fall 
of the same year, Mr. Meyers began his career as an American in the 
North Chicago Rolling Mills. During the two j^ears spent there his 
proficiency brought him advancement, and on account of his skill he was 
promoted to another place in the Illinois Steel Company at South Chi- 
cago and assigned to the finishing department. In a few years he was 
credited with being the highest paid man in his department, his wages 
running as high as $200 per month. For fifteen years Mr. Meyers gave 
that company his best service. In the meantime he had bought 120 acres 
of land in Center Township of Starke County, and in 1900 moved his 
home to the farm, though his career as an agi'ieulturist was interrupted 
by further service in his business as an iron and steel worker. At 
Youngstown, Ohio, he was employed in the steel works a year, and after 
another interval of quiet industry on his farm was called to the Lacka- 
wanna Steel Works at Buffalo, New York, and was with that company 
nearly three years. In December, 1910, Mr. Meyers returned to the 
Starke County homestead and has since devoted all his time and attention 
to its operation. Under his management his land has been thoroughly 
drained, and has gro-mi many successive and large crops of corn, wheat 
and oats, and he has some excellent stock on his place. 

Mr. Meyers was married in Chicago twenty-eight years ago to Cath- 
erine McDonnel, a native of that city, and a daughter of Francis McDon- 
nel, a puddler in the steel mills. Mr. McDonnel was born in Ireland, and 
married in this country Margaret Iveress, who was born of Irish parents. 
Mr. McDonnel and his wife died in Chicago, he about forty and she past 
forty-nine years of age. They were Catholics. Mrs. Meyers died at her 
home in Center Township, July 12, 1908, at the age of thirty-seven years 
and eight months. She became the mother of ten children, and died 
with her last child at its birth. The living children are: Frank, un- 
married, and Joseph, who conducts a garage at Knox, married 
Grace Reynolds, daughter of Robert Reynolds of Starke County; 
Margai-et, aged twenty-two ; Theo, aged eighteen ; James, aged thirteen ; 
William, aged eleven ; and Edward, aged nine, all the younger children 


living at home. Mr. Meyers with his family worships in the Knox 
Catholic Church, and he and his sons are democratic voters. 

WiLLLVM S. PuLVER. One of the young men of progressive enter- 
prise whose energies are contributed to the welfare of the community 
as well as to the accumulation of a goodly share of material prosperity is 
William S. Pulver, who has one of the lai'gest and best equipped farms 
in Starke County, located at Brems, in section 6 of Center Township. 
He partly owns and manages an estate of 335 acres. He carries on the 
solid industry which in Indiana brings good crops, and is considered the 
leading business man of the little community of Brems. Mr. Pulver 
owns the elevator at Brems, with a capacity of 12,000 bushels, and has 
a large trade in grain and coal. On his fanu is a fine stock, grain and 
hay barn built in 1912. The Pulver family have owned this land since 
1901, and it was purchased by Mr. Pulver 's father. William S. Pulver 
has operated the land for the past five years. 

He was born near Paw Paw in Lee County, Illinois, May 29, 1881, and 
grew up and was educated in that vicinity, and trained for business by 
a course at Dixon, Illinois, in a business college. His parents were Wil- 
liam J. and Mary E. (Sherwood) Pulver. His father was a native of 
New York and his mother of Lee County, Illinois, where they were mar- 
ried and took up life as farmers in Wyoming Township near Paw Paw. 
William J. Pulver exhibited a great deal of practical judgment and en- 
terprise, prospered as a farmer, and owned a large amount of property 
outside of his homestead. He died at Paw Paw, August 29, 1913, 
having lived retired for the last twelve years. His widow is still liv- 
ing in Paw Paw at the age of sixty, and is a member of the Methodist 
Church. William J. Pulver was a prohibitionist in politics. 

WUliam S. Pulver is the third in a family of three sons and 
four daughters. In Marshall County, Indiana, in November, 1908, he 
married Miss Myrtle M. Cooper who was born in that county and ac- 
quired her education there. Her parents were William and Rosa (Suit) 
Cooper, who now make their home in Wexford County, Michigan, on a 
farm. Her mother is a member of the United Brethern Church. Her 
father is a republican. Mr. Pulver and wife have one son: William 
Franklin, born March 1, 1911. Their church home is the Methodist at 
Knox, and Mr. Pulver votes with the republican party. 

Nathan Rebstock. Few residents of the country community in 
Starke County have more thoroughly deserved the esteem and high 
standing among fellow citizens than Mr. Rebstock, whose home has been 
in this county .since childhood. His years were still those of boyhood 
when he first took a hand in the practical affairs of life, and with little 
education and relying almost entirely on his native ability and industry 
he has prospered as few other residents in his section have, and now 
enjoys not only a comfortable competence, an excellent home, but has 
been honored by his fellow citizens with positions of trust and responsi- 
bility, and his name appears among those patriotic young men wlio went 


out from Starke County during the early '60s and fought for the 
Union. Jlr. Rebstock"s home is ou section 4 of Center Township. 

Nathan Rebstoek has lived in Starke County since 1852, first in 
Wayne Township and since 1856 in Center To\vnship. In 1870 he 
bought the 280 acres lying in Center and Davis townships which com- 
prise his present estate. When he acquired the laud it was in a wild 
condition, and the improvement which more than anything else has 
made it productive and valuable was the construction by dredging of two 
open ditches which afford excellent drainage. The house and barns are 
commodious and well adapted for their purpose, and Mr. Rebstoek now 
enjoys the fruit of an orchard planted by himself. His crops are corn, 
wheat, oats, potatoes and other staples, and he has for many years kept 
good horses, cattle and hogs. 

Nathan Rebstoek was boi'u in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, March 11, 
1844. When eight years of age, he was brought to Starke County, and 
here spent the remaining days of his youth, and had his education in 
the local schools. At the first call for three-year men, Mr. Rebstoek en- 
listed from Starke County ou December 6, 1861, in Company D of the 
Twenty-ninth Indiana Infantry. His command went to Louisville, was 
assigned to the great armies battling for the possession of the Cumber- 
land and Mississippi River Valley, and his first important engagement 
was at Shiloh in Api-il, 1862. At the close of the same year he fought 
at Stone River under General McCook. In that terrific battle he went 
through without a scratch, but later in the year at Chiekamauga was 
shot through the right leg, a wound that confined him in the hospital 
until his honorable discharge on ]\Iay 14, 1864. 

With this fine record as a soldier Mr. Rebstoek returned home to 
Center Township, and has since been steadily going ahead as a farmer, 
business man and citizen. In 1865 Mr. Rebstoek married Miss Nancy 
Stewart, who was born in Harrison County, Ohio, January 31, 1846, 
and came to Starke County with her parents James and Elizabeth 
(Palmer) Stewart. They settled in Wayne Township, and her father 
improved a farm out of wild laud. Later her parents moved out to 
Kansas in 1870 and died in Harvey County of that state wheu about 
seventy years of age. They were members of the Christian Church, and 
her father was a republican. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rebstoek have two living children : Alice is the wife 
of Joseph Lancaster, a carpenter and contractor at South Bend, Indiana, 
and they have a daughter, Minnie, who is the wife of William Myers, 
and the mother of two daughters; Professor Carson Rebstoek, the only 
living son of Mr. Rebstoek, is a well known educator and has a sketch 
elsewhere in this publication. The deceased children are mentioned as 
follows : Charles, who was married but had no children ; Elizabeth, who 
died after her marriage to Jesse Coffin, leaving children, Cecil, Virgil 
and Gladys; Delia was the wife of Frank Head, a teacher, and left. a 
daughter Ethel; Grace married Inis Hatter, both now deceased, and 
their children Ralph and Hazel live with their grandparents. ^Ir. and 
Mrs. Rebstoek are Wesleyan Church people. Mr. Rebstoek is a demo- 


crat, and for four years served as township trustee of Center Town- 
ship. His fraternal affiliations are with the Knights of Pythias at 

William F. McIntiee. Shrewd business ability, capacity for per- 
severing labor, appreciation of the many advantages of his vocation, 
and belief in his own power to achieve success have combined to place 
William F. Mclntire in a position where he may be justly accounted 
one of the substantial agriculturists of Starke County. He has been a 
resident of Indiana since he was two yeare old, and during the past 
twelve yeai-s has lived in Starke County, where he is now the owner of 
a valuable farm of 160 acres in section 3, Center Township. His citizen- 
ship has been such as to win for him his fellow-citizens' respect and good 
will, and, all in all, his career has been a highly successful and satis- 
factory one. 

Mr. Mclntire was born at South Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, 
March 24, 1873, and is a son of Joseph and Johanna (Randahn) Mcln- 
tire, the former born in Ohio, and the latter in the City of Berlin, Ger- 
many. Mrs. Mclntire was a small child when she accompanied her 
parents to the United States, the family settling in Chicago, where her 
father, Frederick Randahn, conducted a hotel for farmers. The great 
Chicago fire of 1871 caused Mr. Randahn to lose all his possessions, and 
he was compelled to begin life anew on a farm in the vicinity of Blue 
Island,* Illinois. This he sold and bought another property near High- 
land, Indiana, but disposed of this tract to buy a hotel at Hobart, 
Indiana, which he conducted for a short time. Later he gave up 
the hotel business and returned to the Highland farm, and there passed 
the remaining years of his life in tilling the soil, both he and his wife 
passing away there when about eighty years of age. 

Joseph Mclntire grew up in his native Buckeye State, and as a young 
man went to Chicago, where he met and married ]\liss Randahn, who at 
that time was living at the old farmei-s' hotel. Subsequently they went 
to Hobart, Indiana, with the Randahns and there Mr. Mclntire con- 
ducted the Hobart House, a hotel, but sold out to enter agriculture, 
securing a farm near Hobart. After a number of years of active and 
successful farming, Mr. Mclntire retired to his home at Hobart, where 
he and Mrs. Mclntire are now spending the evening of their lives in 
comfortable retirement, being seventy and sixtj^-five years of age, re- 
spectively. Mr. Mclntire is a republican. He has professed no religion, 
but is a Christian man and has given his share to religious and charitable 
movements. Of the three sons and six daughters of Joseph and Johanna 
Mclntire, all but one have married and are tlie heads of families, and 
William F. is the only one residing in Starke County. 

William P. Mclntire was two years of age when he accompanied his 
parents to Indiana, and his education was that to be secured in the 
country schools. Reared amid agricultural surroundings, when he 
reached his majority he adopted farming as his life work, and in this 
he has continued to be engaged. His advent in Starke County occurred 


in 1902 and for several years he was engaged in farming in California, 
Jackson and Davis townships, but finally settled in Center Township, 
which he has since had good cause to believe contains the l>est kind of 
soil for his purposes. His present property is a valuable farm of 160 
acres, black sand soil of the best kind, on which there is not an acre of 
waste land. This he devotes to general farming, successfully raising 
all the cereals and staples, as well as breeding a high grade of live- 
stock. The land is well drained by two large dredge ditches, and all of 
the improvements are of the most modern character, including up-to-date 
power machinery and the most approved equipment. His home is a re- 
modeled and commodious farmhouse, presenting an attractive appear- 
ance in its coat of white paint, in addition to which he has a large 
grain bam and various other buildings which are of substantial charac- 
ter. That Mr. Mclntire is a skilled and progressive farmer is shown by 
the large average per acre of his crops, and his business ability is 
vouched for by those with whom he has had dealings, who will also 
testify to his strict integrity. 

Mr. Mclntire was married at Hobart, Indiana, June 17, 1896, to Miss 
Atta Liston, who was born at Piper City, Illinois, January 18, 1878, and 
who spent several years of her early life in the West. Her father, 
James Liston, was born in Scotland and came to the United States as a 
child, his parents locating in Illinois, where practically all of his life has 
been spent. He is now retired from active affairs, and is past sixty 
years of age. Mr. Liston spent his active years in agricultural pursuits, 
gained success through industry and perseverance, and has always been 
highly esteemed by those among whom he has labored. He married 
Elizabeth Patterson, who was born and reared in Illinois, but who was 
the daughter of sturdy people of the Pennsylvania-Dutch community of 
the Keystone State. She died when Mrs. Mclntire was four years of 

To Mr. and Mrs. Mclntire there have been born two children, namely : 
"William P., who was born April 1, 1898, graduated from the graded 
schools before reaching his fourteenth birthday, and is now at home, a 
valued assistant to his father; and Frederick James, born February 11, 
1900, who is a student in the graded schools. Mr. Mclntire is a repub- 
lican in his political faith, but it would seem that his time and energies 
have been monopolized by his agricultural interests, so that he has had 
little to do with political matters. He has, however, allied himself to every 
movement that has promised the advancement of his locality in any way, 
and has always proven himself a stanch friend of education and good 
citizenship. His numerous friends throughout this part of the county 
indicate his general popularity. In Mr. Mclntire 's struggles toward 
independence and substantial position, he has been aided ably by his 
wife, who is a woman of good judgment and capacity, and who, like her 
husband, has numerous friends here. 

John Wylie has been a resident of Starke County since 1903 
and was successfully engaged in the restaurant business in the City 


of Knox until March, 1914, when he retired to his attractive little 
homestead in section 15, Center Township, in the immediate vicinity of 
Knox, where he has since given his attention to market gardening, in 
which he finds both pleasure and profit, though he is nominallj' retired 
from active business. His career has been mai-ked by earnest endeavor 
and in the land of his adoption he now finds his lines cast in pleasant 
places, with a home in which peace and prosperity find marked exempli- 
fication. He has won a host of friends within the years of his resi- 
dence in Starke County and is a citizen well worthy of recognition in 
this publication. 

A scion of a staunch old family of Ulster, Ireland, and one that has 
ever retained the Protestant faith of the more remote Scottish forebears, 
Mr. Wylie himself claims the fair Emerald Isle as the place of his 
nativity, both his parents and their parents having there passed their 
entire lives in County Down. Mr. Wylie was bom at Groomsport, 
County Down, on the ISth of May, 1860, and is a son of William and 
Ann (Dawson) Wylie, who continued their residence in that county 
until the close of their lives, as previously noted. William Wylie was a 
tailor by trade and followed this as a vocation for many years. As a 
youth he served ten years in the British army, and six years of this 
period he passed in South Africa, where he participated in many en- 
counters with the natives, especially the Kaffirs, and on a number of 
occasions narrowly missed death at the hands of the natives, who still 
depended upon their original, crude, but effective weapons. After his 
return to Ireland he continued to be engaged in the work of his trade, 
on a modest scale, until he was well advanced in years, and he was about 
eighty-four years of age at the time of his death, his wife having sur- 
vived him by about two years and likewise having been of venerable age 
when she was summoned to the life eternal. Both were earnest mem- 
bers of the Episcopal Church and they lived righteous, upright and 
kindly lives, with no desire or opportunity for aught of ostentation. 
They became the parents of four sons and one daughter, of whom James, 
the eldest, still resides in County Down. He has reared a family of 
children and he and his wife are in fairly prosperous circumstances. 
Jane, who is the wife of Joseph Simpson, still maintains her home in 
her native county. She has no children. William recently immigrated 
to the United States, and is now a resident of Chicago. He has two sons 
and three daughters. Samuel is now a resident of the City of Chicago, 
is married and has one daughter. 

John Wylie, the third child, was reared to maturity in his native 
place, where he was afforded the advantages of the common schools, 
and at the age of twenty-one .years, in 1882, he severed the home ties 
and came to the United States. At Liverpool he embarked on the 
steamship "Palmyra," and upon reaching the shores of his adopted 
land he disembarked in the City of Boston. Within a short time there 
after he went to Buena Vista County, Iowa, where he devoted the ensuing 
ten years to agricultural pursuits. He then disposed of his interests 
in the Hawkeye State and for the following eight years he was in the 


employ of Sidney Wanzei-, the well-known dairyman of Chicago, where 
the extensive business is now conducted under the tirm name of Sidney 
Wanzer & Sous. 

lu April, 1903, Mr. Wylie came to Starke County aud established 
his residence at Knox. Here he purchased the Davis restaurant busi- 
ness, established in quarters near the Nickel Plate Railroad station, and 
two years later he purchased the building in which the business was 
conducted. He was veiy successful in this line of enterprise, to which 
he continued to devote his attention until the spring of 1914, when he 
sold the business and established his home on his tine little hoineste;id 
of about six acres, in section 15, Center Township, where he finds ample 
demands upon his time and attention in the successful propagation of 
vegetables of various kinds, the products finding ready demand in the 
local markets. In politics Mr. Wylie is found aligned as a staunch 
supporter of the cause of the republican party, and both he aud his 
wife, as well as their only child, hold membership in the Methodist 

While on a visit to Ireland, July 14, 1892, Mr. Wylie was there mar- 
ried, in his native county, to Miss Mary E. Mearns, who was born and 
reared in County Antrim, Ireland, the date of her nativity having been 
September 29, 1863. One of her sisters is the wife of William Wylie, 
brother of the subject of this review, and she has also one brother 
Samuel, now a resident of the City of Chicago. She also has a sister 
married to Harry McManus, a resident of Cape Town, South Africa, 
and a machinist. Mr. and Mrs. Wylie have one son, John Ernest, who was 
born in Chicago, on the 24th of January, 1901, and who is now a student 
in the high school at Knox, Center Township. Their pretty homestead 
is known as Cottage Home. 

George E. Pettis. Elected sheriff of his native county in 1912 and 
assuming his official responsibilities on the 1st of January, 191:). ^Ir. 
Pettis is giving an administration that fully justifies the popular choice 
and is one of the popular citizens and able officials of Starke County. 

Sheriff Pettis was born on a farm in North Bend Township, this 
county, on the 29th of March, 1872, and is a son of John and Nancy 
(Fetters) Pettis, who were born and reared in Marshall County,- this 
state, where their marriage was solemnized and where they were repre- 
sentatives of well known pioneer families. In the late '60s John Pettis 
removed with his family to Starke County and purchased a farm in 
North Bend Township. He developed this into one of the fine farms 
of the county, made substantial improvements of a permanent order and 
became one of the representative agriculturists and stock-growers of 
his township, where he held secure place in popular esteem. He was 
a citizen of unassuming worth of character and ordered his life right- 
eously in all of its relations. He continued to reside on his home- 
stead until his death, in January, 1896, at the age of forty-eight years, 
and his widow survived him by more than a decade, she having passed 
to the life eternal in April, 1909, at the age of fifty-eight years. She 


was a woman of gentle and noble character, was reared in the faith of the 
Dunkard Church but for a number of years prior to her death was 
a zealous member of the United Brethren Church. Of the children the 
eldest is Carrie, who was, born on the old homestead in North Bend 
Township, a property now owned by her husband and herself, who there 
reside; she is the wife of George W. Grove, Jr., and they have four 
children. Myrtle, Harold, Iva and Wayne ; the present sheriff of Starke 
County was the second child; and Lewis was about twenty-two years 
of age at the time of his death in October, 1906. 

George E. Pettis was reared to the sturdy discipline of the home 
farm and acquired his early education in the public schools of his 
native township. He continued to be associated in the work and manage- 
ment of the home farm until shortly before attaining to his legal majority 
and then went to the City of South Bend, where he served an appren- 
ticeship at the barber's trade, which he continued to follow for some 
time as a vocation. Thereafter he was identified with various other 
occupations until 1901, when he purchased a barber shop at Knox, 
the judicial center of his native county, and where he has since con- 
tinued in the ownership of a half interest in the establishment, located 
under Green's drug store on Main Street. It is one of the best in this 
attractive little city and here he has applied himself in a personal way 
until his election to his present responsible office — a preferment that 
indicates his strong hold upon popular confidence and esteem. In 
1910 he was elected treasurer of the Town of Knox, and he retained 
this position until January, 1913, when he resigned the ofiice to take 
the office of county sheriff'. In each of his elections to the position of 
town treasurer he ran ahead of his party ticket, a fact that showed his 
personal popularity in his home county. He was reelected sheriff: in 
the autumn of 1914 and is now serving his second term. He is unflag- 
ging in Ills allegiance to the democratic party, as was also his father, 
and he was a delegate to the state democratic convention of 1914. He 
is affiliated with Knox Lodge, No. 639, Ancient Free & Accepted Masons, 
and both he and his wife attend the Methodist Ejjiseopal Church in 
their home city, Mrs. Pettis being an active member of the same. 

In 1898 Mr. Pettis wedded Miss Rena M. Hisey, who was born in 
Ohio and who is the youngest but one in a family of three sons and 
four daughters. She is a daughter of Henry C. and Hope Hisey and 
was young at the time of her parents' removal to Starke County, her 
father becoming a successful farmer in Washington Township, where he 
continued to reside until his death at the National Soldiers' Home at 
Marion, Indiana, his widow having died in the prime of life when her 
daughter, Mrs. Pettis, was young. Mr. Hisey served as a valiant soldier 
in an Illinois regiment during the Civil war, was a democrat in his 
political allegiance, and was a zealous member of the Methodist Church. 
Mr. and Mrs. Pettis have four children: Gladys Jessie, who completed 
her education in 1914 at the Knox High School ; Lucretia Marie, a student 
in the high school; Gerald Edward, in the seventh grade of the public 
schools in 1915; and Iris M. 


Knute L. Lawrence. The wonderful development of the automobile 
and its kindred interests during the past few years has created a pro- 
fession almost totally unknown but several decades ago. The men who 
are connected with this industiy in various ways have learned their 
vocation for the most part in the workshop, in daily contact with 
the labor which they have had to do, working out the problems which 
their employment has brought in the school of experience. One of 
the most important branches of this great industry, is that which has 
to do with the repair and upkeep of machines, and it is with this con- 
nection that Knute L. Lawrence is known as one of the successful busi- 
ness men of Knox, Indiana. Coming to this -city in 1907, Mr. Lawrence 
established himself in business as the proprietor of a general blacksmith 
and machine shop, and to this was added in 1913 a garage and automo- 
bile repair shop. Since the latter time the business has grown by leaps 
and bounds, and Mr. Lawrence has become one of the substantial, as 
he is certainly one of the most progressive, of the younger generation 
of business men here. 

Knute L. Lawrence was born May 12, 1881, near Kalmar, Sweden, 
and is a member of an old and honorable family of that country whose 
members have for generations been agriculturists in the same locality, 
the homestead of 300 acres having been the abiding place of the family 
for 200 years and now the property of Mr. Lawrence's brother. Mr. 
Lawrence's father is Lawrence Gustaveson, who is now about eighty 
years of age and living retired from active pursuits on the old home, 
where for many years he carried on operations as a successful tiller 
of the soil. He has been a lifelong member of the Lutheran Church, 
and to that faith also belonged the mother, who died about 1902, when 
fifty-four years of age. Mr. and Mrs. Gustaveson had a large family 
of children, of whom five came to the United States, as follows : Victor, 
who is a carpenter and skilled mechanic and resides at Chicago ; Martin, 
who is a plasterer and also resides in the Illinois metropolis; Selma, 
who is a resident of the State of Wisconsin; Anna, whose home is in 
the State of Washington ; and Knute L., of this review. All the children 
are married, and all with the exception of Anna have one or more chil- 

Knute L. Lawrence grew up in his native Province of Smoland, 
Sweden, and there received good educational advantages and was 
brought up in his youth as a farmer. However, he exhibited a natural 
inclination for mechanics, and accordingly was given the opportunity to 
learn the trades of machinist and blacksmith, which he mastered. He 
was but nineteen years of age when he listened to the call of opportunity 
in the United States, and made his way to this country in search of 
his fortume. Locating at Chicago, Illinois, in 1900, he began working 
at his trades as a journeyman, and during the six or seven years that 
followed was employed at various places, in the meantime thoroughly 
familiarizing himself with the customs, language and business methods 
of his adopted land, and looking over each community which he visited 
with an idea of permanent settlement. In 1907, having decided upon 


the flourishing and ambitious City of Knox as a good field for the 
exhibition of his abilities, Mr. Lawrence here purchased the shops of 
George HoUingsworth on Heaton Street, and from that time to the 
present his enterprise has been a marked success. At first he confined 
his activities to general blacksmith and machine work, but in 1913, 
recognizing the rapidly growing field created by the automobile indus- 
try, he built his brick and iron automobile garage on Heaton Street, 
a substantial and well situated structure 30 by 66 feet. Here he ' ' boards" 
cars and handles some machines for commercial purposes, and also 
has a complete and well-equipped shop for doing all kinds of automo- 
bile repair work as well as blacksmithiug. At the time of his branching 
out, Mr. Lawrence found himself in need of larger capital, in order 
to secure which he admitted to partnership Charles V. Anderson, and 
since that time the business has been conducted under the firm style 
of Lawrence & Anderson. The latter is a live, energetic man, and al- 
though a resident of Chicago gives much of his attention to the business 
at Knox. 

While a resident of Chicago, Mr. Lawrence was united in marriage 
with ]\Iiss Nannie M. Peterson, who was bom in the southern part of 
Sweden in 1879. She grew up and was educated in her native land, 
and as a young woman of nineteen years made the trip to the United 
States alone and settled in Chicago, where she met and married Mr. 
Lawrence. They have been the parents of two sons : Herbert Leonard, 
who was born October 28, 1909 ; and Elmer, bom January 31, 1914. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence were both brought up in the faith of the 
Lutheran Church, and have continued to be identified with that denomi- 
nation and are active in their support of the movements of the church at 
Knox. In his political views Mr. Lawrence has been a stalwart sup- 
porter of the candidates and policies of the republican party, but has 
been too busily engrossed in building up a business to think of entering 
the arena as a candidate for public honors. He is, however, a public- 
spirited citizen, and is at all times ready to contribute of his time and 
services in advancing movements for the general welfare. He has 
shown some interest in fraternal work, and at this time is a member of 
Lodge No. 824, F. & A. M., Downer's Grove, Illinois, and of Knox Lodge 
of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

Mr. Lawrence's business success is but another illustration of the 
rewards which may be gained through industry, integrity and the intel- 
ligent following out of a worthy purpose. He had no particular or 
•unusual advantages at the outset of his career, but his abilities have 
been so managed and his activities so directed that he has won a sub- 
stantial material position as well as a place in the confidence of those 
among whom he has labored. 

Edward H. Taylor. Identified with a line of enterprise that has 
specially important bearing upon civic and material stability and pros- 
perity of the community, Mr. Taylor holds the responsible position 
of general manager of the Starke County Title Abstract & Guarantee 


Company, at Knox, the judicial center of the county, the facilities and 
service of this company being authoritative and therefore specially 
valuable in connection with all real estate transactions in the county. 
Mr. Taylor was one of the organizers of this company, which was in- 
corporated in 1907, and has been a dominating force in the develop- 
ment of its fine system of records and service, as he has had full execu- 
tive charge of the business since 1910. In the incorporation of the 
company he was associated with Messrs. Fletcher and EUingson, the 
latter of whom is now a resident of Portland, Oregon. Prior to forming 
his present alliance Mr. Taylor had been associated with the private 
abstract office conducted at Knox by Herbert R. Koffer, and thus he 
gained broad and accurate knowledge of the details of the business 
and of realty values in Starke County. The Starke County Title Ab- 
stract & Guarantee Company is definitely accredited with having the 
most complete and authoritative abstract and title records in the stale 
and its operations are based on a capital stock of -$25,000. The com- 
pany now has the only abstract oiBce in the county and its record has 
been one of the highest order in every respect. 

Edward H. Taylor was born on a farm near Frankton, Madison 
County, Indiana, on the 2d of February, 1880, and after duly availing 
himself of the advantages of the public -schools he completed a course 
in Valparaiso University. In October, 1901, he established his resi- 
dence at Knox, where he assumed a clerical position in the Koffer 
abstract office, with which he continued to be identified until he be- 
came associated with the company of which he is now general man- 
ager. He is a young man of energj', enterprise and public spirit, is 
a stalwart advocate of the principles of the democratic party, has served 
two terms as town trustee and one term as a member of the school board, 
and is affiliated with the local lodge of the Knights of Pythias, the 
while both he and his wife are popular factors in the social activities 
of their home city. 

Mr. Taylor is a son of William and Hannah (Hall) Taylor, the 
former of whom was born in Madison County, this state, in 1855, and 
the latter of whom was bom at Freeport, Illinois, in 1857, she having 
been a young woman at the time of her parents' removal to Madison 
County, Indiana, where they passed the remainder of their lives, the 
father, Lyman Hall, having been a substantial farmer of that county. 
William Taylor is a son of John and Elizabeth (Meade) Taylor, who 
were born and reared in Virginia, where their marriage was solemnized 
and whence they came in the pioneer days to Madison County, Indiana, 
where they continued to reside until their death, John Taylor having 
developed one of the valuable farms of that county and having been 
more than sixty years of age at the time of his death, his wife attain- 
ing to the venerable age of eighty-four years. They became the parents 
of five sons and four daughters, all of whom attained to years of ma- 
turity, married and reared families, and all of whom are living except 
two. William Taylor was reared on the old homestead farm and has 
never withdrawn his association with agricultural activities in his native 


county, where he is the owner of a valuable farm, to which he gives 
a general supervision, though he and his wife now reside in the Village 
of Franktou. Mr. Taylor is aligned as a staunch supporter of the cause 
of the democratic party and his wife is a devoted member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Of the five children the eldest is Frank, 
who is a prosperous farmer of Wayne County and who has two sons 
and two daughters ; Edward H., of this review, was the second in order 
of birth; Lyman C. is a progi-essive farmer in Madison County and 
he and his wife have one daughter; Sarah E. is the wife of Isaac L. 
Totteu, of Knox, and they have one daughter; and Martha A. is the 
wife of Karl Davis, of Honey Creek, Henry County. 

In the thriving little City of Knox, on November 23, 1904, was sol- 
emnized the marriage of Edward H. Taylor to Miss Norma Hepner, 
who was here born and reared, the date of her nativity having been 
March 1, 1884. She is a daughter of Matthias and Louisa (Spoor) 
Hepner, who have been residents of Knox since the '50s. Mr. Hepner 
was a valiant soldier of the Union in the Civil war and for the past 
sixteen years has been a mail carrier at Knox. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor 
have two children, Edward H., Jr., born in 1907, and Robert E., born 
in 1910. 

William C. Borgman. This representative merchant of Knox, the 
county seat of Starke County, is a native of Indiana and a member 
of a family that was here founded more than sixty years ago, when 
his grandfather, William Boi'gman immigrated with his family to the 
United States and established his home on a pioneer farm in Dearborn 
County, Indiana, the maternal ancestors of Mr. Borgman likewise hav- 
ing been early settlers of this state and being of sturdy German stock. 
He whose name initiates this paragraph was actively identified with 
agricultural pursuits until the spring of 1914, when he removed from 
his farm, in California Township, this county, to Knox, where he has 
since been successfully engaged in the general hardware business, and 
where he has demonstrated fully that the farmer can turn from agri- 
cultural pursuits and prove a progressive, discriminating and able 
exponent of the mercantile business. His alert mentality and mature 
judgment have effectually overcome the handicap implied in lack of 
specific experience in the line of enterprise in which he is now en- 
gaged, and he has already acquired broad and exact knowledge of the 
manifold details of the hardware business. 

With a large and well equipped establishment in a most eligible 
location, Mr. Borgman carries a comprehensive stock of heavy and 
shelf hardware, stoves, ranges, queensware, glass, paints, oils, var- 
nishes, etc., and his fair and honorable dealings, together with the 
excellent service given in all departments of the business, have enabled 
him to gain a substantial and representative patronage, the while he 
commands the unqualified esteem of all who know him. The business 
which he now owns was formerly conducted by the firm of Horner 
& Kreuter, and he has maintained ownership and executive control 
since April 20, 1914. 


Mr. Borgman was born on the old homestead farm of his fatlier, 
in Dearborn County, Indiana, on the 21st of February, 1873, and is 
a son of F. William and Elizabeth (Hesker) Borgman. His father 
was born in Germany, the youngest of the sons of William and Caro- 
line (Meinsou) Borgman, all of whose children were natives of the 
German Fatherland. In order to relieve his sons from the necessity 
of entering the governmental military service of Germany, and 
prompted also by a desire to give to all of his children the broader 
opportunities afforded in America, William Borgman immigrated with 
his family to the United States in 1853, the voyage being made on a 
sailing vessel that encountered tempests and met with other difSculties, 
with the result that fourteen weeks elapsed ere it arrived at its destina- 
tion, in the port of New York City. Prom the national metropolis 
William Borgman and his family came forthwith to Indiana, their 
arrival at Lawrenceburg, county seat of Dearborn County, having oc- 
curred on Christmas day of the year 1853, and the family name having 
been most closely and worthily linked with the civic and industrial 
affairs of that county during the long intervening years. William 
Borgman obtained a tract of land near Lawrenceburg, there established 
his family in a pioneer log cabin, and by industry and good manage- 
ment he reclaimed a productive farm, being assisted in this work by 
his sturdy sons. His wife, who had been a true companion and help- 
meet, died at the age of seventy-three years, and he continued to 
reside on his old homestead till the close of his life, at the patriarchal 
age of ninety-four years. He was a democrat in his political proclivi- 
ties and both he and his wife were zealous members of the Lutheran 

F. William Borgman, father of him whose name introduces this 
article, was, as before noted, eighteen years of age at the time when 
the family came to the United States, and during the many years that 
have since elapsed he has continued his residence in Dearborn County, 
where he is the owner of the old homestead farm of eighty acres that 
was obtained by his father. He has long been known as one of the 
substantial farmers and influential citizens of his community, where 
he is now a venerable and honored pioneer citizen, his seventy-fifth 
birthday anniversary having been celebrated on the 11th of March, 
1915. His life has been one of honest and productive industry, and 
he has achieved definite independence and prosperity through his long 
and active association with the great fundamental industry of agricul- 
ture. He has also been well known in Dearborn County as a grower 
of live stock, and as a buyer and shipper of the same. He has been 
for many years a director of the Farmers' Insurance Company of his 
county, is a democrat in politics, and clings to the religious faith in 
which he was reared, that of the Lutheran Church, of which his wife 
also was a devoted member. It may be noted as a matter of historical 
interest relative to the pioneer days that not until the latter part of 
the year 1914 was demolished on the farm of Mr. Borgman the primi- 
tive log house that was the original family home and that had stood 


for more than sixty years, a landmark of the early days. As a young 
man F. William Bergman wedded Miss Elizabeth Hesker, of Ripley 
County. She was born near the City of Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 26th 
of December, 1847, her parents having been born in Germany and 
having resided for a number of years iu Ohio, whence they came to 
Ripley County, Indiana, when their daughter Elizabeth was a child. 
They attained venerable age and continued to reside on their farm in 
that county until their death. A devoted wife and mother, Mrs. Borg- 
man passed to the life eternal on the 12th of December, 1899, and 
her memory is revered by her children and children's children. F. 
William and Elizabeth (Hesker) Borgman became the parents of nine 
children, two having died in infancy and the subject of this sketch 
having been the fifth in order of birth. Of the seven now living all 
are married except one son, Frederick, who remains with his father 
on the old homestead. 

William C. Borgman was reared to maturity on the ancestral home- 
stead of which mention has been made in preceding paragraphs and 
there he early learned the value and dignity of honest toil and en- 
deavor, the while he availed himself of the advantages of the schools 
of the locality and period. In 1907 he purchased a farm in California 
Township, Starke County, and to the work and management of this 
property, of which he is still the owner, he continued to devote his 
attention until his removal to Knox, in the spring of 1914, as already 
stated in this context. He is lil)eral and public spirited, gives his al- 
legiance to the democratic party, and he is a communicant of the 
Lutheran Church. His wife is a communicant of the United Brethren 

At the home of the bride's parents, near Havana, Mason County, 
Illinois, the year 1899 recorded the marriage of W. C. Borgman to 
Miss Mary C. Bartell, who was born in that county on the 13th of 
December, 1871, and who was graduated in the high school at Lewis- 
town, that state. Her father, John Bartell, was born in Germany, 
on the 6th of February, 1842, and was three years old at the time of 
his parents' immigration to the United States. He was reared on a 
farm, having been a lad of ten yeare at the time of the family removal 
from Pennsylvania to Mason County, Illinois, where he is now the 
owner of a finely improved landed estate of 575 acres, though he is 
living retired in Havana, the county seat, where he owns an attractive 
residence property. In Mason County John Bartell wedded Miss Re- 
becca Rogers, who was born at Newark, Ohio, on the 8th of May, 1850, 
and who was an infant at the time of her parents' removal to Mason 
County, Illinois, where she has continued to reside during the long in- 
tervening period. She is a daughter of Benjamin and Ruth (Roberts) 
Rogers, both of whom died in Mason County. After the death of Mr. 
Rogers his widow became the wife of Nathan Bowers, no children hav- 
ing been born of this union. Mr. and Mrs. John Bartell are honored 
pioneers citizens of Mason County, Illinois, and are zealous members 
of the Evangelical Church. Of their nine children seven ai'e living. 
Mr. and Mrs. Borgman have no children. 


Is.vDOR IM. Dukes. Few among the business citizens of Starke County 
have won more deserved success than that which has rewarded the 
earnest and well-directed efforts of I. M. Dukes, of Knox. He came 
to the United States as a poor Hungarian emigrant, and his continuous 
progress to his present substantial standing has been the pure result 
of personal exertions and worth, as he has never been able to apply 
the influences of family assistance or inherited wealth to his individual 
affairs. Fortunately, however, at the outset of his career in America 
he located in a city where he had many brothers in the unaided struggle 
for advancement, and where those who had fought their way to a promi- 
nent position were quick to recognize merit and manlinesg. Today Mr. 
Dukes is a fine type of a thoroughly Americanized citizen of foreign 
birth and broad education, drawn partly from his native land and 
partly from the country of his enthusiastic adoption. 

I. M. Dukes was born in Hungary, October 15, 1868, and is a son 
of Morris and Jennie (Striker) Dukes, and a grandson of Morris Dukes, 
and on both sides of the family comes of old and honorable Hungarian 
stock, his people being for the most part farmers. The father, who 
was a successful tiller of the soil, died about 1894, when past seventy 
years of age, while the mother was seventy-five years old at the time 
of her death in 1909. They were honest and upi'ight people, consistent 
members of the state church of Hungary, and the parents of nine chil- 
dren, all of whom remained in their native land with the exception 
of I. M. 

Mr. Dukes was reared and educated in the province of his birth, 
and being an energetic and ambitious youth had already established 
himself in a good and paying business when he was drafted for service 
in the army. Five of his brother had already served as soldiers, and 
from their accounts of their experiences Mr. Dukes decided that he 
would rather seek a home in another land than to remain at home and 
do military service, and he accordingly started for the United States 
by way of Amsterdam, Holland, where he took passage in the steerage 
of an ocean steamer. After a voyage of sixteen days he arrived at 
New York City, and from that city made his way to Chicago, where 
he knew he would find many of his fellow-countrymen. There he se- 
cured a position as a grocer's clerk, at a salary of eight dollars a month, 
out of which he managed to save seventeen dollars, and with this capital 
began business on his own account, handling cheese. From the start 
his native ability and intense energy brought him success, and as the 
years passed he gradually extended his operations until he became one 
of the leading cheese brokers of his city. Mr. Dukes came to Knox, 
Indiana, in 1906, and here his successes have continued as his interests 
have grown. He began his business life here by the purchase and opera- 
tion of eighty acres of land in Starke County, and to this he has added 
until he now has 127 acres in this tract, located near Knox, as well 
as some valuable property on Bass Lake. In 1911 he established him- 
self in the real estate business, and from that time to the present has 
engaged actively and successfully in the handling of city realty and 


farm properties, and is now the owner of a hotel and restaurant property 
at Knox, and a handsome home on Heaton Street. He is one of the 
heaviest stockholders in the Knox Metal Wheel Company, and is at the 
head of a patent medicine company which manufactures a well-known 
rheumatism cure, known under the trade name of "Azrikam." In 
each of his enterprises he has shown his inherent business ability, fore- 
sight and judgment, and the success which he has gained is all the 
more satisfying in that it has come to him entirely through the medium 
of his own efforts. Mr. Dukes is a republican, but has not been an office 
seeker, although he has taken an active interest in movements which 
have promised to be of benefit to the city and its people. Fraternally, 
he is connected with a number of orders, including the Knights of Pyth- 
ias and the Masons. 

Something more than a year after his arrival in Chicago, J\lr. Dukes 
was married to Miss Millie Kunz, daughter of a Chicago bank teller, 
Adolph Kunz, and a sister of the well-known surgeon of that city. Dr. 
Sylvan Kunz. Mrs. Dukes died at the age of thirty years, leaving one 
son, Adolph, who is eighteen years of age and a resident of Chicago, 
where he holds a good position with a business house. Mr. Dukes was 
married the second time to Miss Silvia Hirsch, daughter of Max Hirsch, 
who was for years a prominent salesman of the well-known firm of 
Franklin McVeagh, and is now well known to the grocery trade of 
Chicago as a broker. Mrs. Dukes was bom in Chicago in 1879, and 
was there reared and educated. She is the mother of one son, Wil- 
liam, who is ten months old. 

Peter Van Der Weele. Sturdy individualism and definite strength 
have been manifested in the career of this representative business man 
of Knox, the judicial center of Starke County. To have left the farm 
as a young man of no experience in commercial or mercantile lines, to 
have initiated independent enterprise as a mei'chant and to have built 
up from a most modest inception such a metropolitan department store 
as that owned by Mr. Van Der Weele, denotes significantly the courage, 
energy, self-reliance and integrity of purpose that have been bi-ought 
to bear. He is now one of the most substantial merchants and most 
loyal and progressive citizens of his native county, with a record of 
large and worthy achievement, and he is specially entitled to recognition 
in this history. 

On the homestead farm of his parents, in Washington Township, 
Starke County, Peter Van Der Weele was born on the 3d of June, 1860, 
and he is a representative of one of the sterling pioneer families of this 
county, as the date of his nativity implies. On both the paternal and 
maternal sides he is a scion of the staunchest of Holland ancestry, 
both of his parents having been born in Holland and having been young 
folk at the time of immigration to the United States. Mr. Van Der 
Weele is a son of John and Anthonetta (Van Home) Van Der AVeele, 
the former of whom was born in the year 1816 and the latter in 1824. 
John Van Der Weele wa.s a native of the City of Amsterdam, Holland, 


where he was reared and educated, and where he continued to maintain 
his home until 1846, when, at the age of about thirty years, he severed 
the ties that bound him to his native land and set forth to seek his 
fortunes in America. The sailing vessel on which he took passage ex- 
hausted six weeks in making the voyage across the Atlantic, and soon 
after lauding in the New World he made his way to the City of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, where he met and married the devoted wife who continued 
his companion and helpmeet until the close of his life and who is now 
living in the City of Knox, at the age of ninety years (1914), she having 
the distinction of being the oldest person in Starke County. Mrs. 
Van Der Weele came with her parents from Holland to the United 
States in 1846, and after their marriage she and her husband con- 
tinued their residence in Ohio until after the birth of their first child, 
William, soon after which time, in 1856, they came to Starke County, 
Indiana, and numbered themselves among the pioneer settlers in Wash- 
ington Township. There John Van Der Weele purchased 160 acres 
of wild Lmd, upon which he erected a log house of the type common 
to the early days, and then essayed the formidable task of reclaiming 
his land to cultivation. With the passing years he developed one of 
the fine farms of the county, a man of industrious habits, simple and 
unassuming worth, and much energy, his influence ever having been 
benignant and having touched closely the civic and material develop- 
ment of the county that long represented his home and in which he 
commanded the high regard of all who knew him. As prosperity at- 
tended his efforts he added to his landed estate, and to his credit is 
the development and ownership of four different farms in this county. 
His death occurred in July, 1874, and his widow has thus survived 
him by forty years. In 1872 Mr. Van Der Weele had the satisfaction 
of making a visit to his native land, and the valuable property which 
he had there inherited he sold at this time for $20,000, so that he was 
really in affluent circumstances at the time of his death. John Van 
Der Weele lived an upright and godly life, was generous and charitable 
to a fault and ever ready to aid those in affliction and distress, no person 
in need ever having been turned away empty. He never touched spiritu- 
ous liquors and was earnest in his advocacy of the cause of temperance, 
while he was a zealous and liberal member of the Christian Church, as 
is also his venerable widow, whose gentle and kindly presence has re- 
tained to her the affectionate regard of all who have come within the 
sphere of her influence. In politics Mr. Van Der Weele was a staunch 
democrat, and as a citizen he was loyal and liberal in the support of 
measures and enterprises tending to advance the general welfare of the 
community. Concerning the children the following brief data are 
given: William, who resides at Burr Oak, Marshall County, wedded 
Miss Millie Rogers, and they have two sons and two daughters; Peter, 
of this review, was the next in order of birth; Jacob, who died in 
Starke County, in 1908, married Miss Eugenia Goff, who now resides 
in the City of Chicago, with their only daughter, who is now married. 
Peter Van Der Weele was reared to adult age on the old homestead 


farm and received his early education in the common schools of the lo- 
cality. He continued his active identification with agricultural pursuits 
until his ambition led him into a new field of endeavor and into a line 
of enterprise with which he was totally unfamiliar. His cumulative 
success from the beginning to the present shows that intimate knowledge 
of details may be gained without sacrificing in a financial way, though 
this is not in accord with the axioms of business experience in general. 
He has been the artificer of his own success, and at each stage of ad- 
vancement has proved himself the master of expedients, his controlling 
hand never having faltered and no responsibility having proved a test 
of his strength and judgment. 

On the 29th of August, 1888, with a single dray-load of general 
merchandise, mainly derived from a trade made by him at Winchester, 
Randolph County, Mr. Van Der Weele opened a very modest store 
on Main Street in the Village of Kluox, his first day's sales aggregating 
only $8.50. His first location was near the tracks of the Nickel Plate 
Railroad, and he recalls that at that time cattle and hogs had the privi- 
leges of the streets of the village, which had but few sidewalks and but 
a nominal number of business places. Careful buying and the extend- 
ing of fair and honorable treatment to customers, with excellent service, 
made the little business enterprise of Mr. Van Der Weele rapidly ex- 
pand in scope and prosperity, and at the expiration of a period of about 
four years he gave evidence of his success and also his progressiveness 
and public spirit by erecting his present substantial and attractive 
building on Main Street, near Washington Street. The store has a 
frontage of 54 feet on Main Street and is 75 feet in length, two 
stories in height and with a basement under the entire structure. 
Both the first and second floors are now demanded in the accommodation 
of the large and select stock in the various departments and for the 
facile meeting of the demands of a large and appreciative patronage. 
The establishment has departments devoted to dry goods, notions, boots 
and shoes, women's ready-to-wear garments, men's clothing and fur- 
nishing goods, carpets, rugs, draperies, etc., and each department is 
a model of neatness and attractiveness, showing that the owner is punc- 
tilious in keeping the establishment up to a high standard and that he 
has the earnest cooperation of his employes, the store being one that 
would be creditable in a place much larger than Knox. Mr. Van Der 
Weele himself merits praise for his achievement and his efforts as a 
business man and as a broad-minded and liberal citizen have aided 
much in the furtherance of the advancement and prosperity of his at- 
tractive little home city, the while he commands impregnable vantage- 
place in the confidence and good will of the people of his native county. 
His political allegiance is given to the democratic party and he and 
his family are zealous members of the Christian Church, in which he 
holds the position of elder. 

In September, 1890, ]Mr. Van Der Weele was united in marriage to 
Miss Jennie Cole, who was born and reared at Kalamazoo, Michigan, 
in February, 1869, and who was a voung woman when she came to 


Knox, Indiana, where her marriage to jMr. Van Der Weele was 
solemnized. The two children of this union are Eva L. and Leta J., 
both of whom are talented musicians and the former of whom is a suc- 
cessful teacher of music. Both daughters remain at the parental home 
and are popular factors in the social activities of the community. 

Thomas J. Fay, V. S. In his evolution from the position of cabin 
boy on a transatlantic passenger steamer to the proprietorship of the 
Fay Hotel, and an undisputed position as an authority in the veterinary 
profession, Dr. Thomas J. Fay, of Knox, supplies an example of the 
value of close application, unceasing perseverance and great ambition, 
and the worth of the homely, sterling virtues of industry and persistence. 
For some years he traveled through various states of the Union lectur- 
ing upon veterinary subjects, but during the past eight years has de- 
voted himself to the practice of his calling at Knox, w^here he has also 
built up an excellent business in connection with the Fay Hotel. 

Doctor Fay was born near Kinvan-a, County Galway, Ireland, De- 
cember 23, 1849, and there received good educational advantages. His 
father had followed the sea for some years, and the lad early secured 
a position as cabin boy on a transatlantic passenger steamer, making 
nineteen trips across the Atlantic. He had lost his mother when he was 
but three weeks old, and in 1850 his father came to the United States, 
here becoming mate on the steamer Magenta, making trips on the Mis- 
sissippi River until 1856, when, at the age of thirty-five years, he was 
drowned. He was of French ancestry, his grandfather having been a 
DuFay, but the prefix had been dropped. There were two children in 
the family. Doctor Fay's sister Mary being the wife of Thomas Kelley, 
of East Boston, Massachusetts, where their home when last heard from 
was at No. 18 Border Street. Mr. and Mrs. Kelley were the parents of 
one daughter, Lula, who died at the age of five years. 

After leaving the ocean Thomas J. Fay went to Allegheny, Pennsyl- 
vania, w'here for seven years he was manager of the Grant House, and 
when the proprietor of that hotel died Doctor Fay opened the Brilliant 
Hotel, at the corner of Ohio and Sandusky streets. While conducting this 
hostelry he began the study of veterinary medicine and surgery, and 
in 1872 went to South Boston, where he spent a year in completing his 
studies, his preceptor being Doctor Jennings, a well-known horse trainer 
and veterinary surgeon. In 1873 he removed to the City of Millersburg, 
Ohio, and there began his lecturing activities, which extended over a 
period of seven years, during which time he traveled all over the states 
of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, New York, New Jersey, Delaware 
and Maryland, speaking upon the science of treating and training 
horses. He was well posted on the works of Rarie, Hurlburt and Rock- 
well, whose systems he modified to some extent, and carried with him 
in his travels a number of horses, demonstrating his skill in their train- 
ing and giving lessons in the art of taking all fear from the animals. 
Thoroughly opposed to any form of cruelty, he would never bleed a 
horse, and his treatment and methods met with the unqualified approval 
of physicians generally throughout the country. 


In 1889 Doctor Fay retired from his traveling tours and settled per- 
manently in California Township, Starke County, Indiana, where he 
began agricultural pursuits in earnest. On the farm which had for 
merly belonged to his mother-in-law he erected one of the Ijest residences 
in the township, a seven-room frame house that was built without the 
expenditure of a dollar, through trading with the lumbermen of the 
district and dealing in railroad ties and cordwood. In addition he built 
the first half mile of gravel road laid in the county, located on the town- 
ship line between California and Center townships. Doctor Fay dis- 
played his progressive spirit and initiative when he brought with him 
from Ohio a carload of fine poultry, establishing a poultry yard on his 
farm, which was the first enterprise of its kind in Starke County and 
which brought to its proprietor a handsome profit. In addition to carry- 
ing on his other operations in an energetic manner, Doctor Fay also built 
up a large practice as a veterinary surgeon, and his judgment was con- 
stantly sought in regard to matters pertaining to the care and breeding 
of livestock. 

Doctor Fay left his farm in 1907 and came to Knox, where he pur- 
chased a brick hotel, with twenty rooms and modern equipment and 
conveniences of every character. This house has become well and favor- 
ably known to the traveling public, and as conducted by him is doing 
an excellent business. In each of his various vocations he has displayed 
energy, ability and progressive ideas, which have given him an advan- 
tage over his slower thinking and less courageous competitors. As a 
business man he is well and favorably known as of the strictest integrity, 
and as a citizen has been foremost in promoting movements for the gen- 
eral welfare. Politically a republican, he has given a good deal of his 
time to the work of his party, and on various occasions has been called 
to fill local offiits, sfiviiig as assessor and in other local positions. 

Doctor Fay was married while a resident of Millersburg, Ohio, July 
4, 1875, to a young lady whom he had met in Pennsylvania, Miss Eolah 
Rice, who was born in Ohio, March 24, 1854. She was reared principally 
near Medina, Ohio, and was of Vermont stock and parentage. To Doc- 
tor and Mrs. Fay the following children have been born : Lula, who is 
the wife of George Taylor, a telegraph operator in the service of the 
Erie Railroad at Bolivar, Indiana, and they have one daughter, Helen; 
Honora is the wife of Clyde Morrison, foreman of the Kellogg Cereal 
Factory at Battle Creek, Michigan; Laura is the wife of John Hilde- 
brand, of Round Lake, Starke County, who is also connected with the 
Battle Creek house ; Jennie 0., who died in July, 1885, aged two years, 
eight months and twenty-nine days ; Maude I., who, like her brothers and 
sisters, was well educated in the county schools, died in November, 1911, 
at the age of twenty-five years ; Thomas Blaine, who is a foreman in the 
Grand Trunk Railway shops at Battle Creek, Michigan, is unmarried; 
Leo Garfield, who for the past five years has been a telegraph operator 
for the Fort Wajoie Railroad at Chicago, is also unmarried; and Miss 
Ruth resides wdth her parents and is assisting in conducting the hotel. 

Mrs. Fay and her daughters are members of the IMethodist Church, 


while the sons belong to the United Brethren Church with their father, 
who for the past twenty years has been connected with that de- 

Warren S. Terry. For fifty-three years Warren S. Terry has been 
helping to make history in Starke County, where he has led a decidedly 
active life, contributing in no inconsiderable manner to the growth and 
development of this locality, and particularly to the Bass Lake section, 
where he is the owner of much valuable property. In addition to being a 
successful farmer, the founder of additions that have become thickly 
populated, and a citizen who has taken a stirring and helpful part in 
movements making for progress, there is probably no better advised man 
in Starke County in matters pertaining to historical research in the vicin- 
ity of Bass Lake and North Bend Township, and articles from his pen 
have appeared at intervals in the leading periodicals of the state. 

Mr. Terry was bom July 14, 1849, in Delaware (then Morrow) 
County, Ohio, and is a son of Sylvanus and Nancy (Monroe) Terry. 
His paternal grandfather was George Terry, a native of the Empire 
State and a farmer, who passed the greater part of his life in the vicinity 
of Ithaca, New Y''ork, and there died in advanced years. On the maternal 
side, as has been developed by recent investigation, Mr. Terry belongs 
to the family that gave to the United States the great statesman. Presi- 
dent Monroe. Sylvanus Terry was born in the State of New York, from 
whence he removed with his brother, George, to Delaware County, mak- 
ing the journey on horseback. Tlici'c tlicy settled on farms, and Sylvanus 
Terry soon met and married Xaiies Moin-ni', wlm Imd Ijeen born in Ohio, 
that state continuing to be their home until Sei)teiiil)er, 1861, when they 
journeyed to the new country of Starke County, Indiana, and settled on 
a farm in North Bend Township, near Bass Lake. Later Mr. Terry be- 
came postmaster at Lake City, a position which he continued to fill very 
acceptably for many years. A man of influence among his fellow-eitizens, 
he won their friendship and support through his iutegi-ity, honorable 
dealing, generosity and kindness of heart. During the Civil war, while 
not an active participant as a soldier, he did much to aid the Union cause, 
having been an unwavering abolitionist. Mrs. Terry was also intensely 
loyal and performed services for the boys in blue that won their eternal 
gratitude. Mrs. Terry was a member of the Universalist church. Orig- 
inally a whig, he subsequently became a radical republican and continued 
as such during the remainder of his life. Both Mr. and Mrs. Terry were 
laid to rest in Bass Lake cemetery, where a substantial stone marks their 
resting-place. Their eldest son, George, fought through three years of the 
Civil war, as sergeant of a company in the Thirteenth Indiana Cavalry, 
and received his honorable discharge six months before the close of hos- 
tilities. He returned home, resumed the duties of peace and lived a 
long and useful life, passing away June 23, 1912. William E. was the 
next child in order of birth ; Mary, the next, became the wife of Alfred 
T. Ricks, now of Waketa, Oklahoma, where he and two sons secured 
farms on the entry of that land and the race for it ; and William, the 


second child, died in this county in 1907, leaving a widow and one son, 

"Warren S. Terry was thirteen years of age when he accompanied his 
parents to North Bend Township, Starke County, and here he completed 
the education commenced in Ohio. Here he has passed his entire life, 
engaging in agricultural and real estate pursuits, and is still the owner of 
the original homestead which was improved by his father. In addition 
he owns a tract on section 7, North Bend Township, and on Bass Lake, 
having 200 acres here. He also laid oixt twenty-six lots of the original 
Winona plat, on the north side of Bass Lake, near his home and on Main 
Street, and this organization was later incorporated in a New Winona 
and moved to Winona Lake, near Warsaw, Indiana, this place later as- 
suming the name of Bass Lakeville. It has since been so known and is 
the village part of the lake summer section that has grown to be such a 
popular resort of recent years. The original name of the lake was Win- 
ehetonqua, which, interpreted, means "Beautiful Waters." Prior to the 
Civil war it became known as Cedar Lake, and then, through special legis- 
lation by a Mr. Laramore, became called Bass Lake. In this early addi- 
tion by Mr. Terry, he had for a time as partner Abner Hay, whose in- 
terests he later bought. 

Mr. Terry laid out the Best View Addition, and is also the owner 
of a block known as Wayne, a choice location at the edge of the lake. 
He has been very active in all lake development work, is a stirring mem- 
ber of the Bass Lake Improvement Association and the Bass Lake Coun- 
try Club, and donated liberally to the fish hatchery here. But his 
efforts have not been entirely confined to the improvement of Bass Lake, 
for no longer ago than 1913 he laid out an addition to the City of Knox, 
comprising forty-eight lots. This addition, by popular vote, was named 
Terry's Addition. No less than fifty houses in Starke County mark the 
places originally owned by him. He is sometimes dubbed the David 
Harum of Starke County, having swapped more "bosses" and told less 
lies than any man in it. Largely through his efforts the Chautauqua 
was brought to this place, but was subsequently taken to Winona Lake, 
as now called. While serving in the capacity of county drain commis- 
sioner, he was instrumental in enlarging the Robbins ditch in the north 
part of the county, an improvement that has done more to develop Starke 
County than any other one thing in its history. Mr. Terry played an 
important part in condemning the "Three I" railroad that ran through 
this section, and numerous other services have marked him as one of the 
county's most helpful citizens. While not an office seeker, he has 
taken an active part in the work of the republican party. Fraternally 
he is a member of Knox Lodge, No. 639, A. F. & A. M., and past chan- 
cellor of the Knights of Pythias Lodge, No. 296. From his father he has 
inherited an intense loyalty and patriotic spirit, as well as a personality 
that has drawn to him countless friends. A well educated, widely read 
and broadly informed man, Jlr. Terry has interested himself greatly in 
historical research work, and one of his recent contributions to the 
Indianapolis Star was an interesting two-column article pertaining to one 


of the historical characters of the Bass Lake region, known as ' ' Huckle- 
berry Queen," which Mr. Terry took for his title. 

In 1874 Mr. Terry was married in Starke County, Indiana, to Miss 
Barbara Ann Bmigh, who was born near Johnstown, Cambria County, 
Pennsylvania, July 26, 1852, a sister of William H. Emigh, a sketch of 
whose career appears elsewhere in this volume. She was reared in 
Starke County and educated in the public schools of North Bend Town- 
ship, where she died June 1, 1895, having been the mother of seven chil- 
dren : Bruce, w'ho met an accidental death by drowning in South Dakota, 
when twenty years of age ; Delbert A., a farmer of Starke County, mar- 
ried Estella Beauchamp, and has two children, Earl and Elva; Miss 
Dora, who has received a good education, is single and resides with her 
father; James 0., of California Township, a farmer, married, the first 
time. Miss Anna Casterman, by whom he had one child, Ralph, and mar- 
ried, the second time, Mrs. Myrtle PfQfer, and has one son, Donald; 
Renna M., for some years a well known educator of Starke County, mar- 
ried Alpha W. Piper, a farmer of Fulton County, Indiana, and has three 
children, Kejineth, Nina and Clem ; Ray P., who was educated at Knox 
High School, is single and a farmer of North Bend Township ; and Vada 
B., who is studying at the State Normal School at Terre Haute to become 
a teacher. Mrs. Terry was a member of the Presbyterian church, which 
several of the children attend. 

J. Gottlieb Warnke. Among the agricultural class of Starke 
County there is no man who has more honestly earned his success than 
has J. Gottlieb Warnke, of Jackson Township. A member of a family 
in modest financial circumstances, in his youth he w'as compelled to 
overcome many hardships in order to get a start in life, and for many 
years he struggled against conditions which would have thoroughly dis- 
heartened a less determined and persevering man. Steadfastly he has 
directed his energies along a certain line, observing meanwhile the vir- 
tues of honesty and industry, and today has won the right to the hon- 
orable title of self-made manhood and the esteem of his fellow citizens. 

Mr. Warnke was born about three miles from Kolmar City, Posen, 
Germany, April 9, 1852, and is a son of Christopher and Carolina 
(Scheve) Warnke. The family is an old and honorable one in that 
vicinity, where its members resided for many years, but owing to con- 
ditions over which they had no control the parents of Mr. Warnke found 
themselves in straitened circumstances and the children were therefore 
deprived of some of the advantages which youth generally considers its 
own. After a lifetime of struggle, the father died in 1882, at the age 
of sixty-five years, while the mother died before she had reached the 
age of sixty-five years, in 1880. She was reared a Catholic, while Mr. 
Warnke was a Lutheran, and the children were reared in the latter 
faith. There were ten children in the family, the greater number of 
whom died young in the Fatherland, while one brother, Martin, is a resi- 
dent of Posen; a sister, Wilhelmina, is a maiden and still resides in 
Posen ; and another sister, Ottilia, is the wife of Charles Zank, a farmer 
of North Bend Township, Starke County, and has a family. 


J. Gottlieb Warnke, who perhaps is better known as Gottlieb Waruke, 
was a child of five years when he was put to herding sheep and like 
tasks. Naturally, his education was greatly interfered with, and was 
confined to indilferent attendance in the public schools. The youth did 
not allow his euviroument to discourage his ambitions, and worked 
faithfully, with the end in view of becondng the proprietor of a home 
and a business of his own. While still a resident of Posen, Mr. Waruke 
was married to Miss Caroline Weisjahn, who was born in the same 
province and district, in 1852, and was reared by a farmer of her vicinity, 
her parents having died when she was still a small child. To them, in 
Germany, there were born two children : Gustave aud Julius. 

In 1882, Mr. Warnke decided that there was but little chance for his 
achieving a success in his native land, and that greater opportunities 
awaited him in America. Accordingly, he borrowed $133, aud with his 
little family traveled to Bremen and thence to Havre, where he took pas- 
sage on the ship IMosier, which made port after an uneventful journey at- 
New York. From the metropolis J\Ir. Warnke went to Wanatah, Laporte 
County, Indiana, where he arrived in April, and there soon found em- 
ployment as a farmhand. He was thrifty, economical and energetic, and 
was soon able to save the money which he had borrowed from his broth- 
er-in-law to bring him to this country, and when it was paid back 
started all over again without a cent. After six years he managed to 
gather together a little capital, and in 1888 came to Starke County, 
where he made the initial instalment on a tract of forty acres of land, 
this being located in section 1, Jackson Township. This he improved 
and cleared of indebtedness aud then purchased a second forty in the 
same section. This had been considered worthless land, as it was cov- 
ered with swamp water, but by ditching Mr. Warnke drained it thor- 
oughly and when he had put in improvements it produced excellent 
crops. From that time foi-ward Mr. Warnke continued to add forty 
acres of land at a time, making each forty pay for the tract that was to 
be bought succeeding it, aud in this way accumulated 160 acres of land 
in Jackson Township and forty acres in Davis Township, the greater 
part being weU improved and thoroughly tUed. Mr. Warnke carries on 
general farming operations, growing all kinds of grain, potatoes, and 
other staples, and has made each venture a successful one. He now has 
a fine barn, 40x50 feet, painted red, with white trimming, which was 
built in 1910; a large crib, wth lean-to shed attached; and a modern 
farm residence with six rooms and the latest conveniences, which was 
built in 1902. He has carried on cattle raising, feeding his stock his 
grain, and in addition to Durham cattle, he ships large numbers of 
horses and red Duroc swine. 

Mr. Warnke 's first wife, who assisted him in getting his start, died 
in 1892, in the faith of the German Evangelical church. In addition to 
the two children born in Germany, Julius and Gustave, she was the 
mother of three others, born in Indiana : William, Bernard and Ernest, 
some of whom are married and live in Colorado or North Dakota. Mr. 
Warnke was married the second time in Michigan City, Indiana, to 


Paulina Schultz, who was bom in the Province of Posen, Germany, 
October 15, 1852. She was married the first time in Germany, and there 
lost her husband, and as a widow came to the United States with her 
three children: William V., Emma and Paulina Wentland. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Warnke there have been bom the following children: Otto 
and Hattie, who live at home with their parents; Vina, who is the wife 
of Orva Christopf, of Jackson Township, and has a son, — Arthur; 
Martha, who is at home and attending school ; and Edwin, who died at 
the age of eighteen months. 

Mr. and Mrs. "VVarnke and their children are members of the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Church. In his political views, Mr. Warnke is inde- 
pendent, exercising his right of supporting the men whom he believes 
best fitted for the office, regardless of party lines. On a number of oc- 
casions he has been honored with election to public office, and in his 
official positions has demonstrated the possession of capacity for work 
of this nature, and an earnest desire to forward the best interests of 
his community. 

Isaac R. Bascom. Among the men who in the past have upheld 
Starke County's agricultural supremacy, the late Isaac R. Bascom is 
worthy of extended mention. Coming to this county when it was little 
more than a wilderness, he took up his residence upon a raw farm, cour- 
ageously faced the hardships and privations that the section offered at 
that early day, and with the able assistance of his worthy helpmate 
carved out a material competence, established a happy home, and made 
a place for himself in the confidence and esteem of his fellow-citizens. 

Mr. Bascom was born in Switzerland County, Indiana, August 8, 
1830, and died at his home in section 36, Jackson Township, Starke 
County, January 29, 1913. He was a son of Silas and Charlotte (Cole) 
Bascom, natives either of Kentucky or Virginia, who came as early set- 
tlers to Indiana and were married in Switzerland County. There they 
made their home until the latter '40s, when, with the true pioneer spirit, 
they gathered their little family about them, packed their belongings 
into a wagon, and journeyed overland to the wild country that was to 
become known as Starke County, although the county organization at 
that time had not been completed. In the woods of Jackson Township, 
Silas Bascom and wife established their home in a little log cabin, thus 
becoming among the earliest settlers. Droves of deer and great flocks 
of wild turkeys were common sights, and it was comparatively easy for 
the men of the family to keep the larder supplied with fresh game, 
while the streams, as yet practically undisturbed save by the red man, 
teemed with fish. Knox and the courthouse had not at that time come 
into existence; Winamac was a hamlet of a few log houses, and there 
were located the nearest mill and market. The nearest physician, to be 
called only in eases of the utmost urgency, was twenty miles away, at 
Plymouth, while Pulaski was twenty-five miles away, where supplies 
could be secured. Neighbors were far away and but few, and all that 
the pioneers knew of each other's affairs were their comings and goings, 


with a little of the news of the outside world eagerly grasped from the 
lips of some fortunate pioneer who had traveled to the more populated 
settlements. Amid these surroundings Silas and Charlotte Bascom set- 
tled down to establish a home for their family, and to improve a prop- 
erty. In both these undertakings they were successful, for they were 
people of resource, force and character, industry and perseverance, and 
possessed those courageous qualities which enabled the pioneers in their 
great work of settlement and development to make their labore count. 
Mrs. Bascom passed away in Starke County, at the old original home, 
when less than sixty years of age, and the father later went back to 
Switzerland County, Indiana, and there continued to reside until his 
death, at the age of eighty-eight years. He was first a whig and later 
a republican in politics, but was not an oiEce seeker. Both he and IMrs. 
Bascom were devout members of the United Brethren Church, and reared 
their children in that faith. 

Isaac R. Bascom was reared in Southern Indiana, and was still a 
youth when he was taken by his parents to the new home in Starke 
County. He was given ordinary educational advantages in the primi- 
tive schools, but it is probable that the greater part of his education 
came from experience and hard work, as well as from observation in the 
woods, for he was a skillful hunter in the early days and spent much 
of his time with his gun in search of game, and with his rod in coaxing 
the finny tribe from their watery homes. Also he was a good trapper, 
and combining the three occupations he made enough money to encour- 
age him in the establishment of a home, so that he returned to his native 
county and there married Elizabeth Parrow, who was born and reared 
there, and whom he brought to the new county. Some time during the 
Civil war Mrs. Bascom was taken ill and returned to Switzerland County, 
where she passed away. She left one son : Goodrich, who is now a resi- 
dent of Decatur, Michigan, and has one daughter, Llewellyn ]\Iay. 

Isaac Bascom was one of the valiant men from Indiana who bore arms 
to protect the Union. He enlisted from Laporte County in 1861, but 
was credited to Starke County. He enlisted in Company D, Twenty- 
ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and his regiment was assigned to 
the Army of the Cumberland. He participated in a number of the 
battles memorable in the nation's struggle, including the battles of 
Shiloh, Missionary Ridge, Siege of Atlanta — or the one day's fighting 
around Atlanta. He was slightly wounded twice. He served his coun- 
try three years and received his discharge and then veteranized. He en- 
listed in September, 1861, and received his honorable and final discharge 
in November, 1865, and when he died he was drawing the Shenvood pen- 
sion of $1 per day. 

On January 28, 1866, Jlr. Bascom was married the second time, his 
wife being Miss Sarah J. Stone, of Pulaski County, Indiana, who was 
born near Recovery, Indiana, July 4, 1844, and was ten years old when 
her parents, Conway and Martha (Scott) Stone, brought her to Pulaski 
County. There, in 1856, Mr. Stone purchased 700 acres of land, all of 
which he improved and cultivated. He became one of the first trustees 


of his townsliip, and was also active as a leader in civic affairs, ajid as 
a preacher in the Christian Church, being one of two to organize the 
first church of that faith in his locality. Mr. Stone died there at the age 
of eighty-eight years, in 1891. He was born in England, and came of 
excellent ancesti-y, as did his wife, who was born in either Virginia or 
North Carolina, and was a kinswoman of Gen. Winfield Scott. Mrs. 
Stone, who was also a member of the Christian Church, died some twenty 
years prior to her husband, and was sixty-three yeai's old at the time of 
her demise. 

After their marriage, Jlr. and Mrs. Bascom settled down and com- 
bined their efforts to make a good home. In this they were successful, 
for they accumulated 200 acres of land, of which eighty acres now form 
Mrs. Bascom 's home. She has been the mother of seven children, as fol- 
lows: Martha H., who died after her marriage to IMr. Howard, who is 
also deceased, of New York, and had no children ; Silas C, who lives at 
Benton, Indiana, is married and has two children — Don and Eugene, 
who are now attending school ; Richard, who lives at Lake City, Arkansas, 
is married and has no family ; Mai-y A., who is the wife of Blain Craw- 
ford, of South Bend, Indiana, and has no children; William A., who is 
engaged in farming in Center Township, Starke County, mari'ied Ida 
Reems, and they have three sons "and three daughters — Anna D., Wil- 
liam A., Susie, Theodore, Jennie M. and Richard S. ; Emma J., who is 
the wife of Max Gai'rison, a farmer of Center Township, and has no 
children ; and Louella May, the wife of Frank Kagle, of South Bend, and 
has no children. 

Mrs. Bascom is affiliated with the Christian Church, and her children 
have been reared in that faith. She is a woman of many attainments 
and graces, is thoughtful of others, and in spite of her seventy-two years 
is still active and industrious. She is a good business woman, as evi- 
denced by her skilled management of her property, and has hosts of 
friends who admire her for her pluck and perseverance, as well as many 
other admirable (jualities of both mind and heart. 

Benjamin Fleishman. Jackson Township has had no more repre- 
sentative and useful citizens during the past forty-five years than the 
Fleishman family. The late Gottlieb Fleishman, while not among the 
earliest pioneers, did a work of improvement which will long be evidenced 
in one of the beautiful farms of this section. The son Benjamin Fleish- 
man has been equally industrious and successful as a farmer, and in his 
service as township trustee, an office in which he is now closing his tenth 
year, is to be credited with a large share of the improvements which have 
given Jackson Township its present excellent school facilities. In In- 
diana counties there is hardly a more important office than that of 
township trustee, and with few exceptions its incumbent is generally 
recognized as the most influential and one of the most successful men of 
the community. 

Benjamin Fleishman lives on the old Fleishman homestead in sec- 
tion 35. It has been his home all his life, and he was liorn in an old 


log cabin that stood as the first habitation of the Fleishman family in 
this community. His birthday was November 7, 1867, and during the 
years of his active lifetime he has witnessed hundreds of improvements 
which have transformed Jackson and other townships into important sec- 
tions of the great Indiana agricultural area. Mr. Fleishman has owned 
and operated this homestead since the death of his father on December 
30, 1906. 

The late Gottlieb Fleishman was a man of varied experience, and be- 
fore coming to Starke County had visited many parts of the civilized and 
uncivilized world. He was born at Obersteiufeld in Wuertemberg, Ger- 
many, in 1833, and was of good German family, his parents having 
lived autl died in that section of Southern Germany, where they culti- 
vated a vineyard and used grapes for the manufacture of wine. Gott- 
lieb grew up in his native land, lived there until twenty-five years of age, 
was well educated, and in 1858, when still unmarried, started for the 
New World. He journeyed through Paris, thence to Liverpool, Eng- 
land, and took passage on a sailing vessel which three months later 
landed him in Baltimore, Maryland. His first destination was Alabama 
where he joined an uncle, but later came up to Southern Indiana, and 
shortly afterwards went south by way of the Mississippi River to New 
Orleans. While in the South he was stricken with yellow fever, but 
recovered, and subsequently during the Civil war joined a Union army 
commissary and subsequently was captured bj' the rebels, but with six 
companions made his escape and crossed the Rio Grande into Old Mexico. 
In that southern Republic he finally found his way to the Pacific coast, 
went to San Francisco, and for three years worked in the mining regions 
of that state. Selling a claim for $300, he started again on his travels, 
went down the Pacific coast, crossed the Isthmus through Nicaragua, and 
took boat for New York City. From New York City he proceeded to 
Ohio, joining an uncle named John Summit in Seneca County, and was 
there married to Sophia Decker. She was born in Perry County, Ohio, 
in 1829, and had been reared and educated in that state. While they 
lived in Ohio their daughter Harriet was born in 1866. In March of the 
following year the family came out to Indiana, and located in the wilds 
of Jackson Township. Gottlieb Fleishman had bought land there the 
preceding year, and on settling there proceeded vigorously with its im- 
provement and clearing. In the course of forty-five years it has become 
one of the fine farmsteads of Jackson Township. Gottlieb Fleishman 
some years ago erected a large basement bai-n on a foundation 31 by 55 
feet, and well adapted for stock and grain. In 1891 was erected the 
substantial eight-room house, the barn having been built ten years later. 
Gottlieb Fleishman was regarded as one of the thoroughly successful 
men in the raising of staple crops and the feeding of stock. His son has 
followed him in that industry, and in the course of many years few farms 
have produced more regularly and profitably than the Fleishman estate. 
The late Gottlieb Fleishman was a democrat and took an active part in 
local affairs, serving as township assessor and in other positions of trust. 
He was reared in the faith of the Lutheran Church. Mrs. Fleishman, 


his widow, is still living, a hale and hearty woman, loved and respected in 
her community. Both the children, Harriet and Benjamin, have always 
lived at home, and have been devoted to the welfare of their parents and 
are still unmarried. Benjamin Fleishman in his public spirit emulates 
the example of his honored father, and his service as trustee has been one 
that does him the utmost credit. He was first elected to that office in 
1900, sei-ved four years, and in 1908 was elected for the six-year term, 
which closes in January, 1915. Mr. Fleishman is one of the active leaders 
in the Jackson Township Democratic party. 

Chaeles T. Johnson, one of the younger class of farmers of Starke 
County, Indiana, who has advanced to prosperity and substantial citizen- 
ship on his individual merits and independent work, is giving his sole 
attention to the various branches of farming, and is already the owner 
of a valuable homestead of 200 acres, located in sections 27 and 34, 
Jackson Township. Mr. Johnson is an excellent type of the man who 
has made his own way in the world. "When he came to the United States 
he was a poor emigrant youth of sixteen years, possessed of little to aid 
him save his ambition and determination. His early years here were 
filled with labor of the most onerous kind, but he never faltered, and the 
success which he has today attained is all the more satisfactory because 
it has been self -gained. 

Mr. Johnson was born May 2, 1875, at Smaland Stenar, Southern 
Sweden, and is of pure Swedish stock, the family for generations having 
been engaged principally in agricultural pursuits. His parents are John 
P. Carlson and Lena (Johnson) Carlson, who were also born in this part 
of Sweden, where they still reside in old age, being in the neighborhood 
of three score and ten years old. The fatlier, who has been a custom 
tailor all his life, is still industrious and energetic, and is one of his com- 
munity 's highly esteemed citizens. The parents are faithful members of 
the Lutheran Church, and the children were all reared in that belief. 
The children were as follows: Charles T., of this review; Ernest, who 
came to the United States and now makes his home in the Northwest ; and 
Oscar, who died in 1913, when .still single and in middle life, in the City 
of Stockholm, Sweden. 

Charles T. Johnson was given good educational advantages in the 
schools of his native land, and resided under the parental roof until 
reaching the age of sixteen years. At that time he began to express a 
desire to try his fortunes in the United States, the opportunities of which 
he had heard so much, and finally his wish was granted and he set sail 
for this country in a vessel which came here by way of England. The 
steamer encountered very rough weather and was nearly wrecked by 
a heavy storm, in the midst of which Mr. Johnson almost lost his life 
by being washed from the deck by a large comber. At last, however, the 
ship made port at New York, and from that city, in 1891, Mr. Johnson 
made his way to Chicago. 

In the Illinois metropolis, Mr. Johnson was married in 1900 to Miss 
Marthina Johnson, who was born in the same neighborhood as was her 


husband, in Hay, 1872, and was there reared and given a good education. 
She was a daughter of Salmon and Margaret (Youngquist) Johnson, 
natives of the same part of Southern Sweden, where the father died Feb- 
ruary 29, 1903, aged eighty-two years, seven days, while the mother 
came to the United States in 1905, with three of her children, to join 
others of the children who had come here before. She is now living with 
one of her sons at Holdrege, the county seat of Phelps County, Nebraska, 
and is seventy-six years of age. She is a Lutheran in religious belief, 
to which church her husband also belonged, and in the faith of which the 
children were all reared. All of Mrs. Johnson's brothers and sisters 
live in this country save one : Tillie, who is married and still makes her 
home in Sweden. Those who are living in America and in the Central 
West are as follows : Otto, who is a business man of Minneapolis, Minne- 
sota, and single; Amanda and Nannie, who are single and make their 
home in Chicago ; Ida, who is the wife of August Isinberg, living in Min- 
nesota, and has two sons and four daughters ; Anna, who is the wife of 
Elof Hawkinson, of Holdrege, Nebraska, and has no children ; and Selma, 
who is the wife of Julius Hanson, and lives in Chicago. 

When Mr. Johnson located in Chicago, in 1891, he accepted what 
honorable work presented itself, his first employment being as a teamster. 
In this line he continued to be engaged throughout the almost twenty 
years of his residence in that city, although he gradually advanced from 
position to position until he was the proprietor of a business of his own. 
He carefully saved his earnings, and by 1910, when the opportunity 
offered, he was able to start in as the proprietor of a farm of 200 acres, 
located in sections 27 and 34, Jackson Township, Starke County. This 
tract is eighty rods wide and a mile and a quarter long, and the greater 
part is improved and under a high state of cultivation, although Mr. 
Johnson also has twenty-five acres of fine timber land. He also has some 
flat and muck land, and this enables him to engage in the various branches 
of his vocation. In addition to growing the various cereals, he raises 
large crops of potatoes and onions, and his produce averages heavily per 
acre and finds a ready sale in the markets. He also grows good stock, 
having nineteen head of cattle, eighteen swine and four horses, and feeds 
the greater part of what he grows. Since his arrival Jlr. Johnson has 
made numerous improvements, which have tended to add to the value of 
his land, including a cow and feed barn, 24x48 feet, a horse barn and 
several granaries. The whole property speaks of the presence of excel- 
lent management and industry, and Mr. Johnson is rapidly coming to 
the forefront among Starke County farmers. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Johnson there have been born the following children : 
Clarence, born April 22, 1901, who graduated from the graded schools 
when under thirteen years of age ; Elmer, born September 30, 1903, who 
is now in the fifth grade of the public schools; Walter, born November 
27, 1905, also a student; Axel S., born December 23, 1907, who is also 
attending school; and George L., born August 13, 1912; and Albin N., 
born April 16, 1914, at home. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson are members of 


the Lutheran Church, iu whioh they have been coufirmed and the move- 
ments of which they liberally support. Mr. Johnson is a republican. 

William H. Dunkelbergeb. Among the progressive and enterpris- 
ing agriculturists of Starke County who have spent their entire lives in 
this part of Indiana, William H. Dunkelberger, of Jackson Township, 
is worthy of more than passing mention. He was born on the farm on 
which he now resides, in section 26, and which he has owned since attain- 
ing his majority. During his long residence here he has been an eye- 
witness to and an active participant in those movements which have cul- 
minated in making Starke one of the most fertile and productive of 
Indiana counties, and at all times has maintaiin'd a high order of citizen- 
ship. While a busy man, with large private iiitifists, he has found time 
to devote to political matters, and at present is known as one of Jackson 
Township's leading democrats. 

William H. Dunkelberger was born May 21, 1859, on his father's 
homestead in Jackson Township, Starke County, Indiana, and is a son 
of Benjamin and Mary (Bascom) Dunkelberger. He belongs to an old 
and honored Pennsylvania family, his grandfather being Henry Dunkel- 
berger, who was born in the vicinity of Shamokin, in the Keystone State. 
There he married a Pennsylvania girl, whose first name was Margaret 
and who also belonged to an old family thfvr, and tlicre all their children 
with the exception of one were born. The maiidpai-ents removed from 
Pennsylvania to Indiana at an early da1<', ami lici'c settled as pioneers 
on a farm in Jackson Township. This locality was then practically in 
its virgin state, little clearing had been done, roads and ditches were 
still a thing of the future, and signs of civilization were few, settlers 
being often miles apart. In the woods in which these pioneers built their 
log cabins the wild game was still to be found in plenty, deer, wild turkey 
and other game frequently furnishing all the meat for the settlers' tables. 
Here the grandparents worked faithfully and industriously in the estab- 
lishment of a home, hewing a farm out of the timber, cultivating it, and 
finally ta.sting the fruits of well-won success. Here the grandfather died 
on the same farm mentioned on section 26, when past eighty years of 
age, while the grandmother survived him a few years and had also reached 
about the same number of years at the time of her demise. They were 
faithful members of the United Brethren Church, and their children 
were reared in that belief. Mr. Dunkelberger was not a politician, but 
supported democratic candidates and policies. Among their children 
were : John, Daniel, Joseph, Benjamin and George, all of whom mar- 
ried and all of whom are now deceased, with the exception of the last 
named, who is now a retired agriculturist residing at Hebron, Porter 
County, Indiana, whose third wife is also living. 

Benjamin Dunkelberger, the father of William H. Dunkelberger, was 
born in 1831, at Shamokin, Pennsylvania, and was still a lad when he 
accompanied his parents to Starke County, Indiana. Here he grew to 
manhood amid pioneer surroundings, and when he attained his majority 
adopted the vocation of farmer, an occupation which he followed with 


success throughout his life in Jackson Township. His death occurred on 
his farm in 1880, when he was forty-nine years of age. Mr. Dunkel- 
berger married Miss Mary Bascom, who was bom in 1835 or 1836, in 
Switzerland County, Indiana, and came to Starke County with her par- 
ents when a young girl. The Bascom family is one that is well known 
in various parts of Indiana, and a review of Mrs. Dunkelberger 's par- 
ents will be found in the sketch of her brother, Isaac R. Bascom, on 
another page of this work. After the death of her first husband, Mrs. 
Dunkelberger was married a second time, to Peter Miller, and died at 
Knox, ia July, 1912, being at that time past three score and ten years 
of age. Mr. and Mrs. Dunkelberger were members of the United Breth- 
ren Church. He was a lifelong democrat, was prominent in public 
affairs, and at the time of his death was township trustee, a capacity in 
which he had served efficiently for some years. The children born to 
Benjamin and Mary Dunkelberger were as follows: Jane, who is the 
wife of George Summers, of Rye (or Toto), Starke County, and has one 
son and two daughters ; William H., of this review ; Matilda, who died 
after her marriage to Lemon Collins, leaving two sons and two daugh- 
ters ; and Frank, a resident of South Bend, Indiana, who is married and 
has two sons and one daughter. 

William H. Dunkelberger was reared in his native locality and secured 
his education in the district schools. He secured possession of the home 
farm of thirty-six acres when he was twenty-one years of age, and in 
addition to this owns forty acres in the same section, although it is sep- 
arated from his homestead. The greater part of the property is under 
cultivation, and he has improvements of the most up-to-date character. 
His commodious and well-equipped barn, recently erected, is 22x32 feet, 
and his dark green farmhouse is of frame, with six rooms and a cellar. 
Mr. Dunkelberger is known as a good farmer, raising large crops of 
wheat, corn, oats, rye and potatoes, and as a business man is held in the 
highest esteem, because of his integrity and honorable dealing. 

Mr. Dunkelberger was married in Jackson Township to [Miss Viola 
Martindale, who was born in Miami County, Indiana, August 30, 1864, 
and reared and educated in Marshall County. Eight children have been 
born to them, as follows : Maude, who is the wife of Milton Caddy, lives 
at North Judson, where Mr. Caddy is a brick mason, and has four sons 
and two daughters, all of whom are attending school; Walter, a barber 
of Sanborn, North Dakota, who married Ethel Greesel, and has one son, 
B. Walter ; Ora, a farmer of Jackson Township, who married Ida Hand, 
and has a daughter, Violet ; Ida, who is the wife of Gus Lempke. a farmer 
of Jackson Township, and has five sons; Arthur, who is a farmer of 
Jackson Township, married Miss Melvy Wall and has one son ; Noah and 
Cora, twins, Cora being the wife of John Mauritzen of Kankakee County, 
Illinois, and Noah a farmer of Jackson Township, who married Clara 
Klukus and has a son, Albert; and Cressel, at home, a graduate of the 
local schools. 

Mr. Dunkelberger has for some years taken quite an active and lead- 
ing part in democratic politics in his locality, and at present is the can- 


didate of his party for the office of township trustee. A man of industry, 
integrity and exemplary habits, he has won and retained the confidence 
of his fellow citizens, and possesses excellent qualifications for service as 
a public official. 

Joseph Miller. For many years the late Joseph Miller was well 
known to the people of California Township as a progressive, energetic 
and thoroughly competent agriculturist, almost his entire life being 
passed within the borders of Starke County. Though he was of a mod- 
est, retiring disposition, not prone to put himself forward, it is but just 
to call him one of the founders of the present prosperity of this region, 
for the result of his labors in many directions is now the portion of this 
generation. His record in all the varied relations of his busy and ener- 
getic life is such as reflects naught but credit upon him and all connected 
with him by ties of relationship or friendship, and although more than 
two decades have passed since his death, February 19, 1892, he is still 
well remembered by the people of the community among whom he lived 
and labored for such a long period. 

Mr. Miller was an Ohioan by birth, but an ludianian by nurture, 
training and inclination. He w-as born in 1840, a son of John and Cath- 
erine Miller, natives of France who were reared, educated and married in 
that country, from whence they emigi-ated to the United States, settling 
first in Ohio and later removing to Starke County, Indiana. Here they 
settled on the farm that subsequently became the home of their son 
Joseph Miller and whicli is now the property of his widow, Mrs. Mary 
Miller, in section (1. Califoruia Township. At the time of their arrival 
and settlement the country was in its primitive state. There was no 
county organization, and villages and towns had not yet put in their 
appearance. Neighbors were miles away, and the nearest mill was a 
journey of two days, made with ox teams, over the sand dunes and 
through the .swamps of the new Hoosier State. Schools, churches and 
roads there were none, and through the trackless forests roamed the 
wild animals, and the Millers, like other early settlers, depended in 
large part for their meat upon the skill of the men with their rifles. 
Here John and Catherine ]Miller lived out their long and useful careers, 
rearing their children. iiiii)i(i\ing- their farm and making a home, and 
passing away when in advanced years. They were hospitable, generous 
people, and enjoyed an excellent reputation in their community. Thfe 
father, while a blunt, outspoken man, was of good judgment, and in all 
his dealings exhibited the strictest integrity. He was a democrat, but not 
an office seeker. Of the six children born to John and Catherine ililler, 
only one suiwives: Peter, who is a resident of the State of California, 
and has reached advanced years. 

One of the younger of his parents' children, Joseph Miller received 
his education in the primitive pioneer school in his district and grew up 
to know the value of hard work and to respect the homely virtues of 
honesty and integrity. He remamed under the parental roof until the 
outbreak of the great Civil war called him with other youths of his 


locality to enlist under the banner of his country, but unfortunately all 
records of his war service have been lost. It may be accepted as a fact, 
however, that this j'oung private performed bravely and faithfully the 
duties devolving upon him during his three years of service, for his after 
life, in civic affairs, was always characterized by a courageous and thor- 
ough completion of whatever task he undertook. 

When he had doffed the uniform of his country, ilr. ililler returned 
to the homestead, and when his father died took over the management 
of its operation for his mother, who lived twelve years longer. Under 
the conditions of the will he fell heir to this eighty-five acre property, 
with the conduct of which he was identified until the time of his death. 
Mr. Miller was a capable business man and a thorough agriculturist. He 
was progressive in ideas and methods, improved his property according 
to the latest accepted ways, and at all times demonstrated a respect for 
the best ethics of business. His associates knew him as a mau whose 
judgment could be depended upon, and he was frequently instrumental 
in extricating others from difficulties in which they had entangled them- 

In 1877 Mr. Miller was married at North Judson, Starke County, 
Indiana, to Mrs. Mary McFarland, who was bom January 5, 1844, in 
Tuscarawas County, Ohio, daughter of Levi and Elizabeth (Warner) 
Westaver, natives of Pennsylvania. They were early settlers of Tus- 
carawas County, Ohio, where they were married and located on a new 
farm, but in 1846 moved to Wyandot County, and in 1865 came to 
Indiana and purchased seventy acres of land in California Township, 
where Mrs. Westaver died in January, 1866, the father surviving until 
August 28, 1886, when he passed away at the home of his daughter, Mrs. 
Miller. They were consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and Mr. Westaver was a stalwart democrat. Of their five chil- 
dren, three are still living : Christiana, who is the widow of James Short 
and the mother of Jacob Short, a sketch of whose life will be found on 
another page of this work ; ]\Irs. Miller, of this review ; and Phoebe, who 
is the wife of Jacob Bozart, of Okmulgee, Oklahoma, and has one son, 
Mark Bozart, who is judge of that county. 

Mrs. Miller, as Miss Westaver, grew up in Jackson Township, and 
was there married April 22, 1866, to John Henry McFarland, who was 
bom in Ohio in 1846. He came to Starke County, Indiana, as a lad with 
his parents, who were of Dutch and Irish .stock, and followed farming in 
Jackson Township until his death, in April, 1872. He was a member of 
the United Brethren Church, and in political matters was a republican. 
Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. McFarland : Florette, who died 
at the age of three years ; and William, born March 7, 1870, in Jackson 
Township, educated in the public schools and Valparaiso Normal School, 
who taught for eighteen months and is now engaged in cultivating his 
mother's farm, where he grows all manners of cereals, as well as onions 
and potatoes. He was married in this township to Emily C. Batson, who 
was born in Starke County, Indiana, March 13, 1876, and reared and 
educated here, daughter of Clarence and Mary (Adamson) Batson, 


natives of Indiana. Mr. Batson died at Chicago, Illinois, May, 1892, and 
Mrs. Batson subsequently married John Collins, whom she survives, being 
a resident of Knox, sixty-six years of age, and a well-known member of 
the Free Methodist Church. To Mr. and Mrs. McFarland there have 
been born the following children: Mary J. and Arthur D., who both 
died young; Hilda G., born May 19, 1896, and a graduate of the graded 
schools, class of 1913 ; Ada B., born July 14, 1902, attending school ; 
John O., born February 9, 1905, still a student ; Florence, born Novem- 
ber 13, 1907, also attending school; Frank Levi, born March 21, 1910; 
and Nancy M., the baby, born Febi'uary 6, 1913. 

Mrs. Miller and the members of her family are identified with tlie 
Free Methodist Church, in which Mr. McFarland is an exhorter. He is 
a stalwart prohibitionist, has taken some prominent part in township 
affairs, and is well and favorably known throughout the community. 

Hakey E. Johnson. Prominent among the business men of Starke 
County who have built up prosperous enterprises from small beginnings 
is found the well-known secretary, treasurer and general manager of the 
Johnson Insurance Agency (Inc.), Harry E. Johnson, of Knox. He 
entered business as an agent here August 22, 1898, and continued to act 
as a general insurance solicitor and salesman until February, 1913, when 
the present company was formed, and this has proven remarkably suc- 
cessful, controlling a large share of the business in the various counties 
of Northern Indiana. He has at all times relied upon his own energies 
for his advancement, and while he has devoted himself most assiduously 
to building up his individual position, has not neglected to perform the 
duties of citizenship, so that he may be well considered one of the help- 
ful men of his adopted place. Mr. Johnson was born at Camden. Preble 
County, Ohio, March 22, 1862, and is a son of Theodore and Elva 
(Brower) Johnson. 

Theodore Johnson was born at Camden, Ohio, July 5, 1839, and there 
passed his entire career, dying March 1, 1895. Mrs. Johnson, who sur- 
vives him, was born September 4, 1842, and is hale and hearty and active 
in mind and body in spite of her seventy-two years. Mr. Johnson took a 
prominent part in the affairs of Camden, serving as mayor for two terms, 
as treasurer of the town, and as a member of the school board for a period 
of twenty years, and was past master of Camden Blue Lodge No. 159, of 
the Masonic fraternity. Although his first vote was cast for Stephen A. 
Douglas, he was ever thereafter a dyed-in-the-wool republican. Mrs. 
Johnson was a consistent member of the Presbyterian Church. During 
the Civil war Mr. Johnson served as a member of the Ninety-third Regi- 
ment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, for three years, in the command of Gen- 
eral Thomas, and at the battle of Chiekamauga, Tennessee, was wounded 
in the arm by a gunshot. He took part in many of the sanguine engage- 
ments of the great struggle, including Franklin, Nashville, Stone River 
and the battles incidental to the Atlanta campaign. He always main- 
tained an interest in his old comrades, took a leading part in the work of 
the Soldiers' Relief Commission and up to the time of his death belonged 
to the Grand Army of the Republic. 


Harry F. Johnson was reared in his native town and there received 
his education in the public schools. After he completed his education 
in the public schools he entered the Nelson Business College of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, for a term of commercial training, after which he entered a whole- 
sale boot and shoe house in that city. He worked there for some years, 
winning rapid promotions from the most minor position until he be- 
came the head of the entire stock department and he saw to it that the 
stock was moved and pushed, the adjustment of these matters being very 
important to the business. He was later assigned as the entertainer of 
the public who came to buy and sell and afterwards was assigned to the 
important end of representing the house as their commercial representa- 
tive, which position he filled for some years and was thus engaged with 
this and other houses for sixteen years. In the meantime he established 
an insurance business at Camden, Ohio, and after some time he took 
full charge of the business there in a small way, continuing from 1895 to 
1898, when, with the idea of enlargiug his field and opportunities, he canie 
to Knox, Indiana, where he has had marked success. 

Mr. Johnson was married January 1-i, 1886, at Camden, Ohio, to Miss 
Daisy E. Hane, who was born at Tiltonsville, Jefferson County, Ohio, 
December 1, 1865, and was reared and educated in Ohio and West Vir- 
ginia, a daughter of Cyrus M. and Mary A. (Chapman) Hane, natives 
of Ohio, the latter of whom was born October 4, 1835, at Tiltonsville, and 
died at Camden, December 18, 1891. Mr. Hane was born in Harrison 
County, Ohio, June 8, 1842, and on his mother's side was a great-grand- 
son of Samuel Bosley, Sr., who fought as a soldier duing the Revolution- 
ary war, while the latter 's son, Samuel Bosley, Jr., was a soldier during 
the War of 1812, and both lived to return to their homes. Cyrus M. 
Hane was from early life an educator and newspaper man, and published 
papers at Smithfield, Utica, New Paris and Camden, Ohio. Later he 
established the Elwood Leader, now called Call Leader, at Elwood, 
Indiana, subsequently publishing papers at Mitchell, Indiana, and West 
Alexandria, Ohio, and from the latter place came to Knox, where he 
became proprietor and publisher of the Starke County Republican and 
continued as its owner until 1898. After several other journalistic ex- 
periences he went to Kirkland, Indiana, where for the past eleven years 
he has been the owner and editor of the Kirkland Journal. He has al- 
ways been a strong advocate of the cause of republicanism. During the 
Civil war he enlisted as a member of the Second Virginia Infantry, and 
veteranized in the Fifth Virginia Cavahy, and saw much active service 
throughout the period of hostilities. He is at present a member of the 
Masonic Lodge at Kirkland, where he makes his home. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Johnson there have been born eight children : El- 
wood T., born in Cincinnati, Ohio, who graduated from the Knox High 
School in 1906, a special agent for the Hamburg-Bremen Fire Insurance 
Company, for the states of ^Minnesota, South Dakota and part of Wis- 
consin, and a resident of ^linneapolis, married Frances Gleeson, of Mil- 
ford, Michigan, born at Fairhaveu, that state, and has one child, Mary 
ilargaret, born February 12, 1913; Hane C, born in Camden, Ohio, April 


12, 1895, completed his high school course in 1915, and since that time has 
been associated with his father in the insurance business; Harry K., 
born at Camden, Ohio, September 5, 1897, now at home and a student of 
the Knox High School, class of 1917; Naomi Ruth, born in Knox, In- 
diana, September 21, 1902, now in seventh grade of the public school; 
and four children who died in infancy. 

Mr. Johnson is a member and past and present master of Knox Blue 
Lodge No. 639, in which he has filled all the chairs ; belongs to Plymouth 
Chapter No. 49, R. A. M., and North Judson Council, and also holds 
membership in Knox Lodge No. 296, Knights of Pythias, of which he is 
past chancellor, while Mrs. Johnson belongs to the Pythian Sisters, the 
Eastern Star, the Rebecca and the Ladies of the Maccabees. He is a re- 
publican in his political views and is secretary of the Starke County 
committee, although during the campaign of 1912 he gave his support to 
the progressive ticket in national and state affairs. 

Mr. Johnson is known as one of Knox's most progressive business 
men. PVom a small beginning, made in 1898, he steadily worked his way 
up through energy and inherent ability, until in 1913 he became the in- 
corporator of the Johnson Insurance Agency, which is capitalized at 
$6,000, and of which he is the chief stockholder. This company does 
business over a large territory, representing about a dozen of the leading 
old-line fire insurance companies, and handling bond and casualty policies 
and everything pertaining to the insurance business with the exception of 
life insurance. Aside from this business Mr. Johnson has large interests 
of his o\\^l, and is well known in the real-estate field, maintaining an 
ofiSce on Main Street. In various wa.ys he has done much to contribute 
to the advancement of the town, and either as business man or citizen is 
held in the highest esteem. 

William N. Lendrum. The ownaer of a Starke County farm like that 
of "William N. Lendrum in section 26 of Center Township is an enviable 
citizen. Measured by modern American standards, he is not a rich man, 
but what he has he has won by commendable industry and efficient man- 
agement, and his prosperity is of that substantial quality which suffers 
little fluctuation. His has been a consistently honorable and productive 
career, and there is no apology for his past nor ill omen for his future. 
Mr. Lendrum is best known as a stock breeder, and has eighty acres of 
land in section 26 of Center Township, all of it under the plow excepting 
ten acres. His crops are corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, onions, all kinds 
of vegetables, and cow peas. He is a good farmer, and also has made a 
success of diversification of crops. Mr. Lendrum came to Starke County 
and bought his present place in 1907, and has since improved it with ex- 
cellent farm buildings, and is one of the enterprising newcomers in this 
part of Indiana. 

Mr. Lendrum came to Indiana from DuPage County, Illinois, where 
he owned a farm within two miles of the City of Wheaton. He was pro- 
prietor of that farm for fifteen j^ears. In his earlier career he was for a 
time a member of the Chicago fire department, belonging to Hook and 


Ladder Company No. 2. Subsequently he followed the trade of carpen- 
ter for a number of years. In that business he was a member of the firm 
of Lendram, Haslet & Stockton. 

William N. Leudrum was born in County Mayo, Ireland, October 27, 
1850. His parents, Alexander and Mary (McCall) Lendrum, were na- 
tives of Scotland, but were married in Scotland, and in August, 1854, em- 
barked on a sailing vessel which brought them after many days to New 
York City. Alexander Lendrum then went to Prideville, Virginia, and 
was employed as manager of an iron mill in that locality for two years. 
From there he went to Chicago, and followed his trade for several years, 
and was also a successful building contractor. While engaged in the 
construction of one of the buildings at Notre Dame University at South 
Bend, as foreman, he was assaulted by a number of his workmen and 
killed. The trouble arose from a quarrel over politics and religion. 
Alexander Lendrum was a Protestant. His death occurred in 1868, when 
he was forty-eight years of age and in the prime of life. His widow died 
a number of years later at the age of seventy, being killed by a Chicago & 
Northwestern train, while on her way to visit her sou at Austin, Illinois. 
She was a Presbyterian. Of their family of eight children, four sons 
are still living, all of whom are married and have families. William N. 
was the third in the family. One brother is a policeman and stationed at 
Chicago Waterworks. Alexander is president of the Penrose Lumber & 
Veneering Company, of Arkansas. Richard lives in LaFontaine, In- 
diana, and is in the lumber aud building supply business. 

William N. Lendrum remained in Ireland with his grandparents after 
his parents emigrated to the United States, and came to America at the 
age of nineteen. He crossed the ocean on the vessel Anglo-Saxon. After 
arriving in Chicago he finished his trade as a carpenter, but for many 
years has been a practical and prosperous farmer. Mr. Lendrum was 
married at Wheaton, Illinois, January 15, 1877, to Miss Lovina E. But- 
terfield. She was bom in DuPage County, Illinois, in 1857 on a farm, 
and was reared and educated in that county. She represents one of 
the oldest families in the vicinity of Chicago. Her parents were An- 
drew J. and ilary J. (Hadlej') Butterfield. ]\lrs. Leudrum is a cousjq 
of the prominent Illinois attorney, Hadley. Both the Hadley and But- 
terfield families were pioneers at Chicago. The parents of Andrew J. 
Butterfield and also of his wife were settlers at Fort Dearborn prior to 
the Indian massacre of 1812. They escaped the hostilities of the Indians 
by taking the advice of a friendly red man and leaving the vicinity. 
Grandfather Butterfield had entered Government land where North 
Chicago now stands, and he also acquired a claim near the present City 
of Wheaton, his claim being measured by all the territory which was 
contained within the circle which he could trace with his plow in three 
full days. Both the grandparents of Mrs. Lendrum spent their last 
years in DuPage County, and were among the most prominent early set- 
tlers in the vicinity of Wheaton, and were there when Warren Wheaton 
had the town laid out. Andrew J. Butterfield was killed at the age of 
seventy-two, while crossing the tracks of the Northwestern Railway 


at Elgin, ilr. and Mrs. Lendrum have no children. He is a member of 
the Presbyterian Chiireb, and his wife is a Free Methodist, ilr. Lend- 
rum in polities is a republican. 

James G. Heilman. The community in which he had long main- 
tained his residence and been held in unqualified esteem experienced a 
distinct shock in the tragic death of Mr. Heilman, which occurred at 
his home, in section 32, Center Township, this county, on the 28th of 
September, 1910, as the result of injuries received two nights previously 
when he was on his way home from Knox, his team and wagon having 
been struck by a fast train, at Jackson's Crossing, both horses being 
killed and the wagon demolished, while he himself received such severe 
injuries that he did not long survive. Mr. Heilman has been for many 
years one of the representative farmers and most substantial and honored 
citizens of Center Township, his life having been guided and governed 
by the strictest integrity of purpose and marked by distinct loyalty and 
civic righteousness, so that there is all of consistency in according in this 
history a brief tribute to his memory. 

A scion of sterling Pennsylvania German stock and the son of parents 
who were natives of the old Keystone State, Mr. Heilman himself was 
born in Lake County, Ohio, on the 24tli of December, 1845, so that he 
was nearly sixty-five years of age at the time of his tragic deatli. His 
parents were early settlers of Lake County, Ohio, where the father be- 
came a prosperous farmer, but they returned eventually to Pennsylvania, 
where they died when of venerable age, both having been devout com- 
municants of the Lutheran Church. The subject of this memoir is sur- 
vived by two sisters — Mrs. Mary Troxel, of Clinton Count^^ Indiana, 
and Mrs. Alice Koch, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

James G. Heilman was reared under the conditions and influences of 
the home farm and that he made good use of the opportunities afforded 
him, in the common schools of the locality and period is shown by the 
fact that when but sixteen years of age he became a successful teacher. 
"When the Civil war was precipitated on the nation he made two unsuc- 
cessful attempts to enlist in defense of the Union, and on the third at- 
tempt he was able to overcome the opposition of his parents and to en- 
list as a private in the One Hundred and Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania 
Volunteer Infantry, the family having returned to the Keystone State 
while he was still a youth. He served three years as a faithful and 
valiant soldier, took part in many engagements and in the battle at Five 
Forks, Virginia, in the spring of 1865, he was severely wounded in the 
side, his life having been saved through the deflection of the bullet by 
%, Testament which had been placed in his pocket by his devoted mother. 
Mr. Heilman was with his command at the surrender of General Lee, at 
Appomattox, and at the close of the war he received his honorable dis- 
charge, his entire service having been faithfully accorded in the rank 
of ' ' high private. ' ' In later years he vitalized the more pleasing mem- 
ories of his military career through his active and appreciative affilia- 
tion with the Grand Army of the Republic. 


After the close of the war Mr. Heilman continued his residence in 
Pennsylvania until 1872, when he came to Indiana and established his 
home in Clinton County, where was solemnized his marriage to Miss 
Lucy A. Bear, who there passed her entire life and who was about fifty 
years of age at the time of her death, in 1899. Of the ten children five 
are now living: William H., who resides at Knox, Starke County, is 
married and has children; Frank, who resides on a farm in California 
Township, this county, is also a successful teacher, is married and has a 
family of children ; Ella is the wife of Clayton Haner, a successful farmer 
near Grand Harbor, Ramsey County, North Dakota ; Madison, who was 
a successful and popular teacher for several yeai-s, is now representative 
of the Prudential Life Insurance Company in the City of Hammond, 
Indiana ; and John is serving as a United States soldier in the Territory 
of Hawaii. 

After the death of his first wife ]\Ir. Heilman came to Starke County 
and purchased a farm of eighty acres, in section 32, Center Township, 
and he developed this place into one of the fine farms of the county. The 
original house on the place was destroyed by fire and he thereupon 
erected the present substantial and attractive farm residence, besides 
having equipped the place with other excellent buildings and having 
eventually increased the area of his landed estate to 240 acres. He was 
known as one of the most progressive farmers and stock-growers of 
Starke County and as a citizen whose civic loyalty was on a parity with 
his patriotic fervor as a soldier in the Civil war. Since his death his 
widow has continued to reside on the farm and to give personal super- 
vision to its management, her success having been admirable and having 
shown her distinctive executive ability and business acumen. She has 
gained specially high reputation as a horticulturist, and has taken many 
premiums at county fairs on her displays of vegetables, including the 
finest of celery, in the propagation of which she has become an adept. 
Mr. Heilman was a stalwart republican and had served as county com- 
missioner and township trustee. He was affiliated with the Knox lodges 
of the jMasonic fraternity and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, as 
well as the post of the Grand Army of the Republic and the local organ- 
ization of the Tribe of Ben Hur, in which his widow holds membership, 
as does she also in the Daughters of Rebekah, adjunct to the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. Mrs. Heilman and her family are most popular 
factors in the representative social activities of their community and 
she has a specially wide circle of friends in her native county. 

On the 24th of December, 1899, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. 
Heilman to Mrs. Lillian M. (Dunkleberger) Mosher, who was born and 
reared in Starke County and who was but six years old at the time of 
her mother's death. Her father, the late Daniel Dunkleberger, a native 
of Pennsylvania, and a representative of fine German lineage, early es- 
tablished liis residence in Indiana, where his marriage was solemnized. 
He became one of the substantial farmers and valued citizens of Starke 
County, where he maintained his home for many years and where he 
died at the age of seventy-three years, his political allegiance having 


been given to the democratic party and both he and his wife having been 
members of the United Brethren Church. Mrs. Heihnan has one sister, 
Mrs. Frances Beach, now a resident of the City of Detroit, Michigan. 
By her first marriage, to John B. Mosher, Mrs. Heilman has two daugh- 
ters, Luella and Cora, both of whom are married and have children. 
Mr. and Mrs. Heilman became the parents of three children, all of whom 
survive the honored father: Clara E. now holds an excellent business 
position in the City of South Bend; Vada Lee, who was graduated in 
the high school at Knox and was a student in the South Bend Business 
College, will complete a course in the celebrated St. Mary's Academy, 
in the same city ; and Muriel Kathlyn, bom November 4, 1901, is attend- 
ing the public schools in the eighth grade. The landed estate of Mrs. 
Heilman is known as "Shenandoah Lodge." 

Hiram A. Collins. In the Village of Rye, Center Township, Mr. 
Collins has a well equipped general store and controls a substantial busi- 
ness, his stock being at all times well selected and comprehensive, so 
that patrons are accorded effective service. The store is 20 by 70 feet 
in dimensions and Mr. Collins' careful and honorable dealings have 
gained to him unqualified popular confidence and good will. He has here 
been engaged in business since 1904 and is the owner of the lot and build- 
ing which he utilizes for the conducting of his successful mercantile 

Hiram A. Collins was liorn on a farm near Rochester, Pulton County, 
Indiana, on the 30th of August, 1873, and in his native county he was 
reared to maturity, his educational advantages having been those af- 
forded by the public schools. His grandfather, Salmon Collins, was a 
native of the State of New York and the latter 's father was born in 
County Cork, Ireland, though the major part of his life was passed in 
New York State, where he became well known locally as a musician and 
where he died when well advanced in years. Salmon Collins was reared 
and educated in the old Empire State, and while still a young man he 
came with his wife to Indiana and established his home in Fulton County, 
where he became a successful farmer and influential citizen. He ac- 
cumulated a competency and at his death his estate was placed at a 
conservative valuation of $60,000. He died in 1879, at a venerable age, 
his wife having died many years previously. Benjamin Collins, father 
of him whose name introduces this article, was born in Pulton County, in 
1853, and is now living virtually retired, in the Village of Macy, Miami 
County, his active career having been marked by close and successful 
identification with the great fundamental industry of agriculture and his 
political affiliation having always been with the republican party. In his 
native county was solemnized his marriage to Miss Mary J. Brumfield, 
who was born in that county, in 1854, and whose death occurred in 
March, 1900, she having been a devout member of the Christian Church, 
in which her husband also holds membership. Mrs. Collins was a daugh- 
ter of Hiram and Elizabeth (Harper) Brumfield, who were early set- 
tlers of Fulton County, where Mr. Brumfield died many years ago, his 


widow being now a resident of Rochester, that county, and having at- 
tained to remarkablj' venerable age, her ninetieth birthday anniversary 
having been observed in the early part of the year 1915 and her good for- 
tune being to retain to a wonderful extent both her mental and physical 
powers. She is a zealous member of the Christian Church and is one of 
the revered pioneer women of Fulton County. Hiram A. Collins is the 
elder of the two childi'en surviving the devoted mother; his brother, 
Hugh, who is still a bachelor, being a telegraph operator by vocation and 
having served for a time as wireless operator for the United States Gov- 
ernment, at the time of the Spanish-American war. 

After attaining to years of maturity Hiram A. Collins finall}' aban- 
doned the work of the farm, and for several years he was employed in 
mercantile establishments, at different places in this section of his 
native state. In his independent business enterprise at Rye he has met 
with unequivocal success and is known as one of the progressive and 
loyal citizens of California Township. His political allegiance is given 
to the republican party, but he has manifested no predilection for the 
honors or emoluments of public office. 

In the Village of Delong, Fulton County, was solemnized the mar- 
riage of Mr. Collins to Miss Clara Edgington, who was born in that 
county on the 19th of January, 1877, and who was there reared and edu- 
cated. Of the children of this union all are living except Donald, 
who died April 21, 1913, at the age of eleven years. The names of the 
children who survive and help to make up a most gracious family circle 
are here indicated in the respective order of birth : Herbert, Isabel, 
Mary, Kenneth, Clara L., Harriet J., and Perry 0. 

Clayton Hewlett. In the little village of Rye, Jackson Township, 
Mr. Hewlett conducts a well-appointed general store that caters most 
effectively to his large and appreciative patronage, the enterprise to 
which he gives his close and earnest attention having been established by 
him in April, 1913, and his success having been on a parity with his up- 
right dealing and unqualified personal popularity. He is the owner also 
of a well-improved farm of forty acres, in section 6, California Town- 
ship, and on this homestead he maintained his residence for twenty years, 
with secure status as one of the enterprising and progressive agricultur- 
ists and stock-growers of Starke County. Mr. Hewlett has had also a 
varied business experience, in the service of various railw-ay companies 
and with the Peters Signal Company. He became a skilled electrical en- 
gineer and as such was employed, for varying lengths of time, by the 
Illinois Central Railroad Company and other important railway cor- 
porations of the country. At the time of the Spanish-American war Mr. 
Hewlett enlisted in Company A, One Hundred and Fifty-seventh In- 
diana Volunteer Infantry, commanded by Colonel Studebaker, of South 
Bend, and with his regiment he was in service for a period of six months, 
during the greater part of which interval he was assigned to guard duty 
at Fort Tampa, Florida. At the expiration of six months he received 
his honorable discharge, after having made an excellent record for sol- 


dierly qualities and fidelity to duty. After the close of his military 
career ilr. Hewlett gave his attention principally to work as an elec- 
trical engineer until he established his present business enterprise, in 
connection with which he has received a representative patronage drawn 
from the prosperous and beautiful agricultural districts about the Vil- 
lage of Rye, or Toto. 

Mr. Hewlett was born in Berrien County, Michigan, on the 4th of 
May, 1878, and was nine years of age at the time of the family removal 
to St. Joseph County, Indiana, where he was reared and educated and 
where he served a thorough and practical apprenticeship as an elec- 
trician. He is a son of Oliver A. and Etta (Wade) Hewlett, the former 
a native of Indiana and the latter of Michigan. Mr. Hewlett was but 
three years old at the time of his mother's death, and she is survived 
also by two daughters — Alva A., who is the wife of Nathan D. Short, in- 
dividually mentioned on other pages of this work ; and Alta, who is the 
wife of Charles Parker, their home being now in the State of Montana, 
where Mr. Parker is an electrician by vocation. Oliver A. Hewlett, now 
sixty-five years of age, is living retired from active business and resides 
with his daughter Alva, Mrs. Short, at Rye, this county. He was en- 
gaged in the livery business about twenty years, is a republican in his 
political proclivities, and his wife was a member of the Baptist Church. 
Clayton Hewlett likewise gives unwavering allegiance to the republican 
party, and both he and his wife are members of the Jlethodist Episcopal 
Church, besides which he is affiliated with the Spanish-American War 
Veterans' Association. 

On October 17, 1901, was solemnized the marriage of Jlr. Hewlett to 
Miss Ona Foust, who was born in Wayne Township, Starke County, on 
the 27th of August, 1880, and who is a daughter of Benjamin Dorse and 
Mary (Weniuger) Foust, who still reside on their fine homestead farm, 
in Wayne Township. Mr. and Mrs. Hewlett have three children — Pei'ry 
P., Emery 0., and Ralph S. 

Thomas J. Cavanaugh. Starke County's citizenship contains few 
members whose careers have illustrated so well the varied battle with 
fortune and with circumstance as that of Thomas J. Cavanaugh, who is 
the well-satisfied possessor of a farm of 160 acres in Center Township 
on section 30. Mr. Cavanaugh was left an orphan when at the beginning 
of his school age, began his independent battle with the world at the 
age of eighteen and without a ceut of capital, and has since made a re- 
markable record in increasing his possessions, and all his accumulations 
represent his owna industry and honorable dealing. Mr. Cavanaugh 
bought and located on his Starke County farm in 1900. The land has 
many improvements that are the result of his labor and management, in- 
cluding a comfortable seven-room dwelling, a good barn, and excellent 
drainage. Mr. Cavanaugh usually grows about eighty acres of corn, 
averaging from forty to fifty bushels an acre, considerable wheat, and his 
yield of that crop is from thirty to forty bushels per acre, and while his 
laud is too rich for oats it is fine for onions and other vegetables. 


Mr. Cavanaugh came to Starke County from Kankakee County, Illi- 
nois, which section has been his home for thirty years. He was born in 
Chicago, Illinois, March 13, 1864, went to Kankakee County when a small 
boy, and was reai-ed and received his education in that section. His 
parents were Thomas J. and Mary Cavanaugh, both natives of Ireland, 
and they came as a young married couple to the United States, previous 
to the Civil war, locating in Chicago. In 1869 the wife died when a 
young woman, and her husband followed in 1871 when in the prime of 
life. This left Thomas J. Cavanaugh a boy of seven years. His brother 
ilichael is the only other member of the family, and is a coal operator 
near Pittsburg, Kansas. He is married and has the following children: 
Margaret, Thalia, Josephine, Rachael, George and Francis. 

After the death of his parents, Thomas J. Cavanaugh went to live 
with his uncle, James Cavanaugh, and remained in that home until he 
was eighteen years of age. Since then he has earned his way and his 
constant industry has brought him an ample competence. 

Mr. Cavanaugh was married in Kankakee County in 1895 to ilary 
Buckley, who was born near the City of Kankakee March 31, 1864, and 
reared and educated there. Her parents were Timothy and Bridget 
(Butler) Buckley. Her parents came when j^ouug people to the United 
States from Ireland, and were married after landing in New York City. 
A few weeks later they came out to Illinois and located at Kankakee, 
and after Timothy Buckley had worked five years on the railway he 
bought 160 acres of land twenty miles west of Kankakee at $7.50 an acre, 
a tract of land that is now worth conservatively $300 an acre. This was 
the Buckley home for a number of years, and Mr. Buckley subsequently 
acquired 640 acres of land, and was one of the most prosperous farmers 
and land owners in that county. He died sixteen years ago at the age of 
eighty-four, his wife having preceded him by five years, and was past 
seventy. Both the Buckley and the Cavanaugh families are Catholics, 
and the men of the name are democrats. ]\Irs. Cavanaugh was one of 
nine children, four sons and five daughters, eight of whom are living, and 
five are married and have children. Mr. and Mrs. Cavanaugh are the 
parents of four children : Ellen, who died at the age of two years ; Archie 
J., born November 24, 1898, and a graduate of the piiblic schools ; Loreue, 
bom October 21, 1901, and attending school ; Thomas E., born April 29, 
1905, and also in school. Mr. and Mrs. Cavanaugh and children are 
members of the Catholic Church of St. Thomas at Knox. 

J. Fr.\nk a resident of Starke County from childhood, 
Mr. Chapman is now living retired in his attractive home on East Mound 
Street, in the City of Knox, judicial center of the county, and he is a 
scion of one of the well-known pioneer families of this section of In- 
diana, his parents having established their residence first in Grant County 
and having come to Starke County in 1851. Both the paternal and 
maternal grandparents of ]Mr. Chapman were likewise tried in the cru- 
cible of strenuous pioneer life, the respective families having settled in 
Ohio prior to the admission of that state to the Union, and the original 


Ameriean progenitors of the Chapmau line having become residents of 
Virginia in the colonial era of our national history. The name has here 
stood exponent of lofty patriotism, as one generation has followed another 
on to the stage of life 's activities, and it was given to J. Frank Chapman 
to represent Starke County as one of Indiana's gallant and valorous 
soldiers in the Civil war, in which he made a record that shall ever re- 
flect honor upon his name. 

For many years Mr. Chapman was numbered among the representa- 
tive farmers and influential citizens of North Bend Township, this 
county, and he continued to reside on his farm until January, 1911, when 
he found surcease from the earnest toil and endeavor that had long en- 
grossed his attention and removed to Knox, where he has since lived 
virtually retired, in the enjoyment of a beautiful home in which peace 
and prosperity are in evidence and in which he and his wife find pleasure 
in extending gracious hospitality to their many staunch and valued 
friends in the county in which they are well known and held in un- 
qualified esteem. At Knox Mr. Chapman owns his residence pi'operty, 
the attractive dwelling of eight rooms being situated on a half-block of 
land, with fine shade trees, shrubbery, flowers and gardens, so that the 
place is really worthy of the name of home. In North Bend Township 
Mr. Chapman was the owner of the fine old farm commonly designated 
as the old homestead of Col. Eli Brown, the same being situated in 
section 25 and comprising 120 acres. The place is well improved and 
has one of the oldest and best orchards in Starke County, in the same 
being found one of the largest apple trees to be found in the entire state, 
this venerable tree having a trunk nearly three feet in diameter at its 
base and having been a prolific bearer of fruit for many years. North 
Bend Township was the home of Mr. Chapman the greater part of his 
active life, and he contributed his quota to its high prestige in civic and 
industrial thrift and prosperity. 

J. Frank Chapman was born in Highland County, Oliio, on the 10th 
of March, 1847, and he was still an infant at the time of the family re- 
moval to Van Buren Township, Grant County, Indiana, his age at the 
time of the removal to Starke County having been about four years. Mr. 
Chapman is a son of William P. and Nancy J. (Duckwald) Chapman, 
both likewise natives of the old Buckeye State, Hillsboro, Highland 
County, having been named in honor of the maternal grandfather of 
Mrs. Chapman, this sturdy pioneer having been the first settler in that 
county, where he established his home when Ohio was still under terri- 
torial government and was little more than a wilderness. William P. 
Chapman was born in Highland County, Ohio, on the 3d of October, 1816, 
and in the same county his wife was born September 24, 1819. He was 
a son of Silas Chapman and the maiden name of his mother was Peusey, 
both having been natives of Virginia and having immigrated thence to 
Ohio prior to its admission to statehood, Silas Chapman having there 
entered service as a soldier in the War of 1812 and having served dur- 
ing the major part of that second conflict with England, even as repre- 
sentatives of the family had been found as patriot soldiers of tlie Co:i- 


tinental Line in the War of the Revolution. Silas Chapman reclaimed 
a farm from the virgin forests in Highland County and on this old home- 
stead he and his wife passed the residue of their lives. He attained to 
the patriarchal age of ninety-six years and survived his wife by a num- 
ber of years, her health having been impaired by injuries which she re- 
ceived when thrown from the back of a fractious horse which she had 
essayed to ride. 

William P. Chapman devoted the major part of his active career to 
the general merchandise business, the while his wife and sons gave prac- 
tical supervision to the home farm, Mrs. Chapman having been specially 
noted for her success in the raising of vegetables. Their marriage was 
solemnized on the 20th of September, 1837, and about the year 1848 they 
came to Indiana and established their residence in Van Buren Town- 
ship, Grant County, whence they came to Starke County in the spring of 
1851. Mr. Chapman purchased a land warrant in North Bend Town- 
ship, and in the autumn of the same year he and his family established 
their home on this pioneer farm, his brother Joshua P. likewise having 
been one of the early settlers of North Bend Township and both having 
been closely concerned with the development and upbuilding of that part 
of the county. William P. Chapman became one of the substantial agri- 
culturists of North Bend Township and within its limits he continued to 
maintain his home until his death, which occurred in 1890. His widow 
survived him by several years and died while making a visit to the home 
of one of her daughters, Lapaz, Marshall County. This noble and 
gracious pioneer woman passed to the life eternal in 1911, at the vener- 
able age of ninety-two years, both she and her husband having been 
earnest and consistent church members. William P. Chapman united 
with the republican party at the time of its organization and during 
the period of the Civil war he gave effective service in the office of pro- 
vost marshal of Starke County. He was the first man to be chosen 
sheriff of this county by regular popular election, served as county com- 
missioner for a number of years and was the incumbent of this position 
at the time of the building of the courthouse known as the old wooden 
courthouse, which is still standing. It was built before the Civil war and 
preceded the present county building. Mr. Chapman knew and was 
known by virtually every man in the county, and commanded the high 
regard of all who came within the sphere of his benignant influence. He 
was one of the first teachers employed in Starke County, and followed 
his pedagogic labors with characteristic zeal and ability in the pioneer 
log schoolhouses of the early days, including one in Knox. Among 
his former pupils there are yet to be found in Starke County a number 
who have attained to distinctive success and prominence, among the num- 
ber being Arthur P. Dial, the well-known banker, and Joshua P. Pretty- 
man, whose wife, Mary (Boots) Pretty man, likewise attended a school 
presided over by Mr. Chapman, who was known and honored in the 
early days as the best educated man in the county and as a citizen whose 
integrity of purpose and mature judgment made him a valued counselor 
and friend. He was called upon to adjust disputes and rival claims in 


all parts of the county, and all citizens had implicit cdufidence in his 
fairness and sincerity as well as in his wisdom. William P. and Nancy 
J. (Duckwald) Chapman became the parents of five sons and two daugh- 
ters, and of the number three sons and one daughter are living — Milton 
H., a resident of Knox; Mrs. Mary J. Trapp, of Marshall County; J. 
Frank, of this review ; and Charles H., of Kankakee, Illinois, in which 
state and also in Indiana he is an extensi\-o donlor in real estate. 

When the Civil war was precipitated uimii ;i divided nation, J. Frank 
Chapman laid aside the labors and respmisihililiis of peace to tender his 
aid in defense of the Union. At the age of sixteen years he enlisted in 
Company K, Twelfth Indiana Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Edward 
S. Anderson. The regiment was assigned to Wilson's cMvalry rnmmand, 
under Major Calkins and in the division commanded liy (iciicrjil Thomas. 
Mr. Chapman lived up to the full tension of the gn^it stniiiuli' lictween 
the North and the South, participated in many eiigaj;tiiiriits :\]\i[ showed 
his fidelity and valor by undertaking specially liHz^irdnus diilii's. For 
some time he was with his regiment in opposing the i'urce.s und. r (Icneral 
Hood and the last important engagement in which he took jiart was at 
Mobile, Alabama. In the very height of this battle, on account of his 
equestrian skill, his fleetness of foot and his versatility in expedients, I\Ir. 
Chapman was selected by Major Calkins as cai-i'lci- of messages and dis- 
patches from General Canvey to the headquarters of General Thomas. 
He made several dangerous trips in this capacity and never failed to 
deliver his messages in good order. On his last trip he was told by 
General Thomas that it would not be necessary for him to attempt the 
same again, as the enemy were being well surrounded and would soon be 
captured, which proved to be tnie. Mr. Chapman is an appreciative and 
valued member of William Landon Post, Grand Army of the lie])ulilic, ;^t 
Knox, the post having been named in honor of William Lainloii, a 
brother-in-law of Mrs. Chapman, this gallant soldier having lieeii killed at 
the battle of Chickamauga, where an exploding shell literally tore his 
heart from his body. Mr. Chapman's brother, Milton H., likewise served 
as a valiant soldier in an Indiana regiment, as did also Edward Case, a 
half-brother of i\Irs. Chapman. Mr. Case was captured at Chickamauga 
and died in the historic Libby Prison. In politics Mr. Chapman has ever 
been a stalwart supporter of the cause of the republican party, though 
he has had no predilection for public office. 

In North Bend Township, this county, on the 18th of March, 1877, 
was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Chapman to Miss Emeline Turner, who 
was born in that township, on the 29th of November, 1847, and who now 
has the distinction of being the oldest living person who can claim Starke 
County as the place of nativity. She is a daughter of James and Sarah 
(Curtner) Turner, the former of whom was born in Monroe County, this 
state, a member of one of the earliest pioneer families of that section, and 
the latter of whom was born in Virginia, their marriage having been sol- 
emnized in North Bend Township — this Iii'ing one of the first marriages 
celebrated in the township. At the time of her marriage Mrs. Turner 
was the widow of Robert Case, who was survived by six children, his 


remains, having been interred on his pioneer farm, as there was at the 
time no cemetery in the locality. In later years his remains were re- 
moved to a regular cemetery at Bass Lake. Mr. and Mrs. Turner began 
their married life on the latter 's farm, and their home was a modest log 
house of the primitive type common to the pioneer days. Mr. Turner 
was a young man of about thirty years at the time of his death and was 
survived by only the one child, Mrs. Chapman. His widow later con- 
tracted a third marriage, becoming the wife of Solon O. Whitsou, con- 
cerning whom incidental mention is made on other pages of this work. 
The mother of Mrs. Chapman came with her first husband to Starke 
County in the early pioneer days and they were among the very first 
settlers in North Bend Township. She was a woman who attained local 
celebrity for her great weight, and though she registered a weight of 
nearly four hundred pounds she still was supple and active. She was 
about eighty .years of age at the time of her death — a generous and kindly 
woman who had the high regard of all who knew her. 

Mr. and Mrs. Chapman became the parents of six sons and six daugh- 
ters, all of whom attained to adult age, the home circle having been a 
most interesting one during the time the children all remained under 
the parental roof. Lewis died when a young man, Charles H. at the age 
of fourteen years, Maggie at the age of twenty-two, after her marriage to 
Leonard Smart ; Adelia was a student in the high school at the time of 
her death, when twenty years of age ; and Sarah died at the age of four- 
teen years. Alma, eldest of the surviving children, is the wife of Herman 
Rank, and they reside on her father's old homestead farm, in North Bend 
Township. They have twelve children — John, Charles, Ray, Chester, 
Dora, Mary, Bessie, Blanche, Flossie, Cleo, Nellie and Ruth. Mary 
Chapman is now the wife of Henry Peelle, of Center Township, and 
they have one child, Nellie. Thomas, who is a prosperous farmer and 
stock raiser near Monterey, Pulaski County, wedded Miss Mary Brooker ; 
they have no children. Arthur, who is employed at the Culver Jlilitary 
Academy, on IMaxinkuckee Lake, in Marshall County, married Lula 
Kirkham and they have no children. Roy, who married Miss Bertha 
Fletcher, resides in the City of Logansport, no children having been 
born of their union. Mrs. Grace Singer resides at Knox and has two 
children, Clifford and Gladys. James, a resident of Culver, Marshall 
County, wedded Miss May Dougleson and they have one daughter, Ida 

Fred Meineka. That enterprise and good management are well re- 
warded in the country life of Starke County needs no better illustration 
than the career of Fred Meineka, fine homestead of 330 acres 
lies in section 14 of Center Township, near the county seat of Knox. 
About six or seven years ago Mr. Meineka located in Starke County, 
and in the beginning had little more than his land. Combining the 
cultivation of mixed crops with the raising of high-grade stock, he has 
developed a business of which he may be proud. He has constructed 
modern buildings, lias all the equipment which goes with modern farm 

m:^^ f 


management, and is one of the successful men in the twentieth century 
enterprise of Starke County. Mr. Meineka grows all kinds of grain, 
and feeds a number of stock. As is well understood, the chief need of 
the greater part of Starke County land is drainage, and Mr. ]\Ieineka 
has established an effective drainage system over most of his farm. It 
has been his practice to cultivate about eighty acres in corn, with an 
average yield of some forty to fifty bushels per acre, eighty acres of 
wheat and also a considerable acreage in oats. Mr. Meineka purchased 
his present farm in 1908, and came to Starke County from Kankakee 
County, Illinois, which had been his home from the time he was one 
year of age. 

Fred Meineka was horn in Chicago, Illinois, November 1, 1870, a 
son of John and Minnie (Barr) Meineka. His father was born in 
Hanover, Germany, in 1821, and his mother in Posen, Germany, in 
1830. John Meineka came to the United States in 1848 on a voyage 
of six weeks on a sailing vessel and landed at New York. His wife 
came in 1868, on board a steamer which landed at Baltimore, Mary- 
land. Both lived for a time in Chicago, where they were married in 
1869, and after the birth of their only child, Fred, they moved to 
Kankakee County. In 1871 John Meineka bought 120 acres in sec- 
tion 2 of Pilot Township, getting the land from the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company at $8 per acre. That was 'the home of the parents 
until they died, the father in 1905 and the mother in 1904. Tliey were 
Lutherans and he was a democrat. 

Fred Meineka remained with his parents and after getting his edu- 
cation worked hard to improve and develop the farm. Through his 
own and his father's good management the land which had been bought 
at eight dollars an acre was finally sold at a price of $165 an acre. Mr. 
Meineka then brought the proceeds of the Kankakee farm to Starke 
County and purchased land at $67.50 an acre, and here too he has been 
successful not only in making a profitable thing of the current products 
but has brought his land to such a state of improvement that he has 
refused $175 an acre for it. 

Mr. Meineka was married in Kankakee County to Miss Catherine 
Mary Eisele. She was born in that county July 11, 1870, a daughter 
of Gottlieb and Catherine (Folkman) Eisele. Her parents were na- 
tives of Germany, came to this country as young people before the 
war, and in that great conflict between the North and South her father 
served, as a Kankakee County soldier, with the company captained by 
W. F. Carnegie. He was faithfid and an efficient soldier, and went 
through the war without injury or capture. In 1866 he married in 
Kankakee County, and after some years as renters finally established 
a home of their own and lived on it until 1903. Gottlieb Eisele then 
retired to the City of Kankakee and died there in March, 1904, at the 
age of sixty-nine. His widow is living at the age of .seventy-two. Mr. 
and Mrs. ]\Ieineka are the parents of the following children : IMinnie, 
aged fourteen and in school ; Catherine, thirteen years of age, and also 
in school; John, ten years of age; Henry, eight years; Geneva, seven 


years; and Grace, who is five years of age. Mr. Meineka with his wife 
is a Lutheran and in politics he is a republican, and during his resi- 
dence in Kankakee County was honored with several local offices, serving 
altogether for seven years. His fraternal affiliation is with the Loyal 
Order of Moose No. 1402. The estate of Mr. and Mrs. Meineka is 
known as "The Clover Nook Stock Farm." 

Harry L. Bell, M. D. Engaged in the active general practice of his 
profession at Knox, Doctor Bell is recognized as one of the representa- 
tive physicians and surgeons of the younger generation in his native 
county, and it is specially pleasing to record that he is the associate and 
valued professional coadjutor of his original preceptor. Dr. Daniel 0. 
White, who is now the oldest practicing physician in the county. 

Doctor Bell was born at Knox, judicial center of Starke County, 
Indiana, on the 21st of August, 1877, and is the older of the two children 
of Thomas and Jemima (Nave) Bell. The younger sou, John, was born 
in October, 1882, and is now a successful farmer near the village of 
Kouts, Porter Countj% this state ; he married Miss Lena Teney, of Starke 
County, and they have one son, John, Jr., born in 1910. Thomas Bell 
was born in the City of Marion, Ohio, on the 31st of August, 1849, and 
was a boy at the time of the family removal to Starke County, Indiana. 
His father, John Bell, was born in Ireland and was a young man at 
the time of his immigration to the United States. In the State of New 
Jersey his marriage was solemnized, the maiden name of his wife having 
been Smith, and finally they removed to Ohio and located on a farm in 
Marion County, which was their place of residence for several years. 
From the old Buckeye State they came to Starke Coimty, Indiana, and 
numbered themselves among the early settlers of Jackson Township, 
where Mr. Bell became a successful farmer and where he died, of typhoid 
fever, at the age of fifty years, his widow living to the venerable age of 
eighty-six years and both having been devout communicants of the Cath- 
olic Church. Thomas Bell became one of the representative farmers of 
Starke County, his independent operations as an agriculturist having 
continued for many years after he and his yomig wife established their 
residence on their old homestead in Jackson Township, where the devoted 
wife and mother was summoned to the life eternal on the 8th of June, 
1912, her memory being revered by all who came within the compass of 
her gentle influence. Mr. Bell, now sixty-five years of age, vigorous of 
mind and body, still remains on the old home farm and is one of the 
well-known and highly-honored citizens of Starke County. He is a re- 
publican in polities. His wife was a communicant of the Christian 
Church. Mrs. Bell was a daughter of John and Lovina Nave, who were 
born in Tennessee and who were early settlers in Starke County, Indiana, 
where the father died at the age of fifty and the mother at the age of 
fifty-two years. 

Doctor Bell passed the period of his childhood and earlj' youth on 
the old homestead farm and is indebted to the public schools of Jackson 
Township for his preliminary education. In 1893 he was graduated in 


the high school at Rochester, Fulton County, and later he completed a 
course in the normal department of the admirable institution now known 
as Valparaiso University. Both before and after attending this insti- 
tution he was successfully engaged in teaching in the district schools of 
Starke County, and he continued to devote his attention to the peda- 
gogic profession for six terms. He began reading medicine under the 
able and kindly preceptorship of Doctor White, with whom lie is now 
associated in practice, and to fortify himself fully for the work of his 
chosen vocation he finally entered the Chicago College of Medicine and 
Surgery, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1908 and 
from which he received his degree of Doctor of Medicine. Fi-om the time 
of his graduation he has maintained a partnership alliance with his 
honored preceptor, Doctor White, and it is needless to say that they 
control a large and representative practice, as he has proved an able and 
valued coadjutor of his venerable associate, from whose counsel and ex- 
perience he has profited in large measure. Doctor Bell has a wide circle 
of friends in his native county and is doing much to uphold the high 
prestige of his profession in this favored section of the state. He is a 
member of the Starke County Medical Society and the Indiana State 
Medical Society, and through close study and investigation he keeps in 
touch with the advances made in medical and surgical science. He was 
reared in the faith of the Catholic Church and his wife holds member- 
ship in the ilethodist Episcopal Church. As a progressive and public- 
spirited citizen the Doctor takes a lively interest in local affairs of politi- 
cal and governmental order and is a stanch adherent of the republican 
party. He is affiliated with Knox Lodge, No. 631, Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, and also with the Fraternal Order of Eagles. 

In 1900 was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Bell to Miss Alta 
Phillips, who was born in St. Joseph County, but who acquired her 
early education principally in Starke County. She later attended what 
is now Valparaiso University and for a few years prior to her marriage 
she was a popular teacher in the schools of this county. Doctor and 
Mrs. Bell have one son, Elmer L., who was liorn May 3, 1901, and who is 
now a student in the public schools. 

John Lohse. For more than forty years a resident of Knox, John 
Lohse during this time has been engaged in a variety of pursuits, in all 
of which he has gained success through the medium of well directed 
energy and effort. Born in a foreign land, like many of his fellow- 
countrymen Mr. Lohse objected to the compulsory military service, in 
order to avoid which he decided to come to a free country, where he could 
follow his own inclinations, and where he had heard opportunities were 
many and promising for men who were not afraid to work and who 
possessed ambition and determination. He has never had reason to re- 
gret his action, for in America it has been his fortune to realize many 
of his worthy hopes, and to have gained a substantial material eouipetence 
and the respect of his fellow-men. 

Mr. Lohse was born in Holstein, Germany, then under the rule of the 


Danish government, December 26, 1847, although a member of a family 
that had been born in Holstein when it was under German rule. His 
parents, Caston and Margaret (Sehrader) Lohse, passed their entire lives 
in Germany, where they died, the father when past ninety years of age, 
and the mother when still older, while the latter 's father, Jacob Sehrader, 
was 106 years of age at the time of his death at Holstein, where his wife 
also passed away. Mr. Sehrader was a soldier during the Napoleonic 
wars, in which he served from 1812 to 1815. Caston Lohse was an indus- 
trious and energetic farmer, and he and his wife were consistent mem- 
bers of the Lutheran Church of their native land. Their five chil- 
dren were as follows: John, of this review; Henry, who emigrated to 
the United States, located at Detroit, Michigan, where he engaged in the 
manufacture of cigars, and is now married and has a son and a daughter ; 
Augusta, who died at the age of forty-six years, at Holstein, was mar- 
ried and had several children; Bertha, who still resides at Holstein, is 
married and has children ; and Elizabeth, who died in her native province 
in Germany when a child of but four years. 

John Lohse grew up at his native place of Crampermoor, Schleswig 
Holstein, Germany, where he attended the public schools from the age of 
six years until he reached that of sixteen. He proved himself a bright 
and retentive student and when he laid aside his books began to learn the 
trade of shoemaker, in which he made rapid progress and soon mastered 
the vocation. Mr. Lohse was not yet twenty-one years of age when, June 
9, 1868, he was drafted for service in the Prussian army. He had little 
desire for army service, however, and determined if he could to escape 
from it. He had read much and heard more of the wonderful success 
to be attained by the deserving in America, and laid his plans with the 
ultimate end in view of reaching these shores. He was assisted mater- 
ially by his grandfather, who lent him money, and this eventually found 
its way into the hands of the proper officials, so that September 9, 1868, 
young Lohse, accompanied by a yout